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A NEWSLETTER OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE FOR VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS                                                           ...
A NEWSLETTER OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE FOR VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS                                                           ...
HO2C              OH                                                                                    N                 ...
TABLE 1: Examples of Parasite Control Products Containing Pyrantel Pamoate        Product Name                 Host Specie...
The American Kennel Club WelcomesTwo New BreedsI   n the ever-changing landscape of companion animal ownership,   it can o...
Albert Ahn, DVM, is a veterinarian, Corporate Vice President, and                   Chief Scientific Officer of The Hartz ...
Hartz Mountain Partners withThe AKC to Benefit Veterinarians     This summer, The Hartz Mountain Corporation became       ...
Hartz Companion Animal - Roundworms, Hookworms, and Pyrantel Pamoate
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Hartz Companion Animal - Roundworms, Hookworms, and Pyrantel Pamoate


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Internal helminth parasites are
potential causes of primary disease in dogs
and cats and zoonotic diseases in humans.
Canine and feline parasite surveys
frequently list roundworms (Toxocara
canis, Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina) and
hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum,
Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Ancylostoma
braziliense, Uncinaria stenocephala) as
common helminths. Numerous
anthelmintics, representing several
chemical classes, are available for
treatment and control of canine and feline
roundworm and hookworm infections.

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Hartz Companion Animal - Roundworms, Hookworms, and Pyrantel Pamoate

  1. 1. A NEWSLETTER OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE FOR VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS DECEMBER 2004 VOLUME 2, NUMBER 4 Roundworms, Hookworms, and Pyrantel Pamoate Byron L. Blagburn Distinguished University Professor Department of Pathobiology College of Veterinary Medicine Auburn University Internal helminth parasites are Among them are the benzimidazoles T. leonina can infect both dogs and cats.potential causes of primary disease in dogs (fenbendazole), the macrocyclic lactones Both T. canis and T. cati usually undergoand cats and zoonotic diseases in humans. (ivermectin, milbemycin oxime), the hepatotracheal migration before becomingCanine and feline parasite surveys tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel pamoate), established in the small intestine. In olderfrequently list roundworms (Toxocara and the heterocyclic compounds dogs and cats, a greater number (but notcanis, Toxocara cati, Toxascaris leonina) and (piperazine). Pyrantel pamoate has treated all) of migrating larvae are diverted tohookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, roundworm and hookworm infections extraintestinal tissue. T. leonina does notAncylostoma tubaeforme, Ancylostoma safely and effectively for many years. undergo extraintestinal migration. Thebraziliense, Uncinaria stenocephala) as Specific knowledge of both parasites and time from exposure to the parasite untilcommon helminths. Numerous parasite control products is essential for mature worms are present in the intestineanthelmintics, representing several successfully controlling parasitic diseaseschemical classes, are available for and preventing their transmission totreatment and control of canine and feline humans. This article reviews the behavior IN THIS ISSUE:roundworm and hookworm infections. of common canine and feline ascarids and Roundworms, Hookworms, hookworms, as well as the properties of and Pyrantel Pamoate................. 1 pyrantel pamoate. The American Kennel Club ROUNDWORMS Welcomes Two New Breeds ...... 5 Roundworms affecting dogs and cats (T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina) are large (up to Ask the Vet ................................ 7 4.5 inches), stout worms that live as adults Hartz Mountain PartnersFigure 1— Toxocara canis (on in the lumen of the small intestine (Figure with the AKC tobottom) and Dipylidium caninum 1). T. canis are commonly found in dogs, Benefit Veterinarians ................. 8from a dog’s intestine. while adult T. cati are restricted to cats.
  2. 2. A NEWSLETTER OF PRACTICAL MEDICINE FOR VETERINARY PROFESSIONALS DECEMBER 2004 VOLUME 2, NUMBER 4 Consulting Editors Albert Ahn, DVM Corporate Vice President Figure 4— Ancylostoma caninum Chief Scientific Officer from a dog’s intestine. The Hartz Mountain Corporation Bruce Truman completely effective in parasitic elimination. Figure 2— Unembryonated egg T. canis is important because of its Divisional Vice President of Toxocara canis from dog feces. ability to produce primary disease in dogs Animal Health and Nutrition as well as several extraintestinal disease The Hartz Mountain Corporation syndromes known as larva migrans in many hosts, including humans. When HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM ingestion of embryonated eggs (Figure 3) is produced for The Hartz Mountain results in migration and damage to Corporation by Veterinary Learning internal organs, the syndrome is referred Systems, 780 Township Line Rd., to as visceral larva migrans (VLM). VLM Yardley, PA 19067. is observed most often in children Copyright © 2004 The Hartz Mountain younger than 3 years of age. Encysted Corporation. All rights reserved. larvae induce nodules in such organs as the liver, lungs, kidney, and brain. These Hartz® and other marks are owned by infections generally manifest as profound The Hartz Mountain Corporation. eosinophilia, pneumonitis, and Figure 3— Embryonated egg of Printed in U.S.A. No part of this Toxocara canis from a public park. hepatomegaly. In older children (generally 3 to 13 years), the larvae apparently have a publication may be reproduced in any more pronounced predilection for the form without the express written varies based on the infection route but is posterior chamber of the eye. The permission of the publisher. generally 2 to 5 weeks. resulting granulomatous retinitis is the For more information on The Hartz Recent surveys show that T. canis and T. hallmark of this second syndrome, known Mountain Corporation, visit cati remain prevalent in pets. One survey of as ocular larva migrans (OLM). OLM can 6,458 dogs from U.S. shelters indicated that result in severe ocular damage and T. canis eggs (Figure 2) were present in the subsequent retinal detachment, loss of feces of almost 15% of the sample vision, and even blindness. Interestingly, environmental conditions, can increase population. Although the prevalence was OLM can occur in the complete absence exposure and infection risks to both pets less in adult dogs, the survey results indicate of eosinophilia and signs or evidence of and humans. that T. canis is not restricted to puppies. VLM. Although T. cati is thought to be Regardless of geographic location, T. less-often associated with these HOOKWORMS canis is a common parasite of dogs because syndromes, recent research indicates that Hookworms are small (up to about there are several routes for potential it, too, can cause them. 0.75 inch), whitish or reddish-brown infection. These include embryonated eggs Adult female roundworms are prolific worms with hooked anterior ends (hence (Figure 3), transplacental transmission, egg producers. For example, T. canis females the name). Adults reside in the small transcolostral transmission (less common are estimated to produce between 25,000 intestine of dogs or cats (Figure 4). for T. canis), and ingestion of transport and 85,000 eggs/day while T. cati females Ancylostoma spp include A. caninum (the hosts such as rodents and rabbits. can produce between 19,000 and 24,000 universally distributed canine hookworm), Transplacental transmission accounts largely eggs/day. Given these egg-production rates, A. tubaeforme (the feline hookworm), and for the prevalence of T. canis in neonatal it is easy to see how environments can A. braziliense (found in both dogs and cats and juvenile dogs. Although age-associated eventually harbor large numbers of eggs. in the subtropical United States). In the immunity aids in the expulsion of some T. Parasite reproductive rates, combined with aforementioned survey, almost 20% of canis adults as dogs mature, it is not resistance of embryonated eggs to adverse 6,458 fecal samples from shelter dogs2 HARTZ COMPANION ANIMAL ® SM • DECEMBER 2004 • VOL. 2, NO. 4
  3. 3. HO2C OH N CH CH CH2 S N CH3 2Figure 5— Unembryonated eggs Figure 7— Chemical structure of pyrantel pamoate (embonate).of Ancylostoma caninum from dogfeces. transmammary route of infection can lead pamoate (also called pyrantel embonate; to the establishment of very high worm Figure 7) is the derivative currently burdens in neonatal dogs in a short time. marketed in several formulations for use The remaining species are less significant in dogs and cats (Table 1). It is poorly but not always innocuous pathogens. absorbed from the stomach and intestine A. caninum, similar to T. canis, is a prolific following oral administration. Between egg producer. It is estimated that mature 50% and 70% of pyrantel pamoate appears A. caninum females can produce up to unchanged in feces, which accounts for itsFigure 6— Severe hookworm 20,000 eggs/day, resulting in substantial efficacy and safety (it does not enter thedisease caused by Ancylostoma environmental reservoirs of infective blood system). Pyrantel pamoate is foundtubaeforme in a cat. larvae in a rather short period. in the blood of treated animals at a rate of Free-living infective larvae of some less than 1 µg/ml of blood. Anotheryielded A. caninum eggs. A single Ancylostoma spp may penetrate human benefit of poor absorption is that efficacyUncinaria species (U. stenocephala) occurs skin and subsequently migrate for brief is enhanced because pyrantel pamoatein dogs (but rarely in cats) living in periods, causing reddish, pruritic, remains in contact with the parasitestemperate regions worldwide. serpentine lesions. This condition is targeted for removal. The hookworm developmental cycle referred to as cutaneous larva migrans Pyrantel pamoate kills parasites byincludes a free-living phase in which larvae (CLM) or creeping eruption. Although attacking their nervous system, resultinghatch from eggs (Figure 5) and develop less significant than the larva migrans in irreversible paralysis of the parasite’sthrough three distinct stages. The third syndromes caused by roundworms, the musculature. This is important becauseenvironmental larval stage (infective stage) hookworm-related cutaneous syndrome parasites can recover from brief exposureenters the host by either oral ingestion or remains a concern for veterinarians and to other parasiticides but not fromskin penetration. Most (but not all) orally pet owners. A. braziliense larvae appear to exposure to pyrantel pamoate. Wheningested larvae establish in the intestine be the most common cause, although dogs and cats are allowed to eat beforewithout extraintestinal migration. Those cases of A. caninum– and U. stenocephala– treatment, the passage of pyrantelthat penetrate the skin follow a vascular or induced CLM have been documented. pamoate through the intestinal tract ispulmonary migration before becoming slowed, permitting prolonged contact timeestablished in the small intestine. In PYRANTEL PAMOATE: with parasites and thus increasing efficacy.addition, both prenatal (transplacental) CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, Pyrantel pamoate is available as aand transmammary transmission can EFFICACY, AND SAFETY flavored suspension, tablet, or chewableoccur. The reservoir for such larvae is Pyrantel salts have been used tablet (Table 1). It is 95% effective againstsomatic, as is the case with T. canis. effectively for parasite control for almost ascarids (T. canis, T. leonina) and Hookworms may cause dermal, four decades. Although initially hookworms (A. caninum, U. stenocephala) inpulmonary, and intestinal diseases (Figure introduced to control sheep parasites, dogs at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Because efficacy6). The latter is most common in dogs. subsequent formulations were produced might be decreased in puppies weighingIn young dogs, A. caninum–related for cattle (not currently FDA approved), less than 2.2 kg, a dose of 15 mg/kghemorrhagic enteritis can be a peracute, swine, horses, dogs, and cats. Pyrantel is a given 30 minutes after a light meal islife-threatening disease. The tetrahydropyrimidine compound. Pyrantel recommended. Pyrantel pamoate may be HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM • DECEMBER 2004 • VOL. 2, NO. 4 3
  4. 4. TABLE 1: Examples of Parasite Control Products Containing Pyrantel Pamoate Product Name Host Species Formulation Ingredients Target Parasites D-Worm 60, D-Worm Dogs Chewable Pyrantel pamoate Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma 120 (Farnum) tablet caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala Hartz® Rid Worm™ Dogs Chewable Pyrantel pamoate Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma (Hartz) tablet caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala Nemex Tabs, Nemex-2 Dogs Tablet/ Pyrantel pamoate Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma Suspension (Pfizer) Suspension caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala Heartgard Plus (Merial) Dogs Chewable Pyrantel pamoate, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma tablet ivermectin caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, Uncinaria stenocephala, Dirofilaria immitis Iverhart Plus (Virbac) Dogs Chewable Pyrantel pamoate, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma tablet ivermectin caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, Uncinaria stenocephala, Dirofilaria immitis Tri-Heart Plus Dogs Chewable Pyrantel pamoate, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma (Schering Plough) tablet ivermectin caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense, Uncinaria stenocephala, Dirofilaria immitis Drontal (Bayer) Cats Tablet Pyrantel pamoate, Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma tubaeforme, Taenia praziquantel spp, Diplydium spp Drontal Plus (Bayer) Dogs Tablet Pyrantel pamoate, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Ancylostoma praziquantel, caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Trichuris vulpis, febantel Taenia spp, Diplydium spp, Echinococcus spp combined with other compounds (e.g., bitches and queens before they whelp or spectrum of activity. Few anthelmintics ivermectin, febantel, praziquantel) to queen reduces the number of eggs shed have retained their utility and widespread prevent heartworm infection and eliminate into the environment, which in turn use in the companion animal market for tapeworms and whipworms as well as decreases the challenge rate from 40 years. Continued success of pyrantel ascarids and hookworms (Table 1). environmental eggs and larvae. pamoate is testimony to its safety, Formulations containing ivermectin and However, most ascarid and efficacy, and convenience. pyrantel pamoate are available as chewable hookworm infections are acquired tablets and are effective against A. either transplacentally or via milk and SUGGESTED READING braziliense. Though pyrantel pamoate is not colostrum. Pyrantel pamoate is approved Blagburn BL, Lindsay DS, Vaughan JS, et al: Prevalence of canine parasites based on fecal flotation. Compend approved for use in cats as a stand-alone for use in puppies as young as 2 weeks of Contin Educ Pract Vet 18:483–509, 1996. product, it is used safely and effectively in age. This, too, is important because Clark JN, Daurio CP, Barth DW, Batty AF: Evaluation cats at a dose of 20 mg/kg. Pyrantel treating puppies regularly at a very early of a beef-based chewable formulation of pyrantel pamoate against induced and natural infections of pamoate is combined with praziquantel in age (i.e., at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks) can both hookworms and ascarids in dogs. Vet Parasitol a tablet formulation for removal of ascarid prevent acute ascarid- and hookworm- 40:127–133, 1991. (T. cati), hookworm (A. tubaeforme), and related disease and reduce or eliminate Lynn RC: Antiparasitic drugs, in Bowman DD (ed): tapeworm infections (Table 1). the shedding of ascarid and hookworm Georgis’ Parasitology for Veterinarians, ed 8. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 2003, pp 244–286. The safety of pyrantel pamoate is eggs in feces. The latter is important in Nolan TJ, Hawdon JM, Longhofer SL, et al: Efficacy of exceptional. The toxic dose in dogs preventing the transmission of ascarids an ivermectin/pyrantel pamoate chewable exceeds the therapeutic dose by almost and hookworms from pets and their formulation against the canine hookworms Uncinaria stenocephala and Ancylostoma caninum. Vet Parasitol 140 times. Pyrantel pamoate can be environments to humans. 41:121–125, 1992. administered to dogs at four times the In summary, pyrantel pamoate is Reinemeyer CR, Courtney CH: Antinematodal drugs, in recommended dose daily for up to 3 among the safer and more effective Adams HR (ed): Veterinary Pharmacology and months without inducing adverse events. anthelmintics for removing ascarids and Therapeutics, ed 8. Ames, Iowa State University Press, 2001, pp 947–979. Another safety attribute is that it can be hookworms from dogs and cats. It is Vanden Bossche H, Theinpont D, Janssens PG (eds): safely administered to pregnant animals. available in convenient formulations and Chemotherapy of Gastrointestinal Helminths. New This is important because deworming combination products, which extends its York, Springer-Verlag, 1985.4 HARTZ COMPANION ANIMAL ® SM • DECEMBER 2004 • VOL. 2, NO. 4
  5. 5. The American Kennel Club WelcomesTwo New BreedsI n the ever-changing landscape of companion animal ownership, it can often be challenging to discern just what that furry quadruped is on the other end of a client’s leash. As of May 1,2004, The American Kennel Club (AKC) officially recognizes 152breeds of dogs within seven groups: Sporting, Hound, Working,Terrier, Toy, Non-Sporting, and Herding. Counting nine breeds Neapolitanthat are divided into varieties (a division of a breed based on coat, Mastiffcolor, or size), the grand total of distinct breeds that are eligible tocompete for championship points at AKC shows climbs to animpressive 164 breeds and varieties. Newest to join the ranks of the reliable.” Black Russian Terriers thrive in every clime, from theWorking Group are two formidable breeds: the Black Russian Arctic to Australia. The breed’s tousled, double coat is not knownTerrier and the Neapolitan Mastiff. to shed profusely. Grooming fashions for this dog may call to The Black Russian Terrier (below) is a relatively new breed mind the Bouvier or the Giant Schnauzer, but the Black Russiancreated in the 1930s in the then Soviet Union to meet the need Terrier is unmistakably a breed unto itself.for security dogs. The main crosses of the breed’s development The Neapolitan Mastiff (above) is an ancient breed datingwere made among Giant Schnauzers, Rottweilers, and Airedale from the time of Alexander the Great. Also known as theTerriers. The Black Russian Terrier also bears traces of “Mastino,” he is a heavy-boned, massive dog bearing loose skin allNewfoundlands, Great Danes, and several Russian breeds, such as over the body, abundant wrinkles and folds on the head, plus athe Ovcharka. Once known as the Black Pearl of Russia, the voluminous dewlap. Referenced in the works of Greek and Latin“Blackie” is a loyal companion and loving pet, a nimble black flash writers and artists, the ancient molossus developed by Alexanderon the agility course, a keen-witted obedience dog, and a guardian the Great is believed to be the forefather of the modernwithout peer. Mature dogs measure between 27 and 30 inches, Neapolitan Mastiff. While the molossus was used to fight tigers,while mature bitches are between 26 and 29 inches. According to lions, elephants, and men in battle, today’s Mastino is a calm,breed experts, elbows and hips are the breed’s only significant docile creature—not a fighting dog. Breed lore holds that thehealth issues. The breed standard describes the temperament: “The dog’s unique type was developed purposely as an alarmingly uglyBlack Russian Terrier is a calm, confident, and dog whose looks alone were enough to intimidate any intruder.courageous dog with a self-assurance which is Fanciers of the breed report that Neapolitan Mastiffs aresometimes rather aloof toward strangers. They courageous but not aggressive, wary yet approachable. In additionare highly intelligent, to considering its massiveness (average weight of mature dogs is(and) extremely 150 lb), potential owners must also take into account the breed’s tendency to drool and a distinctive odor characterized as a “woodsy” smell. Clients seeking a canine jogging partner should look elsewhere, as the Mastino was not bred for endurance. FREE POSTER OFFER Consult the Hartz/AKC Guide to Purebred Dogs poster to see these new breeds within the context of the American purebred universe. To obtain a free copy for your office, call the Hartz Consumer Affairs Department at 1-800-275-1414,or email us at Call today; quantities are limited. Black Russian Terrier HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM • DECEMBER 2004 • VOL. 2, NO. 4 5
  6. 6. Albert Ahn, DVM, is a veterinarian, Corporate Vice President, and Chief Scientific Officer of The Hartz Mountain Corporation. ASK TH E VETQ Can pyrantel pamoate be used in pregnant or nursing animals? Q What types of products should be included in a home dental care routine?A Pyrantel pamoate, a pyrimidine anthelmintic, is commonly used to treat and prevent hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala) and A In addition to regular veterinary examinations and teeth cleaning, home dental care is an important part of maintaining a pet’s oral health. Studies show ascarid (Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina) infestation that brushing a dog’s teeth on a regular basis is the in dogs. Pyrantel causes paralysis in susceptible best method of removing plaque and preventing its parasites through neuromuscular blocking effects. buildup. According to veterinary pharmacology references, pyrantel is considered safe to use during pregnancy Rawhide dog treats have been used for many years and in nursing animals. to satisfy a dog’s natural chewing needs. The abrasive action of rawhide chewing also helpsQ How will Hartz be observing Pet Dental Month in February? reduce plaque and calculus. Hartz® Dental™ Flavor Infused™ Chew-Dent™ chews are made through a patented process that allows flavor toA To help celebrate Pet Dental Month, Hartz has created a dental care brochure for pet owners that details the many benefits of regular veterinary visits, permeate throughout the beef hide. Dogs chew longer, helping to remove plaque up to 54% and tartar up to 68%. teeth cleaning, and home dental care. Hartz will also be giving away sample packs of Hartz Breath Strips. Chew toys are another option. Most have raised tips To order brochures and breath strips for your clinic, that massage gums and help decrease plaque you can call the Hartz Consumer Relations buildup. They also provide the necessary chewing Department at 800-275-1414 or email exercise to strengthen gums as well as providing relief from boredom, frustration, or anxiety.Articles found in the Hartz Companion Animal SM newsletter can be copied and distributed to your colleagues, staff, and clients. Additional newsletters may also be obtained by contacting us at or by phone at 800-275-1414. WE WANT TO HEAR FROM YOU! • Have questions or comments? Call our Consumer Relations Department at 800-275-1414 and ask to speak to a Hartz staff veterinarian or email us at • To obtain a Hartz Veterinary Catalog of products, please call 800-999-3000 x5118 or email us at HARTZ® COMPANION ANIMALSM • DECEMBER 2004 • VOL. 2, NO. 4 7
  7. 7. Hartz Mountain Partners withThe AKC to Benefit Veterinarians This summer, The Hartz Mountain Corporation became the two organizations that brought the “DOGNY Help a Hero”the official sponsor of The American Kennel Club’s Veterinary toy series to market. Hartz’ sales of the popular dog toy, bearingOutreach Program. Uniting the world of purebred dogs with the likeness of real-life search and rescue dogs, have contributedthe veterinary community, the program offers resources in sup- over $1 million to the AKC CAR Canine Support and Reliefport of veterinary students, practitioners, and researchers, creat- Fund to support professional and volunteer canine search anding a forum for the exchange of information about canine health rescue organizations throughout the United States.and welfare and providing scholarships for future practitioners AKC President Dennis B. Sprung stated, “The AKC isand researchers. delighted to be working with The Hartz Mountain Corporation “The Hartz Mountain Corporation values its relationship on the many programs that heighten the appreciation andwith the veterinary community as evidenced by the creation of awareness of the role that dogs play in our lives, whether theythe Veterinary Outreach Program,” said Albert Ahn, DVM, be search and rescue dogs, working service dogs, show dogs,Corporate Vice President and Chief Scientific Officer at Hartz. or household pets. Now, their sponsorship of the Veterinary“We are committed to providing high-quality pet products and Outreach Program allows us to bring a greater level of supportcelebrating the human–animal bond.” to the professionals who uphold the human–animal bond—our The sponsorship of the AKC’s Vet Outreach Program by current and future veterinarians, veterinary researchers, and vet-Hartz comes on the heels of a very successful venture between erinary technicians.”Veterinary Learning Systems PRESORTED STANDARD780 Township Line Road U.S. POSTAGEYardley, PA 19067 PAID BENSALEM, PA PERMIT #118 400861