EVIDENCE• Archaeological finds: Coins, jewellery,household goods, weapons, personalitems e.g. combs, remains of houses,ships, graves.• Annals or diaries of monks: Annals ofUlster, Annals of the Four Masters, Annalsof Clonmacnoise.• Viking sagas.
“The wind is fierce and wild tonightIt tosses the top of the waves to whiteOn such a night I take my easeFierce Northmen only cross the quietseas”.Written by Irish monk c.830 AD
VIKING FACTS• They came fromDenmark, Norway,Sweden• They came in longshipsand raided themonasteries looking forslaves, provisions andtreasure.• They fought with swords,axes, spears and carriedwooden shields. Theywore armour• They lived in longrectangular houses andestablished towns• They traded using coins.• They worshipped fertilitydeities and warriordeities. Odin was king ofthe gods.• They wrote using markscalled runes
CLOTHES• Viking women wore a long woolen dressunder a pinafore-like tunic with a shawlover the top for the outdoors. Cloth wasdyed with woad, madder, berries andonionskins.• Men wore a belted tunic over anundershirt and trousers.
WEAPONSThe twin-bladed sword and battleaxe were favoured weapons
LEGACY• Place names: Dublin, Skerries, Carlingford,Ulster, Ireland, Howth, Leixlip• New words: Wednesday, Thursday, Friday(Frey-god of crops and animals), ransack, skull,husband, haven, kettle, knife, window, long, egg,market• Towns such as Dublin, Wexford, Arklow,Waterford, Cork, Limerick, Carlingford• Development of trade, coinage.• New art form: animal figures such as dragonsand serpents.
TEACHING STRATEGIES• DRAMA AND ROLE-PLAY• STORY:THE GOLD CROSS OFKILLADOO BY JOHN QUINN; THEVIKINGS IN IRELAND AND BRIAN BORUBY MORGAN LLYWELYN; ERIC THERED• DEBATE/NEWSPAPER REPORTS• MODEL-MAKING• TRADING GOODS