A NEWSLETTER OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE FOR VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS                                                           ...
GLUCOSAMINE AND                                             subjects found no progressive joint space                     ...
continues to be high, especially because     supplementation did not result in                    lipped mussel extracts. ...
Dangerous Foods                                                        Problems Resulting from Ingestion                  ...
Treatment includes decontamination          members of the Allium family is n-propyl              with bread dough ingesti...
Neutraceuticals and Joint Health (continued from page 3)      osteoarthritis progression: A randomized, placebo-        11...
Albert Ahn, DVM, is Vice President of Corporate Communications                      and Veterinary Operations at The Hartz...
Dangerous Foods (continued from page 5)3. Hansen SR: Macadamia nut toxicosis in dogs. Vet          eccentrocytes after int...
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Hartz Companion Animal - Nutraceuticals and Joint Health


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Advances in pet nutrition and
veterinary care have resulted in increased
longevity of companion animals. This
increased life expectancy brings with it
increased wear and tear on the body,
including the musculoskeletal system, and
can result in an increased risk of disorders
involving joints and joint capsules. Thus,
with advancing age, the risk for
development of chronic, progressive
diseases affecting, in particular, weightbearing
joints such as the knees, hips,
back, and feet appears to be on the
upswing in both human and pet

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Hartz Companion Animal - Nutraceuticals and Joint Health

  1. 1. A NEWSLETTER OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE FOR VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS MAY 2005 VOLUME 3, NUMBER 2 Nutraceuticals and Joint Health John E. Bauer, DVM, PhD, DACVN Comparative Nutrition Laboratory Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences College of Veterinary Medicine Texas A&M University College Station, Texas Advances in pet nutrition and of articular cartilage. OA can range materials and promote their effects asveterinary care have resulted in increased from mild to severe and results in pain, synergistic. However, it is more difficultlongevity of companion animals. This swelling, stiffness, and, over time, loss of (and costly) to scientifically prove thatincreased life expectancy brings with it joint mobility. one particular substance is efficaciousincreased wear and tear on the body, Several drugs have been developed and when it is combined with otherincluding the musculoskeletal system, and used to treat the pain and swelling of ingredients in a proprietary formula.can result in an increased risk of disorders OA-affected joints, but none has been Some evidence exists in the veterinaryinvolving joints and joint capsules. Thus, able to remedy the underlying loss of literature that such combination productswith advancing age, the risk for cartilage that progressively occurs with have a beneficial effect on joint health,development of chronic, progressive this disorder. This is a major reason why yet conflicting results with the samediseases affecting, in particular, weight- dietary chondroprotective supplements, nutrients have been reported in otherbearing joints such as the knees, hips, which may help mitigate the loss of studies.back, and feet appears to be on the cartilage, continue to gain popularity asupswing in both human and pet being beneficial for OA.populations. Although most attention has been Most notable in this regard is directed to glucosamine and chondroitin IN THIS ISSUE:osteoarthritis (OA). OA is the most sulfate, other products containing green- Nutraceuticals andcommon form of arthritis. It is a lipped mussel, methylsulfonylmethane Joint Health ............................... 1progressive, degenerative joint disease (MSM), and trace minerals such as zinc,characterized by changes in the synovial copper, and manganese are often also Dangerous Foods........................ 4membrane, including periarticular found in joint health supplements. Many Ask the Vet ................................ 7osteophyte production and degeneration products use combinations of these
  2. 2. GLUCOSAMINE AND subjects found no progressive joint space A NEWSLETTER OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE FOR VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS CHONDROITIN SULFATE narrowing of the tibiofemoral joint MAY 2005 VOLUME 3, NUMBER 2 Effects on Joint Pain and (determined radiographically) with Osteoarthritis glucosamine sulfate compared with that Consulting Editors Among the chondroprotective agents, occurring with a placebo.4 Subjects were glucosamine is probably most frequently administered 1,500 mg glucosamine Albert Ahn, DVM mentioned. It is an amino sugar that is sulfate daily for 3 years. Improvement of Vice President of Corporate naturally produced in the body. pain and stiffness indexes was also found Communications and Veterinary Glucosamine is a building block of in the treatment group. In a smaller trial, Operations glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are 46 human subjects were prescribed 2,000 The Hartz Mountain Corporation present in joints, tendons, ligaments, skin, mg of glucosamine/day for 12 weeks; and even blood vessels. GAGs are high- marked improvements in self-reported Bruce Truman molecular-weight molecules that hold pain relief (88% given glucosamine versus Divisional Vice President water and impart the joint capsule with the 17% given placebo) were noted.5 The Animal Health and Nutrition ability to adapt to pressure changes during authors suggested that glucosamine The Hartz Mountain Corporation weight bearing and absorb shock induced supplementation can provide some degree by mechanical stress. As OA progresses, of pain relief and improved function in HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMAL SM loss of cartilage occurs as a result of individuals who experience regular knee is produced for The Hartz Mountain destruction of the GAGs and loss of the pain caused by cartilage injury and/or Corporation by Veterinary Learning shock-absorbing property of the joint OA. The trends also indicated that Systems, 780 Township Line Rd., capsule. It is believed that providing with a dose of 2,000 mg/day, most Yardley, PA 19067. supplemental glucosamine to joint tissue improvements are seen after 8 weeks. will stimulate new GAG production. It has A major review of several randomized, Copyright © 2005 The Hartz Mountain been shown that not only can glucosamine placebo-controlled clinical trials Corporation. All rights reserved. be absorbed via the gastrointestinal tract in conducted on both glucosamine and dogs after ingestion, but it also can be chondroitin supplementation also Hartz® and other marks are owned by taken up by articular cartilage.1 Thus, demonstrated high efficacy of The Hartz Mountain Corporation. dietary provision of glucosamine is believed glucosamine on joint-space narrowing to be an important component for the and improvement of pain and stiffness Printed in U.S.A. No part of this replenishment of GAGs in the joint indexes.6 Chondroitin was found to be publication may be reproduced in any capsule. effective on other outcomes used to form without the express written A biochemical basis for the use of evaluate pain and mobility, and safety permission of the publisher. glucosamine in treating chronic appeared excellent for both compounds. inflammatory diseases has also been Taken together, these studies show structural efficacy of glucosamine and For more information on The Hartz shown using the rat model of similar symptomatic efficacies for both Mountain Corporation, visit lipopolysaccharide-induced compounds. However, it was concluded www.hartz.com. inflammation.2 That study found that glucosamine inhibits inducible nitric that the relatively sparse data on oxide synthesis, which when produced in glucosamine and joint-space narrowing excess, mediates the pathogenesis of OA. and the absence of data on structural could prevent painful flare-ups over a 6- Furthermore, a randomized, placebo- effects of chondroitin point to the need month period in patients who had already controlled clinical trial of human OA to investigate time, dose, patient taken the supplement for an average of 2 patients evaluated the long-term effects characteristics, and structural efficacy for years and who had experienced at least of glucosamine sulfate (1,500 mg/day a more accurate assessment of these two moderate improvements in knee pain.7 PO).3 Both symptom- and structure- compounds for OA.6 Using a dose not exceeding 1,500 modifying effects were found, suggesting In spite of the mostly positive mg/day, it was found that subjects’ pain that the compound could mitigate OA. outcomes in human trials, the long-term flared as quickly and severely as those in This trial also concluded that the benefit of glucosamine supplements to the placebo group. Thus, these data do glucosamine sulfate product used was safe treat human knee-joint OA has recently not support a benefit against symptoms because no significant differences in come into question by Canadian with continued use of oral glucosamine.7 adverse events compared with placebo researchers. Their recently published Interest in glucosamine and chon- were found. Another study of 200 human study looked at whether oral glucosamine droitin sulfate dietary supplementation2 HARTZ COMPANION ANIMAL ® SM • MAY 2005 • VOL. 3, NO. 2
  3. 3. continues to be high, especially because supplementation did not result in lipped mussel extracts. A purportedthe number of individuals with arthritis clinically significant alterations in glucose benefit of MSM is that it is a bioavailableappears to be increasing. It is expected metabolism in these diabetic patients in source of sulfur, which is a component ofthat similar interest in these supplements this single study. Clearly, additional several structural compounds found inwill exist for companion animals as well. studies are needed to help confirm these joints.18 The use of MSM in dogs or catsHowever, no long-term safety studies of findings. has yet to be evaluated. One human trialthe chondroprotective agents in dogs or In dogs, an anecdotal report using an administered a combination of 500 mgcats have been reported in the literature. oral dose of glucosamine (1,000 mg/day, glucosamine and 500 mg MSM for 12 The continued interest in these duration unspecified) in an 11-year-old weeks and concluded that this particularsupplements awaits the publication of Labrador retriever noted urinary combination therapy showed betterresults from an ongoing study supported incontinence, polyuria, and polydipsia, all efficacy in reducing pain and swellingby the National Institutes of Health of which abruptly returned to normal than either alone.19 An extract of green-called the Glucosamine/Chondroitin when the dose was reduced to 500 lipped mussel combined with a mixture ofArthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT), mg/day.12 However, serum glucose GAGs, n-3 fatty acids, and possibly otherscheduled for completion in November concentration tested using a midday, compounds has been shown to benefit2005. This study is a 24-week, placebo- nonfasted sample was normal, and dogs exhibiting chronic lameness.20controlled, parallel, double-blinded trial follow-up tests were not conducted. By However, another dog study was unablewith 1,588 subjects evaluated at 13 contrast, one study in rats was unable to to confirm this finding.21 Additionalclinical centers. The efficacy of demonstrate adverse effects of proprietary combinations have also beenglucosamine alone, chondroitin alone, and glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate on evaluated. 22,23 In these cases, potentialthe two in combination will be compared glucose metabolism.13 Until more usage benefits of glucosamine may be furtherwith placebo in treating OA knee pain. data are obtained, caution is advised and enhanced by the addition of other known more frequent monitoring in cases of collagen-matrix components or evenEffects on Glucose Metabolism diabetes or possibly even obese animals antiinflammatory agents. Although most clinical trials have prone to type 2 diabetes should befound the safety of glucosamine and employed when glucosamine is being IN SUMMARYchondroitin supplements to be excellent, used for OA or related problems in such Chondroprotective agents such assome concerns related to glucose patients. GAG precursors are often derived frommetabolism exist. Glucosamine infusions various animal species. As such, they mayin both ducks and dogs have been COMBINATION PRODUCTS contain other proteins that carry areported to cause hyperglycemia due to With respect to other potential for allergic reactions. Asthe release of glucagon immunoreactivity chondroprotective agents, data exist that additional findings of both proprietaryand possible insulin suppression.3,8 The support an interactive, or synergistic, mixtures and single substances aredose used in this instance may have been effect between glucosamine and reported, further confidence in the safehigher than that generally used as a chondroitin sulfate in helping maintain and efficacious use of chondroprotectivedietary supplement. Nonetheless, in joint health. Combinations of materials, in certain clinical cases, willhumans, glucosamine infusions produced glucosamine with other products develop. However, at present, caution isacute insulin resistance,9 and glucosamine containing mucopolysaccharides or other advised with the use of these agents inmay also induce or exacerbate insulin substances may also help alleviate joint dogs and cats, especially in the absence ofresistance.10 problems or rebuild degenerating related long-term safety data. It appears By comparison, a recent placebo- cartilage. One proprietary product in that initial relief of some signs associatedcontrolled, double-blinded, randomized particular that combines glucosamine with OA may exist. However, long-termclinical trial looked at the effects of with chondroitin sulfate and manganese benefits of their use to minimize painfulglucosamine–chondroitin sulfate ascorbate has been subjected to several flare-ups await further study.supplementation for 90 days on glycemic cell culture and animal studies in dogscontrol in human outpatients with type 2 and other target species.14–17 Survey data Referencesdiabetes mellitus. Although a small of practicing veterinarians have provided 1. Setikar I, Giacchetti C, Zanolo G: Pharmacokinetics of glucosamine in the dog and innumber of patients were excluded because information that pain relief as well as man. Arzneimittelforschung 36:729–735, 1986.of comorbidities, adverse effects and mobility was good to excellent with this 2. Meininger CJ, Kelly KA, Li H, et al: Glucosaminechanges in diabetes management were type of combination product.15 inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 279:234–239, 2000.not seen, including mean hemoglobin Other substances that may benefit 3. Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovati LC, et al: Long-A1c concentrations.11 Oral glucosamine joint health include MSM and green- term effects of glucosamine sulphate on (continues on page 6) HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM • MAY 2005 • VOL. 3, NO. 2 3
  4. 4. Dangerous Foods Problems Resulting from Ingestion and Appropriate Treatments Jill A. Richardson, DVM Associate Director, Consumer Relations and Technical Services Hartz Mountain Corporation Secaucus, New Jersey Pet owners often give table scraps to increased heart rate, hyperactivity, elimination.1 It should be noted, however, their pets as a special treat. This seems to tremors, and potentially death. Other that the bladder wall can reabsorb be especially true on holidays, because pet effects seen with chocolate overdose caffeine, which may increase the duration owners often include their pets in their include diarrhea, lethargy, increased of clinical signs. Therefore, the veterinary celebrations. Unfortunately, some types of thirst, increased urination, and vomiting. staff should take extra steps, such as human food can be toxic to pets, so it is Although theobromine and caffeine have catheterization or frequent walking, to important that veterinarians and their staff an LD50 of 100 to 200 mg/kg, signs can keep the patient’s bladder empty.1 be aware of these dangerous foods and how manifest well below this dose: Mild signs to respond if a pet has consumed them. can be seen at doses higher than 20 Grapes and Raisins The best way to avoid serious mg/kg, moderate signs above 40 mg/kg, Some types of grapes and raisins have problems caused by pets consuming and severe signs above 60 mg/kg.1 been shown to cause kidney failure in dangerous foods is through poison The amount of methylxanthines in dogs when consumed in large amounts.2 prevention. Veterinary staff can educate chocolate varies with the type of The basis of this kidney failure is unclear pet owners using educational displays, chocolate. Generally, the more bitter the but is currently being studied in the newsletter items, and on-hold chocolate is, the more toxic it can be veterinary community. The exact amount messaging. However, if a pet eats a (Table 1). In fact, unsweetened baking of grapes or raisins that may cause renal dangerous food item, prompt action can chocolate contains about seven times failure is not known, so any amount could help avoid a potentially life-threatening more theobromine than milk chocolate, potentially be dangerous. problem. while white chocolate (a combination of Recommended treatment for recent cocoa butter, sugar, butterfat, milk solids, ingestion includes inducing emesis and Chocolate and flavorings but no cocoa beans) administering activated charcoal.2 These A mixture of cocoa beans and cocoa contains negligible amounts of steps should be followed by fluid diuresis butter, chocolate contains theobromine methylxanthines. for 48 hours, during which the patient and caffeine, which are both classified as Early treatment, including should be monitored for azotemia.2 If the methylxanthines. Dogs are sensitive to decontamination procedures (such as animal shows signs of renal failure, fluids the effects of methylxanthines, which inducing emesis and administering and supportive care should be continued. competitively inhibit cellular adenosine activated charcoal), monitoring receptors, resulting in central nervous cardiovascular health, and providing Macadamia Nuts system (CNS) stimulation and supportive care, is extremely helpful in According to a retrospective study, tachycardia.1 Depending on the amount cases of chocolate poisoning. In addition, clinical signs commonly reported in dogs consumed, methylxanthines can cause fluid diuresis may help enhance ingesting macadamia nuts include ataxia, depression, hyperthermia, tremors, vomiting, and weakness.3 In most cases, Table 1: Amount of Methylxanthines in Certain Types of Chocolate dogs developed clinical signs within the Type of Chocolate Caffeine (mg/oz) Theobromine (mg/oz) first 12 hours after ingestion.3 These signs Milk chocolate 6 44–56 have only been seen in dogs, and the exact Semisweet 22 138 cause for dogs’ sensitivity to macadamia Baking chocolate (unsweetened) 33–47 393 nuts is unknown. The lowest dose reported to cause clinical effects is 2.4 g/kg.34 HARTZ COMPANION ANIMAL ® SM • MAY 2005 • VOL. 3, NO. 2
  5. 5. Treatment includes decontamination members of the Allium family is n-propyl with bread dough ingestion are associatedprocedures such as inducing emesis, disulfide, which is thought to cause with ethanol toxicoses and foreign bodyadministering activated charcoal, and oxidative damage to erythrocytes, resulting obstruction and may include severeadministering enemas. Additional in hemolysis and potentially anemia.5 abdominal pain, bloating,supportive care should be given as needed. In one study, dogs were given depression, incoordination, andThe prognosis in most cases is extremely 5 g of whole garlic/kg vomiting.9good. With prompt treatment, most dogs intragastrically once a day for In cases of recentreturn to normal within 24 to 48 hours.3 7 days. On days 9 to 11, the ingestion in asymptomatic dogs had decreased dogs, emesis could beMoldy Foods erythrocyte counts, induced. Analgesia is Moldy foods may contain certain hematocrits, and hemoglobin important in patientstremorgenic mycotoxins such as penitrem concentrations. Heinz bodies exhibiting signs of pain.A and roquefortine C.4 Classified as and eccentrocytes, along with an Administering cool water via aneurotoxins, tremorgenic mycotoxins can increase in erythrocyte-reduced stomach tube or orally may stop theinduce ataxia, muscle tremors, and glutathione concentrations, were also dough from rising.9 In some cases,convulsions that can last for several days.4 detected; however, none of the dogs surgery may be required to remove theWhile the exact mechanism of action is developed hemolytic anemia.6 dough. Since ethanol can cause acidosis,unknown, studies have shown that In another study, dogs developed it is important to monitor the acid–basepenitrem A inhibits the neurotransmitter hemolytic anemia after being fed 30 g/kg balance and correct it with sodiumglycine in mice.4 Severity of signs can vary of onions once daily for 3 days.7 Heinz bicarbonate if indicated.9from mild to severe, depending on the body hemolytic anemia was seen in a dogparticular strength of the mycotoxin that ingested Chinese chive (Allium Tobaccoingested. Intoxications have been reported tuberosum) and garlic (Allium sativum).8 In Tobacco products contain varyingin many species; however, dogs that roam addition, toxicoses caused by ingestion of amounts of nicotine; cigarettes contain 13or have access to spoiled foods are more at fresh, dried, or powdered plant material to 30 mg and cigars 15 to 40 mg. Buttsrisk than other pets. have been reported in dogs and cats. contain about 25% of the total nicotine Treatment goals following tremorgenic Commercial baby food containing onion content. The minimum lethal dose inmycotoxin ingestion include minimizing powder has also been reported to cause dogs and cats is reported as 20 to 100absorption through decontamination toxicity in cats. Clinical signs associated mg. Signs often develop quickly (usuallyprocedures such as inducing emesis, with onion poisoning include hemolytic within 15 to 45 minutes) and includeperforming lavage, and administering anemia, hemoglobinuria, pallor, vomiting, diarrhea, emesis, excitation, salivation,activated charcoal; controlling tremors and weakness. and tachypnea. Cardiac arrest, collapse,and seizures with methocarbamol; and Decontamination procedures such as coma, depression, muscle weakness,providing supportive care.4 With early inducing emesis and administering shallow respiration, tachycardia, andaggressive treatment, prognosis is good. activated charcoal should be considered twitching can follow the period of Definitive diagnosis can be confirmed with recent ingestions. Afterward, the excitation. Death occurs secondary toby mass spectrometry analysis of stomach animal should be monitored for azotemia, respiratory paralysis.10contents.4 Veterinary diagnostic hemolysis, and/or decreased packed cell For recent ingestion in asymptomaticlaboratories (VDLs) that perform the test volume. Whole-blood transfusions or animals, emesis can be induced. Neverinclude Michigan State and Iowa State administration of oxygenated hemoglobin attempt emesis in stimulated animalsUniversities VDL. Analysis of should be considered for critical patients. because it may trigger a seizure.mycotoxins may take several days; Fluid diuresis is recommended in patients Activated charcoal has been shown to betherefore, it is not advised to wait for with hemoglobinuria. Supportive care helpful in adsorbing nicotine.10 Patientsresults before initiating treatment. should be administered until recovery. should be monitored closely and treated symptomatically. Artificial respiration isOnions Rising Bread Dough indicated in patients with respiratory Onions (raw, powdered, or cooked) can Ingestion of rising bread dough can be paralysis.be harmful to dogs and cats. Onions are life threatening to dogs. The animal’s bodymembers of the genus Allium. Other heat will cause the dough to rise in the Referencesmembers of this genus include chives, stomach. Ethanol is produced during the 1. Gwaltney-Brant S: Chocolate intoxication. Vet Med 96(2):108–111, 2001.garlic, leeks, and shallots. The primary rising process, and the dough may expand 2. Means C: The wrath of grapes. ASPCA Anim Watchtoxic principle in onions and other to several times its original size. Signs seen 22(2), 2002. (continues on page 8) HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM • MAY 2005 • VOL. 3, NO. 2 5
  6. 6. Neutraceuticals and Joint Health (continued from page 3) osteoarthritis progression: A randomized, placebo- 11. Scroggie DA, Albright A, Harris MD: 17. McNamara PS, Barr SC, Erb HN, Barlow controlled clinical trial. Lancet 357:251–256, 2001. The effect of glucosamine-chondroitin LL: Hematologic, hemostatic, and 4. Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Olejarova M, et al: supplementation on glycosylated hemoglobin biochemical effects in cats receiving an oral Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: chondroprotective agent for thirty days. Vet knee osteoarthritis: A 3-year, randomized, placebo- A placebo-controlled, double-blinded, Ther 1:108–117, 2000. controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med 18. Parcell S: Sulfur in human nutrition and 162:2113–2123, 2002. 163:1587–1590, 2003. applications in medicine. Altern Med Rev 5. Braham R, Dawson B, Goodman C: The effect 12. McCoy SJ, Bryson JC: High-dose 7:22–44, 2002. of glucosamine supplementation on people glucosamine associated with polyuria and experiencing regular knee pain. Br J Sports Med 19. Usha PR, Naidu MU: Randomised, double- polydipsia in a dog [letter]. JAVMA blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study of oral 37:45–49, 2003. 222:431–432, 2003. glucosamine, methylsulfonylmethane and their 6. Richy F, Bruyere O, Ethgen O, et al: Structural 13. Echard BW, Talpur NA, Funk KA, et al: combination in osteoarthritis. Clin Drug and symptomatic efficacy of glucosamine and Effects of oral glucosamine and chondroitin Investig 24:353–363, 2004. chondroitin in knee osteoarthritis: A comprehensive meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 163:1514–1522, sulfate alone and in combination on the 20. Bui LM, Bierer TL: Influence of green lipped 2003. metabolism of SHR and SD rats. Mol Cell mussels (Perna canaliculus) in alleviating signs Biochem 225:85–91, 2001. of arthritis in dogs. Vet Ther 4:397–407, 2003. 7. Cibere J, Kopec JA, Thorne A, et al: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled glucosamine 14. Lippiello L, Idouraine A, McNamara PS, et 21. Dobenecker B, Beetz Y, Kienzle E: A discontinuation trial in knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis al: Cartilage stimulatory and antiproteolytic placebo-controlled double-blind study on the Rheum 51:738–745, 2004. activity is present in sera of dogs treated with a effect of nutraceuticals (chondroitin sulfate 8. Kajinuma H, Kuzuya T, Ide T, Tyler JM: Effects chondroprotective agent. Canine Pract and mussel extract) in dogs with joint diseases of glucosamine on insulin and glucagon secretion in 24:18–19, 1999. as perceived by their owners. J Nutr dogs and ducks. Endocrinol Jpn 22:517–523, 1975. 15. Anderson MA, Slater MR, Hammad TA: 132(suppl):1690S–1691S, 2002. 9. Monauni T, Zenti MG, Cretti A, et al: Effects of Results of a survey of small-animal 22. Reynolds R, Wight A, Wilder H: Clinical glucosamine infusion on insulin secretion and practitioners on the perceived clinical efficacy evaluation of Arthrotabs in dogs with mobility insulin action in humans. Diabetes 49:926–935, and safety of an oral nutraceutical. Prev Vet problems. Vet Times 28:8, 1998. 2000. Med 38:65–73, 1999. 23. Read R, Sutherland J, Ghosh P: The matrix10. Robinson KA, Sens DA, Buse MG: Pre- 16. Canapp SO Jr, McLaughlin RM Jr, components of the epiphyseal growth plate exposure to glucosamine induces insulin Hoskinson JJ, et al: Scintigraphic evaluation of and articular cartilages from dogs treated with resistance of glucose transport and glycogen dogs with acute synovitis after treatment with ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, a copper synthesis in isolated rat skeletal muscles. glucosamine hydrochloride and chondroitin antagonist. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci Diabetes 42:1333–1346, 1993. sulfate. Am J Vet Res 60:1552–1557, 1999. 64:545–562, 1986. A D VA N C E D C A R E ® Hartz® ADVANCED CARE® Hartz® Joint Maintenance ADVANCED CARE® Hartz® Everyday ADVANCED Chewable CARE® Vitamins Enteric-Coated Aspirin For Dogs • For the temporary relief of • Vitamin enriched • Highly palatable. everyday aches and pains. • Specially formulated with Glucosamine • Specifically formulated to to help support healthy joint function. • Available for Dogs and reduce stomach upset, • Available for both dogs and cats. Puppies and Cats and Kittens a common side effect of aspirin. • Highly palatable liver flavor • An excellent source of vitamins and minerals that help maintain healthy skin and a shiny coat www.hartz.com AD-192
  7. 7. Albert Ahn, DVM, is Vice President of Corporate Communications and Veterinary Operations at The Hartz Mountain Corporation. ASK TH E VETQ Can garlic cause Heinz body hemolytic anemia in cats? If so, at what dose would this be expected to occur? Q Is there a confirmed dosage for glucosamine to prevent degenerative joint disease (DJD)?A Garlic, like onions, is in the genus Allium and contains n-propyl disulfide, which can cause oxidative damage to erythrocytes. However, there are no A Glucosamine is an amino-monosaccharide nutrient and is classified as a chondroprotective agent. Chondroprotective agents are used with the intent published studies showing Heinz body production in of healing cartilage, stimulating cartilage matrix cats following ingestion of garlic. There has been one synthesis, and inhibiting enzymatic degradation published study1 that indicates a dose of 5,000 mg of cartilage. Glucosamine is a precursor to the of garlic/kg body weight produced hematologic disaccharide unit of glycosaminoglycans, which changes in dogs. Because cats appear to be more comprise the proteoglycan ground substance of sensitive to oxidative changes, one would assume articular cartilage. Glucosamine acts by providing the similar effects would also be seen in cats. regulatory stimulus and raw materials for synthesis of glycosaminoglycans in cartilage. According to current Reference information and research standards, there is not 1. Lee KW, Yamato O, Tajima M, et al: Hematologic changes associated with the appearance of eccentrocytes after intragastric administration of garlic a known preventative dosage. However, based extract to dogs. Am J Vet Res 61(11):1446–1450, 2000. on the mechanism of action, using glucosamine prophylactically in dog breeds that are prone Articles found in the Hartz Companion Animal SM to DJD would be an excellent idea. newsletter can be copied and distributed to your colleagues, staff, and clients. Additional newsletters mayalso be obtained by contacting us at feedback@hartz.com or by phone at 800-275-1414.WE WANT TO HEAR FROM YOU!• Have questions or comments? Call our Consumer Relations Department at 800-275-1414 and ask to speak to a Hartz staff veterinarian or email us at feedback@hartz.com.• To obtain a Hartz Veterinary Catalog of products, please call 800-999-3000 x5118 or email us at feedback@hartz.com. HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM • MAY 2005 • VOL. 3, NO. 2 7
  8. 8. Dangerous Foods (continued from page 5)3. Hansen SR: Macadamia nut toxicosis in dogs. Vet eccentrocytes after intragastric administration of ingestion of Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum) and Med 97(2):274–276, 2002. garlic extract to dogs. Am J Vet Res 61(11): garlic (Allium sativum) in a dog. JAAHA4. Schell MM: Tremorgenic mycotoxin intoxication. 1446–1450, 2000. 41(1):68–73, 2005. Vet Med 95(4):283–286, 2000. 7. Ogawa E, Shinoki T, Akahori F, Masaoka T: 9. Means C: Bread dough toxicosis in dogs. J Vet5. Cheeke PR: Natural Toxicants in Feeds, Forages, and Effect of onion ingestion on anti-oxidizing agents Emerg Crit Care 13(1):39–41, 2003. Poisonous Plants, ed 2. Danville, IL, Interstate in dog erythrocytes. Jpn J Vet Sci 48(4):685–690, 10. Plumlee KH: Nicotine, in Peterson ME, Talcott Publishers, 1998. 1986. PA (eds): Small Animal Toxicology. Philadelphia,6. Lee KW, Yamato O, Tajima M, et al: Hematologic 8. Yamato O, Kasai E, Katsura T, et al: Heinz body WB Saunders, 2001, pp 600–602. changes associated with the appearance of hemolytic anemia with eccentrocytosis fromVeterinary Learning Systems PRESORTED STANDARD780 Township Line Road U.S. POSTAGEYardley, PA 19067 PAID BENSALEM, PA PERMIT #118 401239