100 Years Chapters 1-3


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100 Years Chapters 1-3

  1. 1. Swarms of locusts devastated rice crops from 1901 to 1903. Famine became widespread.
  2. 2. Chapter1 Agriculture and Forestry During Colonial Times
  3. 3. Filipinas During the Spanish Regime A s a rising colonial power, Spain initially came to Filipinas But successes were generally limited and in small scale. The in search of spices and later decided to spread Christianity and planting of millions of abaca seedlings in Pangasinan was a complete exploit the wealth of the islands. But the “Indios” in the sixteenth and failure. Moreover, coffee plantations in Batangas and Cavite were seventeenth centuries had nothing except fishing, hunting and primitive ravaged by a serious disease.6 subsistence agriculture. In the eighteenth century, the friars had successfully built At that time, logging was not yet a lucrative several churches using local labor and materials. But driven by the business. Meanwhile, “kaingin” farming continued unabated, causing need for a reliable and regular source of revenues, they created the more destruction of forests resulting in soil erosion and floods. “Friar Haciendas” based upon fraudulent land surveys and through purchases of large tracts of land with total disregard of ancestral properties, thereby reducing the local farmers to the lowly status of tenants who had no recourse but to share half of their harvests with the friars as well as with the “inquilinos” who rented and leased extensive tracts of land from the friars.3 The islands had vast reserves of forest lands, but everyone was free to cut trees for whatever purpose. Hence, there was wanton destruction of forests. Moreover, many “Indios” were engaged in “kaingin” or shifting cultivation which denuded hills and mountainsides. These denuded plots were later invaded by cogon and wild tall grass (talahib), thus rendering these lands unproductive.8 In June 1863, the Spanish government in the Philippines organized the Forest Service or the “Inspeccion General de Montes” under the “Direccion General de Administracion Civil” headed by Chief Forest Engineer Juan Gonzales Valdez with four assistant foresters. The main objective of the Forest Service was forest conservation and wise use. At least five royal decrees were issued from 1866 to 1884 spelling out rules and regulations in forestry, including the prohibition of “kaingin” farming practices and cutting of timber in Cebu and Bohol. Unfortunately, Spain had a reputation for issuing comprehensive legislations and regulations without proper execution.10 Governor-General Basco y Vargas (1778-1787) hoped to improve agriculture in Filipinas to generate more wealth and revenues for the colonial government. Through a decree, he announced cash awards to those who would open up and run plantations of cotton, mulberry, and spices such as cinnamon, pepper and nutmeg, as well as cash awards for those who would establish factories for processing / manufacturing of silk, cotton, sugar, and pepper.2 Kaingin practices of upland farmers caused destruction of forest, soil erosion and floods in the lowlands. 4
  4. 4. Lack of irrigation facilities and drought during summer limited rice production to one crop per year. Forest and Farm Magazine 5
  5. 5. A young farmer from Tarlac whose ancestral Tobacco, however, was altogether a different story. The land was sequestered by the friars decided Spaniards introduced the tobacco plant from South America. The to migrate with his family to the Cagayan Valley. “Indios” quickly learned how to grow tobacco and how to cure tobacco leaves. But the government assigned production quotas to each farmer, and all harvests had to be sold only to the Spanish government at a very low price. The manufacture of tobacco was virtually a monopoly of the colonial government. None could be bought except from government stores. Violators were severely punished which included being thrown in jail.1 In the Bicol region, upland farmers planted tobacco for their own consumption. But government agents eventually destroyed their crops as well as burned their houses, cut down their trees, and devastated to their fields. This led to an uprising known as the “ tobacco war,” which the natives eventually lost.2 The Philippine Islands The government tobacco monopoly turned out to be highly lucrative. In 1879, the regime’s profit from the monopoly was about half of the P15 million annual colonial budget.2 But this substantial gain was at the expense of the Filipino tobacco farmers suffering In 1842, Spanish Governor-General Salvador Hurta de Corcuera from slavery. unwittingly initiated the development of the coconut industry in Filipinas. He issued a decree requiring each Indio, under severe penalties, to plant 200 coconut trees to provide food for the natives and the soldiers.5 Farmers proud of their healthy young coconut plant Coconut plantation The Philippine Islands 6
  6. 6. Ilocana smoking a cigar Tobacco as a government monopoly was the Spanish colonizer’s most lucrative source of revenues in Filipinas. Only the well-to-do could afford to buy and smoke cigars.7 Denniston, Inc. 7
  7. 7. Aftermath of the Filipino-American War T he Filipino-American War (1899-1902) was more violent and lasted longer than the Filipino revolution against Spain To complicate matters, the greatly reduced rice crops were threatened by swarms of locust that ravaged the Visayas provinces (1896-1898), with more loss of human life and destruction in 1901, and swept the Luzon provinces the following year. In 1903, of agriculture. The number of casualties probably exceeded 400,000. the locust plague devastated crops in 23 of 30 provinces. Famine A comparison of census data in 1887 and in 1903 showed large was widespread. The United States war secretary had to recommend decreases of populations in the provinces of Batangas, Cavite, to the U. S. Congress that $5,000,000 in emergency relief funds be Laguna, Rizal, Bataan, Bulacan, Zambales, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga appropriated to ease the distress in the Philippine Islands. The and Iloilo.2 Greatly decimated were the male populations, most of Congress voted for approval of the relief fund. As it turned out, the whom were farmers. cost of rice importation was $8,250,000, representing 26.4 percent of all imports in 1903.2 After the war, the cultivated areas, particularly rice fields, decreased by about 303,500 hectares. The abrupt decline was Bad turned to worst because malnutrition lowered the attributed to deaths of farmer-soldiers and of 75 to 90 percent of people’s resistance to diseases. A cholera epidemic broke out in carabaos in the different provinces.2 Rice shortage was very serious, 1902 and continued in 1903, which caused an estimated loss of and there was famine in 1901. Importation of carabaos from China over 100,000 lives.2 was arranged but the price of P200 or more for each carabao was beyond the capacity of poor farmers. Such was the situation when the American Government took possession of the Philippine Islands as its colony. American soldiers Carabaos used for threshing rice More than 75% of the carabaos died during the Filipino-American war. Many were slaughtered for food of soldiers, and thousands died due to rinderpest infection. 8
  8. 8. Farm-to-market road. There were few farm-to-market roads and most were impassable on rainy days even with two carabaos to a cart.4 The Philippine Islands Poor widow and children of a farmer turned soldier who died fighting the Americans during the Filipino-American war. 9 The Isles of Fear
  9. 9. Mount Makiling in 1907 before the establishment of the UP College of Agriculture. Forestry Leaves The white patches on the mountain and at the foot of the mountain were “kaingin” sites with white flowering tall grass (talahib).
  10. 10. Copeland’s Pioneering Years 2 Chapter 1907-1917 Monthly Bulletin Borrowed tents pitched up in Camp Eldridge served as classrooms when the College was founded in 1909 by Dean Edwin B. Copeland. Typhoons toppled the makeshift quarters now and then. Four months later, the first temporary building rose.
  11. 11. The Bureau of Education Conceived the School A s early as 1903, the American colonial government felt the need to educate farmers in better farming methods.2 But nothing relative accessibility to attract more students, and its suitability for an insular agricultural experiment station. He surmised that the happened until 1907 when the Secretary of Public Instruction proposed school (and experiment station) would need about 100 reported, “Plans have now been adopted for the establishment of a hectares of flat, tillable land, aside from the upland and forested area. large insular agricultural school in the vicinity of Manila. The buildings and equipment will cost approximately P100,000 and this In 1908, the Bureau of Education appointed Copeland as money is available.”3 Dr. David P. Barrows, Director of the Bureau Superintendent of the School of Agriculture in Los Baños with the of Education, commissioned Dr. Edwin Bingham Copeland, Instructor responsibility of developing the school. Upon his appointment, of Botany in the Philippine Normal School, to look for an appropriate Copeland began in earnest to negotiate for the purchase of land at site for a school of agriculture.4 Several prospective sites in the provinces the foot of Mount Makiling from several “kaingeros” and other claimers of Rizal, Nueva Ecija, Cavite, Negros Occidental, as well as the of land ownership. By yearend, he successfully negotiated for the towns of Majayjay, Nagcarlan, and Los Baños in Laguna, were purchase of 72.63 hectares. considered. Copeland then recommended Los Baños because of its UP’s First Born: The College of Agriculture T he enactment of Act No. 1870 on June 18, 1908 finally created the University of the Philippines. The Board of Regents (BOR), in its first meeting on March 6, 1909 which was presided over by Hon. Newton W. Gilbert, Secretary of Public Instruction, “unanimously decided the immediate establishment of a School of Fine Arts and a College of Agriculture.” 5, 17 Upon recommendation of Dr. Barrows, who was a member of the Board of Regents, the BOR approved the purchase of 72.63 hectares at the foot of Mount Makiling in Los Baños, for the site of the College of Agriculture. Later, the Escuela de Bellas Artes – more popularly known as Centro de Bellas Artes – housed in a rented place in Calle San Sebastian (now R. Hidalgo Street), Quiapo, was adopted by the fledgling University as its School of Fine Arts. Likewise, the Philippine Medical School was absorbed by the University and renamed the Edgar Madison Ledyard (AB) Harold Cuzner, (BS Forestry) College of Medicine and Surgery. Thus, UP began with three units: Zoology Instructor, Engineering Instructor, the first born, the College of Agriculture, and two adopted sons: the Secretary of the faculty, Superintendent of buildings, and Escuela de Bellas Artes and the Philippine Medical School.1, 15, 17 and Copeland’s right hand man later also Property Officer and Cashier 12
  12. 12. Edwin Bingham Copeland Philippine Agriculturist and Forester In 1908, working under the Bureau of Education, Dr. Copeland (PhD-Botany) sought the assistance of Laguna Governor Juan Cailles in negotiating with many farmers and “kaingineros” for the purchase of 72.63 hectares at the foot of Mount Makiling. This process took over a year. 13
  13. 13. The Bureau Served as Foster Mother C opeland, then 37, was appointed Dean and Professor of Education teaching force, and with support from the Bureau and the Plant Physiology and was given the full responsibility of establishing Philippine Normal School, he attracted “teacher pensionados” to and developing the College of Agriculture in Los Baños, Laguna. enroll in agriculture.15, 16, 17 Teacher pensionados were those who had taught for two years in public elementary schools before appointment In 1909, all preliminary organizational problems had to be to the government pension program to study in the Philippine solved with the help of the Bureau of Education. Copeland recruited Normal School. Most of them were not even high school graduates. the pioneering teaching staff of the College from the Bureau of Classes Were Held in Tents J ust three months after the first UP BOR meeting, the first class began in Los Baños on June 11, 1909 with 12 students.15, 23 BPI-Los Baños Botanical Garden). These tents initially served as classrooms for four months. The students had to bring their own stools to school. Their desks were their thighs.15 The house of Edgar M. Ledyard became the first office and classroom in downtown Los Baños. In the morning, classes were held in tents. In the afternoon, students and instructors had to hike to the College “farm” which was On the fourth day (June 14), some tents lent by the Bureau of four kilometers away. The students had no recourse but to clear the Education to Dr. Copeland were raised by the students and faculty area of shrubs and trees, cogon, and talahib, and also had to dig out members in the northwestern part of Camp Eldridge (presently the tree stumps and remove stones. Thus, literally carving the College out of the wilderness. One of the homes in the Student Barrio in the early days of the College of Agriculture. The houses in the Student Barrio (across Molawin Creek, an area now occupied by the Student Union) were built by the students themselves at a cost of about P25 each. 14
  14. 14. The first building of the College of Agriculture. Called the “temporary building,” it housed classrooms, administration offices, tool shed, library, and later the post office. As other buildings rose on the campus, it became known as the “old College building.” [This building stood in an area now occupied by the parking lot of the Physical Sciences building.]. Philippine Agriculturist House of Dean Copeland, his wife Ethel Faulkner, and four fast growing children. Philippine Agriculturist 15
  15. 15. A Forest School Created as a Branch of the College of Agriculture Major George P. Ahern A s early as 1902, Major George P. Ahern (Ll. B., Yale, 1895), Director of the Bureau of Forestry, wanted to establish a forestry Director of the Philippine Bureau of Forestry from April 14, 1900 to December 31, 1914 He dreamed of establishing a school that would train Filipino forest personnel for the Forest forestry school to train Filipino forest rangers who could help in District Offices throughout the country. The forestry school, however, using and conserving the forest did not materialize because of inadequate technical capacity and resources in the country. resources, as well as lack of interested students.13 Hon. Jaime C. de Veyra of the Philippine Assembly authored a bill which was approved in April 1910 as Act No. 1494, establishing the “Forest School” as a branch of the College of Agriculture, and Hon. Jaime C. De Veyra “authorizing the Director of Forestry to appoint forest pensionados Author of the law creating the Forest School (to be given P20 a month as pension) and construct temporary buildings for their use.”13, 19 The law authorized the Director of Forestry to appoint forest pensionados and construct Thus, the Bureau’s dream to give birth to a School of Forestry temporary buildings for their use. would become a reality. But it was named “Forest School,” and the College of Agriculture had to be the foster parent. Division of Forest Investigation Transferred to Los Baños M ajor Ahern decided to transfer the Bureau’s Division of Forest Investigation from Manila to Los Baños to enable the technical staff to conduct studies on forestry problems in Mount Makiling, as well as to serve as faculty members of the School.13 The teaching staff, all employees of the Bureau, initially consisted of the following:13, 19 Royal F. Nash (AB) – In-Charge of the School D.M. Matthews (MF) – Instructor, Silvics Hugh M. Curran (BSF) – Instructor, Forest Management H.N. Whitford (PhD) – Chief, Division of Forest Investigation Forester Hugh M. Curran Royal F. Nash (AB) worked hard in laying the of the Bureau of Forestry F.W. Foxworthy (PhD) – Professor of Dendrology groundwork for the served as Instructor and the “Forest School” as a first Officer-in-Charge of the At the onset, the Forest School was the strongest department branch of the College Forest School in Los Baños. of the College of Agriculture although all members of the teaching of Agriculture. staff were employees of the Bureau of Forestry.22 16
  16. 16. These were the forestry cottages then in the College of Agriculture, at the site now occupied by the College Country Club tennis court and faculty staff houses.Forestry students lived here up to Class 1919. Makiling Echo Forest Investigation building in Los Baños Golden Book-Bureau of Forestry Major Ahern made the decision to transfer the Bureau’s Division of Forest Investigation from Manila to Los Baños so that the Bureau staff could do research there and train Filipino forest rangers. 17
  17. 17. The College Grew Despite Limited Support From UP P art of the birth pains of the College of Agriculture was due to the loose organization of UP. The first UP President, Dr. Murray Bartlett, was not appointed until June 1911. From time to time, high ranking government officials expressed doubts as to the wisdom of having situated the College in Los Baños. The main objection to the present site was its relative inaccessibility and isolation from the rest of UP in Manila. Dean Copeland had to lobby to get direct appropriations for government public works for the College.14 The first of such direct appropriation was for the construction of a two-kilometer road from the national road to the College site (P16,000), and the construction Dr. Murray Simpson Bartlett (Doctor of Divinity) became the of the Administration building (P30,000) and the Engineering building First President of UP effective June 1911. He was not fully (P54,000) in 1910. convinced that the administration of an agricultural college was the state university’s task. He proposed to limit the college’s student population and to shift part of the agricultural instruction to the elementary schools. Golden Book-Bureau of Forestry The student body of the College of Agriculture and Forest School in 1910 18
  18. 18. Administration building Philippine Agriculturist Dedicated in 1911, this second building was erected on the site now occupied by the UPLB Library building. The inauguration of the first permanent building (Administration building) Philippine Agriculturist and Forester was held on May 21, 1911 with Speaker Sergio Osmeña as guest speaker. 19
  19. 19. Agricultural Engineering building (1910), Philippine Agriculturist built on the site now occupied by the SEARCA building. Seed and Harvest Laboratory (1914) and Silk Culture House (1911), Philippine Agriculturist located on a site now occupied by the Physical Sciences building. Philippine Agriculturist Plant Physiology Laboratory building (1911), later renamed Agricultural Botany building. This building existed on a site now occupied by the Biological Sciences building. 20
  20. 20. Agronomy building (1916). The right wing Philippine Agriculturist housed the Division of Plant Breeding (Plant Genetics).This building was on a site now occupied by the UPLB Foundation, Inc. and the Post Office buildings. Tobacco House, Department of Agronomy (1915) located on the site now occupied by the Physical Sciences building. Student Thesis Became a Requirement for Graduation D ean Copeland made it clear to all that no student would be granted a degree without satisfactorily completing a thesis research. Each student had to write an outline of his thesis, conduct “ We require more botany and chemistry than does any other agricultural college under the American flag. With everyday devoted to them, the the laboratory and/or field experiments, gather and analyze the data, student gains in comprehension of the and write a satisfactory report. All this had to be done under the supervision of a faculty adviser.9, 20 Student thesis and researches of faculty members resulted in “ world of nature about him. With the widening of his horizon, his interest many valuable scientific information, some of which had important grows.10 implications to national development. -Edwin Bingham Copeland 21
  21. 21. Students Gave Birth to a Scientific Journal: The Philippine Agriculturist and Forester M any new agricultural information and interesting research The first issue – Volume I, No. 1 – came out of the press in findings had to be published. For this purpose, the students gave January 1911 even before the inauguration of the first permanent birth to the Philippine Agriculturist and Forester. The academic buildings of the College, and before the appointment of editor-in-chief was Manuel L. Roxas, a fourth year student in the first UP President. agriculture with a Bachiller en Artes degree from the Ateneo Municipal. Locust depositing its eggs in the soil (After Riley). Cornfield in Cebu showing leafless plants Philippine Agricultural Review after the devastation wrought by a locust swarm. Coconut trees in Cebu in 1913 showing their leaves Philippine Agricultural Review breaking under the weight of “voladores” or adult locusts. 22
  22. 22. Coffea liberica, in addition to Coffea arabica, was found profitable with the use of Bordeaux mixture to control coffee rust disease. A hermaphrodite papaya, Carica papaya Large-scale planting of cacao between Bureau of Plant Industry coconut trees was a recommended practice. A new tobacco hybrid (wrapper type) produced by the College Cowpea was found adaptable to Philippine condition. was considered by cigar factories in Manila as revolutionary. 23
  23. 23. Larva Pupa Adult female Adult male Oryctes rhinoceros L. Philippine Agricultural Review Philippine Agricultural Review Close-up of a coconut tree Corn plants more than 13 feet high. damaged by the Rhinoceros beetle Taller varieties did not necessarily result in high yields. 24
  24. 24. Dr.Charles Fuller Baker, an Outstanding Scientist, Arrived T he arrival of Dr. Charles Fuller Baker in Los Baños on a caretela by the end of August 1912 was a significant day in the College of Agriculture. He was the first professional agriculturist to join the faculty of the College, a man offered to join the College of Agriculture at a salary of nearly three times the amount paid him as Head of the Biology Department at Pomona College in Claremont, California.11 Baker had the BSA degree from Michigan State University, and the doctorate degree from Stanford University.6 Dean Copeland appointed Dr. Baker as Professor and Head of the Department of Agronomy. But he was a man bound to strengthen the College not only in agronomy, but also in botany, entomology, plant pathology, and plant breeding. Palauan (Cyrtosperma werkusii Schott.), Philippine Agricultural Review the largest cultivated Aroid, (Tacloban, Leyte) Philippine Agriculturist 25
  25. 25. First Commencement Day Held Before the Inauguration of a Permanent School Building T he first Commencement Day of the University of the Clodoaldo Tempongco and Jose Zamora both received the Philippines was held in Manila on March 31, 1911, two months degree of Bachelor of Agriculture (BAgric). before the inauguration of the first permanent buildings in the College of Agriculture and three months before the appointment of the first There were also three graduates from the College of UP President. Medicine, and four from the College of Liberal Arts. Manuel L. Roxas, the editor-in-chief of the Philippine Agriculturist and Forester, received the degree of Bachelor of Science in Agriculture (BSA). First graduating class of the College of Agriculture in 1911 Philippine Agriculturist Left to right: Clodoaldo Tempongko, Jose Zamora, and Manuel L. Roxas, the editor-in-chief of the Philippine Agriculturist and Forester 26
  26. 26. First Batch of 15 Forest Rangers Graduated Under the Bureau O f the 25 enrollees in 1910, including one from China, 15 completed the course for Forest Ranger in 1912.13 The Forest School, being under the Bureau of Forestry, had its own graduation program for forest rangers held in Los Baños where the Director of the Bureau of Forestry distributed the certificates to the graduates. Three of the first graduates of the Forest School: Left to right: Florencio Tamesis, Cayetano Barros, and Felix Franco. The “Forest School” Became Independent with the Bureau Director as Dean A s a branch of the College of Agriculture, the Director of the Bureau of Forestry would be the ex-officio Forest School had only temporary buildings. However, by 1915, it Dean of the School. had already graduated 122 Forest Rangers and two BS Forestry students: Antonio P. Racelis ’14 and Anecito Villamil, ’14. Permanent buildings had to be constructed which required a much larger area. Thus, the Forest School had Act No. 2578 passed on February 4, 1916 established the to leave its site in the College of Agriculture campus and Forest School as a separate entity from the College of Agriculture. move further up at the foot of Mount Makiling.13 It But it was still considered a part of the University.13 Thus, it became became the upper campus of UP in Los Baños, and the an independent school. However, according to Act No. 2578, the College of Agriculture, the lower campus. School of Forestry in the upper campus in 1917, showing students’ dormitories; Mt. Banahaw in the background. 27 Makiling Echo
  27. 27. Dean Copeland Retired at Age 44 Due to Political Problems F rom the very beginning, Copeland had to fight for more support for the College. Local politicians interested in the With his wife, Ethel Faulkner, and five children independence of the islands from the Americans were more supportive of the College of Law and Liberal Arts, but not of the College of Agriculture. Joseph A. Cocannouer, one of the American assistant professors in the College, wrote, “Politics crept into the schools. Natives were taking over the important positions and many were not competent to do so. For one thing, it was impossible to make visiting native officials understand that the demonstration plots were being carried on for the purpose of securing valuable information, and not merely to provide them with choice products to be hauled away for their own use. In the midst of turmoil, Dr. Copeland left the College.”7 Dean Copeland did not just leave the College. At age 44, he decided to retire in 1917 under the Osmeña Act.12 As the pioneer Dean and his wife, Ethel Faulkner, and five children prepared to leave the College, a pall of sadness covered the entire campus. Copeland at his desk (right) with faculty members 28 of the College
  28. 28. PHOTOS TAKEN BEFORE DEAN COPELAND RETIRED AND LEFT THE COLLEGE His old bamboo and nipa house View of Campus from the Northwest This is how the campus looked when Dean Copeland left the College and returned to the USA on August 31, 1917. On the extreme right is the Administration building on the site where the UPLB Library now stands. Below the Administration building are the Agricultural Engineering and Plant Physiology buildings. On the extreme left is the Seed and Harvest Laboratory on the site where the Physical Sciences building is now located. At the center is the Power House and Cooperative Store. Philippine Agriculturist 29
  29. 29. catio The College at the Foot of Mount Makiling insp
  30. 30. Historic Developments Chapter 3 Under Baker 1917-1927 Abaca standards for export The College improved the standard classifi- Philippine Agricultural Review on of abaca fibers to enhance the quality of exports. Government ectors (above) ensure that standards were being followed.
  31. 31. P rofessor Edwin B. Copeland, founder and first Steps were taken to secure Baker’s services to Dean of the College of Agriculture, retired at age 44. succeed Professor Copeland as Dean of the College. He sailed with his family for the homeland on August He had the “unanimous approval” of both the faculty 31, 1917. and student body of the College.13, 17 Upon his appoint- ment as the new dean, Dr. Baker had to cut short his On a year’s leave of absence beginning May 1, leave of absence and return to Los Baños in December 1917, Dr. Charles Fuller Baker was in Singapore 1917. serving as Assistant Director in charge of tropical plantings. First World War: Overwhelming Response to the Call for Volunteers to the National Guard W ith the First World War raging in Europe, world On October 10, 1918, Senate President Manuel L. Quezon conditions were uncertain in 1917 and 1918. Early in October 1918, sent a telegram to Dean Baker: “Congratulate you and your college the government called for volunteers to serve in the Philippine upon this splendid showing of devotion to country.” National Guard.24 The National Guard was organized and training began in One hundred and ninety-three out of three hundred students Manila. However, armistice was signed by the Allied Forces and offered themselves to the National Guard. Of the 32 faculty Germany in November 1918. For this reason, the National Guard members, 27 enlisted including two ladies of the staff. had to be disbanded and the faculty members and students who volunteered had to return to their normal lives in Los Baños. Student volunteers of the College of Agriculture leaving for Camp Claudio in 1918. The mass enlistment Philippine Agriculturist of faculty and students in the National Guard on October 10, 1918, is now commemorated every year as Loyalty Day 32
  32. 32. Successful Lobbying for the Central Agricultural Experiment Station D ean Baker initiated a campaign to establish a central experiment station for the College of Agriculture. He enlisted the aid With this appropriation, the following were accomplished: of all important elements: professors, alumni, students and friends Expropriation of more than 250 hectares outside the College. This resulted in greater UP allocation for the of suitable agricultural land adjoining the Department of Agronomy, and the passage of Act. No. 2730 in College grounds divided as follows: Agronomy 1918 that provided for the establishment of an Experiment Station experimental fields – 139.73 ha and Animal and appropriating P 125,000 for that purpose.14 Husbandry pasture lands – 122.03 ha. Construction of laboratory facilities, including permanent poultry houses, barn, hog shelters and silos Purchase of fairly respectable number of work and dairy animals, including special types of carabaos Hon. Guillermo Flavier Pablo Hon. Bienvenido Maria Gonzalez Representative for Zambales B. Agr. (U.P., 1913) and M.S. (Wisconsin, and author of Act No. 2730 of 1915) Elected as the First Alumnus the Philippine Legislature, Member of the Board of Regents of the providing for the establishment University of the Philippines in 1918. of an Experiment Station at the College of Agriculture Entomology-Plant Pathology Laboratory (1919) on a site now occupied by the UPLB Administration building Agricultural Chemistry Laboratory (1919) 33
  33. 33. The Department of Animal Husbandry and pasture land, a part of the Central Agricultural Experiment Station, as developed by Dr. B.M. Gonzalez Campus Development and Planting of Royal Palms I nstructors in Agronomy and Animal Husbandry worked closely with Dean Baker in planning and developing the agricultural royal palm trees that lined the main roads of the College. Francisco C. Bernardo ’23 said, “Our class in engineering planted the royal experiment station. Professor Harold C. Cuzner (BSF), head of the palms. Prof. Cuzner required us to use the transit to ensure that we Department of Rural Engineering and Mathematics, planned and planted the royal palms in straight and perfectly parallel rows.” supervised the construction of practically all permanent buildings of the College of Agriculture.8 As a forest-engineer, Prof. Cuzner made an excellent choice of plants for landscaping in the College of Agriculture. The Aside from almost all the physical facilities on the campus which he colonnades of royal palms with lofty crowns along roadsides planned and built, one of Prof. Cuzner’s lasting legacies were the truly added beauty and majesty to the campus. Palm Drive The main road of the campus, leading from the gate through the grounds to the School of Forestry and Mount Makiling National Park. At the left is the Entomology-Plant Pathology Laboratory building. 34
  34. 34. Strengthening of the Socio-economic Dimension of College Programs W hen Prof. Evett D. Hester joined the College in 1919, he organized the Department of Rural Economics and strengthened the socio-economic dimension of College programs in instruction, research and extension. He undertook a lot of research on economic development of the Philippines and on tenancy problems in farming, and attracted many students to major in rural economics.38 Dean Baker said, Prof. Hester’s “proficiency in economics and sociology was most unusual, and he had a comprehensive grasp of Philippine problems.” Benguet mountaineer Igorot farmer on the trail Philippine Agriculturist The Pateros duck industry could be improved by adopting technologies developed by the College. Interesting socio-economic findings: Studies showed that the farmers of Cagayan and Isabela received no more than 33 percent of the wholesale Manila price of tobacco, and the middlemen received 67 percent. Competition among buyers was hardly known. The channel of distribution was found to be tortuous, leaf tobacco passing through three to as many as five middlemen before reaching the tobacco factory. 35
  35. 35. The College of Veterinary Science Transferred from Pandacan to Los Baños T he College of Veterinary Science started holding classes in June 1910 at the medical compound and in the premises of the Under Dean Baker’s leadership, four new faculty members were added in 1920:12 Philippine Normal School while waiting for the construction of Dr. Louis P. Koster, DVM (University of Pennsylvania) Veterinary Science buildings near the animal quarantine station in Dr. Gregorio San Agustin, DVM (University of the Philippines) Pandacan. In 1912, the College was well settled in Pandacan. Dr. Benjamin Schwartz, PhD (George Washington University) Dr. Lester Neer, DVM (Ohio State University) However, in 1918, the Board of Regents, believing that the country would benefit if the College of Veterinary Science and the College of Agriculture worked together, voted for the transfer of the former from Pandacan to Los Baños.6 In Los Baños, the College of Veterinary Science occupied temporarily the Tobacco House and one wing of the Pathology- Entomology Laboratory building, while construction of a new permanent building for the College was going on near the gate of the College of Agriculture. During this period, Dean Baker of Agriculture served as Acting Dean of the College of Veterinary Science. Dr. Alonzo S. Shealy, DVM (Iowa State College), served as Acting Dean in the absence of Dean Baker.7, 9 Treating a case of spavin Veterinary science students castrating a A class in surgery at the clinic of the native carabao bull. College of Veterinary Science 36
  36. 36. College of Veterinary Science buildings in Pandacan Administration building – College of Veterinary Science (1920) -a building constructed near the main gate of the College of Agriculture when Dr. Charles F. Baker was Acting Dean of the College of Veterinary Science 37
  37. 37. Glorious Victories of Los Baños in University Athletic Competitions I n university athletic competitions against units in Manila, the College of Agriculture, Forest School, and College of Veterinary Track and Field Standing Science combined as the “Agriculture unit,” with Prof. Otto A. Agriculture–81½ Reinking of the Department of Plant Pathology as athletic director. Law – 34 ½ Medicine – 9 For many years, all of the three university championship Engineering – 5 competitions in baseball, basketball, and track and field events were Education – 3 won by the Agriculture unit by very wide margins as shown in the Liberal Arts - 1 1920 scores below:5 In baseball, the Agriculture unit won the Malcolm trophy for three consecutive times. Basketball Los Baños track team Agriculture – 44 vs. Education - 5 Agriculture 58 vs. Medicine - 7 Agriculture – 46 vs. Engineering - 15 Agriculture – 84 vs. Law - 12 Agriculture – 104 vs. Liberal Arts - 9 Record of Agriculture: Ten consecutive university championships in basketball Champion basketball team of Los Baños Champion baseball team of Los Baños with Professor Otto Reinking as coach 38
  38. 38. Offering of BS Sugar Technology in 1920 D r. Manuel L. Roxas was the first to obtain the MS degree from UP in 1913, and the first Filipino to earn the PhD (Chemistry) degree, which he obtained from the University of Wisconsin in 1916. Upon his return to Los Baños in 1917, Dr. Roxas focused on improving sugar cane production in the field, and increasing the efficiency of sugar milling. When he started teaching a course in sugar technology, he needed a sugar mill for demonstration purposes. Being resourceful and inventive, “he developed a sugar mill using tin cans and odds and ends of laboratory materials,” which created a big impression on administrators and visitors. Leaders of the sugar industry who were planning to establish sugar centrals in Luzon and Negros Oriental provided financial support for the construction of a small scale sugar mill in the College, and they encouraged Dr. Roxas to train graduates highly specialized on sugar technology to help run sugar centrals.23 In 1920, the Board of Regents approved the new curriculum Dr. Manuel Luz Roxas leading to the Bachelor of Science in Sugar Technology, a five-year Professor of Agricultural Chemistry, who became the course. Only high school graduates were permitted to enroll for this first Director of the Bureau of Plant Industry course.23 The College Sugar Mill in 1925 The College Sugar Mill, circa 1938 39
  39. 39. Unexpected Large Enrolments in 1920-1921 with Students from China, Siam, Java, India, Japan, and Guam E nrolment in 1920 was unexpectedly large, with 528 undergraduate students and 21 graduate students. There were 289 Although these unexpected increases in enrolment caused great difficulties to the College in terms of lack of teachers and inadequate new students, a 24 percent increase over that of 1919. Only the housing for students, there was reason to rejoice. Many Filipinos provinces of Agusan, Bukidnon, Davao, and Lanao were not were beginning to realize the importance of agriculture as a profession, represented in the student body. Moreover, there were foreign and neighboring countries in Asia were sending students to Los Baños, students from China, Siam, Guam, Java, India, and Japan15. a clear sign that they recognized the high quality of education being offered by the College of Agriculture. Enrolment in 1921 was even larger, with 627 students, or a 16 percent increase over the previous year. This was surpassed only by the College of Liberal Arts in Manila which had 662 students in 1921. Student dormitories and houses on Copeland Heights Behind the two College dormitories, hidden amongst the banana plants, are the homes of many students. These houses were built by the students principally from locally available materials. Panorama of campus showing some student bungalows along Molawin Creek. On the left, partly hidden, is the Philippine Agriculturist Molawin Mess Hall. Philippine Agriculturist
  40. 40. College Extension Function Highlighted: First Laguna Farmers Day (1922) and First Laguna Provincial Fair (1924) Held on the Campus D r. Inocencio Elayda, MS ’16, the President of the In 1924, the First Laguna Provincial Fair was College of Agriculture Alumni Association, organized the First organized as a one-week affair of the College.25 Laguna Farmers Day held at the College on November 30, 1922 with support from different departments.23 Hundreds of farmers – rice and corn farmers, vegetable and fruit growers, and livestock raisers – as In view of Dr. Elayda’s demonstrated interest in organizing well as government officials and alumni trooped to the field extension activities, Dean Baker had him appointed Director of campus to view the exhibits and to ask for seeds and Extension and this underscored the College trilogy of functions, planting materials. The improved breeds of hog, cattle, namely: Instruction, Research, and Extension. and chicken attracted much attention. Visiting Delegation of Provincial Governors College extension activities resulted in increased garden production of quality vegetables. Participants of the Fourth Agricultural Congress visiting the College of Agriculture 41
  41. 41. Release of High-Yielding Sugar Cane Varieties Re- sistant to Diseases P lant breeders and plant pathologists of the College worked together to produce sugar cane varieties with high productivity and resistance to Fuji and mosaic diseases, the two most destructive pests of sugar cane. Breeding work began in 1919. Variety CAC 87 proved resistant to both diseases, but was too hard a cane for small millers. This was crossed with P.B. 119, a soft and high-yielding variety. From about 50,000 hybrid seedlings, selections were made and tested in the following stations:21 · Pampanga Sugar Co. Lt. · Calamba Sugar Estate · Alabang Breeding Station, BPI · La Carlota Experiment Station (Occ. Negros) This collaborative efforts yielded varieties CAC 111, CAC 112, and others which were disease-resistant, soft, good stooler, and with high percentage of sucrose.18 The widespread use of these varieties High-yielding and disease-resistant sugar greatly increased sugar cane production in the country. cane hybrid (P.B. 119X CAC87) produced by the College. Sugar cane productivity increased in Canlubang with the use of sugar cane hybrids produced by the College. Philippine Agriculturist 42
  42. 42. Other Research Outputs and Breakthroughs T wo very promising sweet potato selections (SBY98 and BLo38) from breeding work · Crop rotation to control wilt disease of eggplant, tomato, and tobacco · New varieties of Hibiscus (gumamela) with various de- grees of pink, red, white, yellow, and salmon colors · Drying mangoes at 67oC proved to be better than sun- drying in terms of appearance and flavor of the product · Production of industrial alcohol from cassava · A working model of charcoal kiln · New college copra dryer · Giant fresh water shrimp · Hand rice thresher · Model farm septic tank A field of Cayenne Pineapple from Hawaii Outstanding tobacco hybrids This standard grain drill from the USA was improved by College engineers for planting upland rice in the Philippines. Tobacco hybrid lines of Florida and Baker’s Sumatra. Note the tall and vigorous line at the left row. Philippine Agricultural Review Tobacco hybrid lines of Havana and Baker’s Sumatra Note the taller and more vigorous lines at the left and right rows. 43
  43. 43. Dean Charles Fuller Baker Passed Away H e was ill and hospitalized in Manila. After three weeks, In 1927, the University of Illinois sent a team to the Philippines on July 22, 1927 at age 55, he passed away. The whole College of to evaluate the quality of university-level education in the different Agriculture grieved without end.17 colleges of UP The survey results showed that only the College of Dr. Edwin B. Copeland, the first Dean and founder of the Agriculture was rated “A.” College, built a very solid foundation of the school with a strong Dr. B.M. Gonzalez said, “When Professor Baker’s work in tradition in research that ranked with the best in the world. On the agronomy was well started, he saw the enormous ravages done to other hand, Dean Baker was primarily responsible for the substantive crops by plant diseases. With the aid of more advanced students, he growth of the College. From 56 students, five faculty members, no initiated investigations along this line. This work later developed into building, and 72 hectares of wild land, the College grew to become our Department of Plant Pathology. We thus had in Dean Baker an an institution with a faculty of 88, about 800 students, 61 buildings, agronomist, botanist, entomologist, plant breeder, and plant pathologist and about 400 hectares of improved land.19 The library holdings had in one; and he was an accomplished worker in every one of them.” increased from 566 volumes to 7325. The campus had showers At age 45, Dean Baker declared, “I have put into each day as and bathrooms where none existed before. Electricity had replaced much as most people put into two days; therefore, I have lived about candles and oil lamps and for the first time, ice was available. 90 years.” The living room in Dean Baker’s house in downtown Los Baños. Baker’s shelves of insect collections in his house. Dean Baker called his house a “workshop home”. 44
  44. 44. Charles Fuller Baker 1872-1926 – and still going strong: Tired at the moment from fourteen years of intensive work in the building of a university college without a vacation during that time, but good for twenty-five years more. (Written by the Dean on this photograph, January, 1926.) 45