4th cscope sci_matter_matters


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4th cscope sci_matter_matters

  1. 1. Fourth Grade Science Unit: 02 Lesson: 01 Suggested Duration: 13 days Matter Matters Lesson Synopsis In this lesson, students will study the properties of matter and observe changes in the states of matter. TEKS: 4.7 The student knows that matter has physical properties. 4.7 A Observe and record changes in the states of matter caused by the addition and reduction of heat. 4.7 B Conduct tests, compare data, and draw conclusions about physical properties of matter including matter, conduction, density, and buoyancy. Process TEKS: 4.1 The student conducts field and laboratory investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices. 4.1A Demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations. 4.2 The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. 4.2B Collect information by observing and measuring. 4.2C Analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence. 4.2D Communicate valid conclusions. 4.2E Construct simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts to organize, examine, and evaluate information. 4.3 The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. 4.3C Represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations. 4.3E Connect Grade 4 Science Concepts with the history of science and contributions of scientists. 4.4 The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. 4.4A Collect and analyze information using tools including calculators, safety goggles, microscopes, cameras, sound recorders, computers, hand lenses, rulers, thermometers, meter sticks, timing devices, balances, and compasses. GETTING READY FOR INSTRUCTION Performance Indicator(s): Develop a superhero and illustrate his/her special powers to change states of matter using the reduction or addition of heat, density, and buoyancy. (4.7A, 4.7B) ELPS: 1C, 1E, 2E, 2I, 3D, 3J, 4E, 5B Key Understandings and Guiding Questions: The addition or reduction of heat may cause change in the states of matter. — How does the addition or reduction of heat cause a change in matter? — How do the molecules of matter behave with the addition and reduction of heat? Matter has physical properties that can be observed including density, buoyancy, and conduction. — How does the density of an object affect its buoyancy? — How do we classify the different kinds of matter found within our world? Vocabulary of Instruction: solid gas evaporation liquid freezing melting ©2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 1 of 53
  2. 2. 4th Grade Science Unit: 02 Lesson: 01 dissolving mass molecule condensation volume conduction buoyancy density state Materials: clear containers with lids metric rulers containers are cooking oil (optional) aluminum foil recommended syrup (optional) stop watch popcorn, pennies, or paper rubber ball (optional) paraffin candle clips paper clip (optional) goggles density blocks rock (optional) milk clay plastic baggies lamp oil graduated cylinders (plastic balloon (optional) syrup cylinders would be best) air freshener (optional) food coloring centimeter cubes (not matter examples large transparent cylinder or wood) ice cubes glass eggs triple beam balance crayons/map colors 3 quart clear containers for insulating materials small containers with lids demo or 3 for each group cotton batting (optional) like water bottles salt cotton balls (optional) various float/sink items: water newspaper (optional) paper clips, wood blocks, wooden or large spoon fabrics (optional) metal washers, coins, rocks, measuring spoons - metric packing peanuts (optional) marbles, toys, etc. ping pong ball dirt or sand (optional) container of water big washers or uniform weights paper plate enough to test float/sink marbles cooler for ice storage items (aquarium works well) rocks for third object of small tea light per group small air tight containers teacher’s choice (plastic baby food pencil thumb tacks containers, over the counter tweezers or forceps containers, pill bottles, film matches (teacher) canisters) transparent baby food jars Appropriate materials may be substituted as needed to incorporate district resources and availability Resources: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks2bitesize/science/activities/changing_state.shtml http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/ks2bitesize/science/activities/gases.shtml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_diving_suit http://www.onr.navy.mil/Focus/blowballast/people/submersibles3.htm http://www.seed.slb.com/labcontent.aspx?id=11586 STATE RESOUCES: Bridging II TAKS: Using Tools to Explore Matter Grade 4 Connecting to the Unifying Concepts through Physical Science: Matter Advance Preparation: 1. Make copies of the following handouts: A Matter of Observation (1 per group) Solid, Liquid, and Gas Notes (1 per group) Solid, Liquid, and Gas Notes (ELL) (as needed - optional) ©2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 2 of 53
  3. 3. 4th Grade Science Unit: 02 Lesson: 01 Matter Matters (1 per student) Matter Matters KEY (1 per teacher) Ice Races (1 per student or group) Heat Energy Information (1 per student or group) Heat Energy Information (ELL) (1 per student or group as needed) Cool Cubes (1 per student) Conduction (1 per student or group as needed) Conduction (ELL) (1 per student or group as needed) Hot Stuff (1 per student or group) Float or Sink Test (1 per student or group) Float, Sink or Flink? (1 per student or group) Floating, Flinking, and Sinking (1 per student or transparency) Are You Dense? (1 per student) Does Density Matter? (1 per student or group) Drop Me (1 per group or student) Egg-Citing Eggs (1 per student) Ships Ahoy!! KEY (1 per teacher) Ships Ahoy!! (1 per student or group) Deep Sea Diver KEY (1 per teacher) Deep Sea Diver (1 per student) Deep Sea Diver Word Bank (1 per student) Images of Deep Sea Divers (ELL) Department of Matter Job Vacancy (1 per student) Examples of Super Heroes (1 per student) Super Hero Rubric (1 per student) 2. Prepare basket full of matter for each group of students. Suggested examples of matter are three liquids in closed, clear containers (water, cooking oil, syrup, etc), rubber ball, paper clip, rock, plastic baggie, balloon (full of air or helium), air freshener, or any other example of matter that is available. 3. Collect various insulating materials for the Explain portion of “Reduction/Addition of Heat. Materials” can be: cotton batting, cotton balls, newspaper, various fabrics, packing peanuts, dirt/sand, or any insulating paper of your choice. 4. Collect various substances for float/sink tests and place in baggies: rocks, washers, wood, toys, marbles, craft sticks, paper clips, coins, etc 5. Fill a container(s) with water to float/sink test and Float, Sink or Flink on Explore: Density. One container can work or multiple containers (one per group) can also work. 6. Prepare containers by labeling them A, B, & C (fill the containers before class or during the lesson) Fill container A full of warm water. Fill container B half full of water and add four spoons of salt. Finish filling container B with water and stir the solution. Fill container C half full of water and add four spoons of salt. Slowly pour the fresh water into the top of the container on top of the layer of salt. Prepare to add three eggs to each container. 7. Pour the milk into a clear water bottle marked liquid A. 8. Pour the blue lamp oil into the second clear plastic water bottle marked liquid B. 9. Pour the clear corn syrup into the third plastic water bottle marked liquid C. Add three to four drops of red food coloring and shake the bottle until the corn syrup becomes red. Background Information: In Grade 4, students should begin to conduct tests on their own. One of the big ideas of this lesson is for students to begin to organize their own scientific tests. A valid test should have a well defined problem, a hypothesis (or prediction), one tested variable (independent and dependent variables are not expected to be mastered at this time), data collection, and a drawn conclusion. These tests are used to explain one of the foundational concepts of chemistry – properties of matter. While understanding the states of matter is a review for the students, it is also where one of the largest misconceptions of matter comes into play. Many textbooks, websites, and even the TAKS test images display molecule models of solids, liquids, and gases. ©2009, TESCCCC 08/01/09 page 3 of 53
  4. 4. 4th Grade Science Unit: 02 Lesson: 01 The molecules of each state are tight in solids, loose and spread out in liquids, and really far apart in gases. For the most part these are correct, but understand that the misconception comes in the liquid. Liquid molecules are still very close together. The molecules still have contact with each other. The density of a solid substance and a liquid state of the same substance is not significantly different. The molecules of a liquid flow, while the molecules of a solid vibrate in place. To change from one state to another heat energy has to be added or removed. Solids melt into a liquid with the addition of heat energy. Liquids evaporate into a gas with the addition of heat energy. To change a gas back into a liquid, heat energy needs to be removed from the system in a process known as condensation. To change a liquid back into a solid, heat energy needs to be removed in a process known as freezing. Another property of matter is density. Density is the ratio of mass to volume. The density of water is 1 g/mL. Objects that have a density greater than 1 g/mL will sink in water. Objects that have a density less than 1 g/mL will float in water. Salt water is more dense than fresh water. Density is closely related to buoyancy. The ability of an object to float when it is placed in a fluid is related to the buoyant force in that fluid as well as the object’s density. When you step into a pool, you feel lighter. You did not actually lose mass upon entering the pool, but you feel lighter due to the upward force of buoyancy. Wood floats in water, but steel does not float. How then do large steel ships float? Ships’ hulls are very important. The broad shape helps buoyancy. Ships also have lots of space filled with air in their hulls. This affects the overall density of the ship, making it less dense than water. If the hull is compromised, as it was in the Titanic, and water floods in to replace the air compartments, the ship will sink. Submarines work on similar concepts. They flood compartments when they want to dive and fill the compartments with air when they want to rise. GETTING READY FOR INSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL PLANNING DOCUMENT Instructors are encouraged to supplement, and substitute resources, materials, and activities to differentiate instruction to address the needs of learners. The Exemplar Lessons are one approach to teaching and reaching the Performance Indicators and Specificity in the Instructional Focus Document for this unit. A Microsoft Word template for this planning document is located at www.cscope.us/sup_plan_temp.doc. If a supplement is created electronically, users are encouraged to upload the document to their Lesson Plans as a Lesson Plan Resource in your district Curriculum Developer site for future reference. Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher NOTE: 1 Day = 50 minutes ENGAGE Suggested time: Day 1 1. Place matter baskets in the middle of each table or group of students (3-4 students per group). 2. Distribute handout: A Matter of Observation. Tell students that they will MATERIALS: be given five to ten minutes to classify each item in the basket into Handout: A Matter of Observation categories according to the observable properties. (1 per group) Handout (optional): Solid, Liquid, 3. Ask students to be prepared to share why and how they classified each and Gas Notes (1 per group) item into its specific category. Handout (optional): Solid, Liquid, and Gas Notes (ELL) (as needed) 4. After giving students the appropriate amount of time, ask students to share Handout: Matter Matters (1 per how they classified the various items. student) Handout: Matter Matters KEY (1 5. Ask each group to explain why they chose these categories. per teacher) matter baskets 6. This discussion and sharing time will lead into the classification of the three 3 liquids (water, oil, syrup or liquid of states of matter. Students will share why they classified items into their teacher’s choice) categories. This will open discussion on how scientists classify various closed containers items in our world today leading into the review of matter. rubber balls Ask: paper clips What do you know about matter? baggies Record responses on board or overhead. Place a definition of matter on balloons board or overhead for students to copy into their scientific notebooks. air freshener How do we classify the different kinds of matter found within our world? Matter Baskets can be created from ©2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 4 of 53
  5. 5. 4th Grade Science Unit: 02 Lesson: 01 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher Discuss as a class & record student responses on board or overhead. local available resources. The above list is a suggested list. The main 7. Explain that all matter is classified into three states or phases or matter. concern is for all three states of matter The phase or state of matter is another important physical property of to be represented. matter. Matter on Earth most commonly exists in three states: solid, liquid, and gas. Plasma is a fourth state of matter and can be found in stars like The states of matter should be a review our Sun. from grade 2 and 3 (TEKS 2.7 A and 3.7 A and B). Plasma may be 8. Have students read and discuss a non-fiction text on Solid, Liquid, and mentioned as the fourth state of matter, Gas. (The optional handout: Solid, Liquid, and Gas Notes might help with but students are not expected to master this.) the concept of plasma in grade 4. 9. Students should then make inferences using the factual information and The purpose of this activity is to allow answer the questions on the handout: Matter Matters. students to classify items based on their prior knowledge. Some groups 10. After students finish their reflections: may organize these items according to Ask: shape, size, color, etc. This will provide What are some physical properties of a solid? A liquid? A gas? A an idea of how much the students solid has definite shape and volume, a liquid has definite volume but already know about matter and how takes the shape of its container, a gas will expand to fit the container in much extra time needs to be spent which it is placed. It has no shape or volume. reviewing the states of matter. Can you name some objects that are examples of a solid? A liquid? A gas? Answers will vary. Can you name any other objects from outside of your home that The handout: Matter Observations is would be good examples of the states of matter? Answers will left blank so that the students can vary. decide how they want to represent their When you add heat energy to a solid what happens? It melts. classification scheme. Graphic When you add heat energy to a liquid (boil) what happens? The organizers (charts, tables, Venn liquid evaporates into a gas. diagrams, T-Charts) should be How would you reverse this process? Gas to a liquid? You would encouraged. do the opposite; take away heat energy or cool a gas down. This is called condensation. How do you change a liquid into a solid? You take away heat energy. You freeze the liquid. Matter Notes: All matter is defined as anything that has 11. Tomorrow, we are going to investigate what happens when energy is mass and takes up space. This definition added and removed from a solid. involves two properties: mass and volume. Mass is the amount of material in an object and is measured with a balance or scale. Volume is the amount of space taken up by an object. All matter has physical properties that can help distinguish one kind of matter from another kind. Some properties of matter are color, shape, composition, size, density, buoyancy, conduction, along with many others. Textbooks are one source of a non- fiction text. Included in the handouts is a small discussion of solids, liquids, and gases. States of Matter Interactive Website changing states of matter ©2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 5 of 53
  6. 6. 4th Grade Science Unit: 02 Lesson: 01 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher Cool Matter Quiz States of Matter interactive website and quiz EXPLORE Suggested time: Day 2 Reduction/Addition of Heat Energy 1. Reflect on student experiences with solids, liquids, and gas from yesterday. MATERIALS: Handout: Ice Races (1 per student 2. Tell students that today they will be investigating how matter changes from or group) one state to another. The student’s objective is to design a test that will cubes of ice melt a piece of ice quickly. All tests must have teacher approval before cooler for ice storage experimentation can begin. Experiment is detailed on the two page triple beam balance handout: Ice Races. paper plate or shallow bowl sealable baggies 3. Before the experiment remind students about the characteristics of a good various forms of heat scientific test: The problem needs to be clearly stated. What we are investigating is Keep the investigation simple. Students the problem. In this case, it is, “How fast can ice melt?” can place their ice bag system in the A prediction or hypothesis needs to be included based on research or Sun, they can hold it in their hand, they prior knowledge. For example, “rubbing the ice/bag system between can heat the system with a hair dryer, my hands will cause it to melt the fastest.” etc. Use common classroom items for Only one variable needs to be tested. You can test how rubbing and this exploration. blow-drying both affect the ice melt rate. You can only test one variable. Everything else needs to be kept constant. Control: One ice cube needs to be Experiments need a control. In this case, an ice cube in a bag that is placed in a baggie, set aside, and timed not manipulated in any way is the control. This gives students for a control. No action should be something to compare to when they are done testing. applied to the baggie system. Data needs to be taken. In this case, students will be taking the mass of the ice/bag system before and after the test (which should be the same) and also they will be monitoring the time it takes for their ice to Safety note: melt. Safety needs to be addressed in the Students need to draw conclusions based on their data. They should teacher approval process. Some refer to their hypothesis to see if they were correct or not. students may want to use a tea light or candle. While this will work well, the bag 4. To Reflect on their learning experience ask: system may be compromised. Use of What state of matter was the ice? Solid. flame heat or hot plates is not What state of matter was the melted ice? Liquid. encouraged. What methods were used to melt the ice? Answers will vary. Lead the students to discuss melting point or the process of melting. Tool: Students may or may not Which group had the fastest method? understand how to operate a triple Regardless of the method, what did every group use to melt the beam balance. Time may need to be ice? Heat energy was applied causing the solid ice to change into a spent introducing the students to liquid. carrying, zeroing out, and using this Describe how the molecules of the ice cube were arranged. The tool. molecules were tightly packed, touching each other, and vibrating or moving in place. Students were introduced to “fair tests” Once heat energy was applied, what began to happen to the ice? in the third grade. Instead of using the The ice began to melt. word hypothesis, students may have used the word prediction. In the fourth How were the molecules of the ice affected by the heat energy? grade, students should begin to master Molecules began to absorb the energy and this caused the bonds experimental design. between the molecules to weaken allowing the ice to melt and loose its rigid shape. How could you reverse this melting process? Remove heat energy and refreeze the liquid water back into ice. ©2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 6 of 53
  7. 7. 4th Grade Science Unit: 02 Lesson: 01 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher MISCONCEPTIONS: Mass and weight are the same thing. Measurement can be measured on in a linear method. The temperature of an object depends on its size. EXPLAIN Suggested time: Day 2 Reduction of Heat Energy 1. Place the word "Energy" on the board or overhead. Ask: MATERIALS: Handout: Heat Energy Information What do you know about energy and its forms? How would you describe it? Answers will vary. (1 per student or group) Handout: Heat Energy Information 2. List and discuss answers on the board. Most students will relate energy to (ELL) (1 per student or group as electricity, but in this lesson students need to focus on the heat energy needed) given to the Earth by the Sun. The term molecule is introduced in the 3. Explain to students that heat energy is transferred from the Sun to the solid, liquid, and gas handout. In the Earth. This heat energy provides the Earth with warm air that is necessary third grade, students used the word for all living things to survive. Heat energy flows naturally from hotter particle. objects to cooler ones just like the Sun passes its heat energy on to us. When objects are in direct contact, this energy transfer occurs through the In the previous unit, students studied process called conduction. about the Sun. Solar energy should be easy for the students to recall. 4. Explain to students that water forms ice at 0 degrees Celsius or 32 Knowledge of other forms of energy degrees Fahrenheit. When exposed to temperatures above freezing, ice may not be mastered at this time. remains at 0 degrees Celsius, but begins to melt as it absorbs the heat energy from its surroundings. Heat energy travels from the warmer air to The purpose of this explanation is to the cooler ice. Conductors of heat energy speed up this movement but provide an example to students of how insulators of heat slow it down. heat energy is transferred. Prepare students by dividing them into small groups. Heat Energy explanation may be given orally or through the reading of the supplied handout: Heat Energy Information. Students have very limited information on the ways heat can be transferred. Conduction is the only way being formally explored in this lesson. Radiation and convection may be mentioned, but do not expect the students to master all three ways at this time. EXPLORE Suggested time: Days 2 and 3 1. The challenge of this activity is to find a good way to insulate the ice cube to keep the heat transfer from occurring. This will keep the ice from melting as quickly as the control. MATERIALS: ©2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 7 of 53
  8. 8. 4th Grade Science Unit: 02 Lesson: 01 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher 2. To begin “Cool Cubes” activity, ask students how long they think it takes ice cubes an ice cube to melt, given the current air temperature. Gather their oral cooler for ice storage responses and record these on the board or overhead. Then ask what they sealable plastic bags might do to keep an ice cube from melting. Gather and record ideas. insulator of some kind (student choice) 3. Start the activity by explaining that the objective is to build a structure or Handout: Cool Cubes (1 per insulator to keep an ice cube from melting. This can be done by preventing student) the transfer of heat energy from the air into the ice cube. Student groups can choose any material 4. The rules of this investigation are to use the provided materials that do to be their insulating material. If a NOT include an electrical appliance, a thermos, or an ice chest. Also, the student group decides to use a insulator must fit on top of their desk area. combination of materials, then their combination has to be referred to as an 5. Also, explain that all groups will receive the same amount and shape of an insulation system. Do not discourage ice cube that must be kept inside of a sealed plastic baggie to avoid the use of a multi-material system. messes. 6. Distribute insulating materials to students. 7. Provide students with time to devise a plan possibly drawing or designing their model in an interactive notebook or journal. Students should also Science Notebook: make a list of materials necessary to build their insulator in their interactive Time must be provided for students to notebook or journal. build their insulator. This point may be a natural break to end the day. 8. Give students time to create their insulator using the provided materials. Make sure to leave out one ice cube in 9. When all groups are ready, give each group one ice cube in a plastic bag. a baggie out in the room as a control. Students will need to record the mass of their ice cube & baggie using a Have students compare the melting of balance in grams on their activity sheet. this non-insulated cube to those with their insulated protection. 10. After the given amount of time, instruct students to record the ending time, then drain the melted water from the plastic bags and find the ending mass It is best to leave the ice cubes in the by massing the remaining cube & baggie. Students record this result. insulators one to two hours if possible before recording results. If this is not 11. Have students to determine the elapsed time and write a number sentence possible, then leave the ice cube to show how the mass changed. Ask student groups to orally share this baggies in the containers for as long as information to use for class comparisons. These could be recorded on the your class time allows. board or overhead. Students may need help writing a 12. Tell students to study their results and determine which types of insulation number sentence. worked best. Using their handout: Cool Cubes, students should answer Mass before – mass ending = change in the following questions: mass. Ask: How did your ice cube change? Melted but at a slower rate. A class graph of the information can be What caused it to melt? The warmer air around it began to transfer created but understand that students the heat energy to the cube. have not created two dimensional What would happen to the cube if the temperature were below graphs (coordinate pairs) yet in freezing? It would not melt, but remain frozen. mathematics. Bar graphs are most What kind of insulating material worked the best? The class might appropriate for this age group. Line order these materials from least to most successful. graphs are the best to represent data What other kinds of materials might you try if the activity were associated with time. To use a line repeated? Answers will vary. graph, will require teacher support. If you were taking refrigerated or frozen food to a picnic and did not have a cooler, how would you insulate it? Is your idea Ice cubes could also be tested in practical? Answers will vary. different places to test melting rates in the Sun, shade, refrigerator, etc. ©2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 8 of 53
  9. 9. 4th Grade Science Unit: 02 Lesson: 01 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher EXPLAIN Suggested time: Day 4 Addition of Heat Energy 1. Start class by reminding students about yesterday’s lesson. Ask: MATERIALS: Who had the best cool cube yesterday? Answers will vary. tea light What about their design stopped the flow of heat energy? The baby food jars insulating material. tweezers What are objects that do not allow heat energy to flow called? tacks Insulators. paraffin candle aluminum foil 2. Review the word “conduction” aloud or through a non-fiction text source. metric ruler The handout: Conduction may help review this concept. stop watch goggles 3. Explain to the students that in today's activity, a candle will be used as the matches (teacher) source of heat energy. During the investigation, think about how heat Handout: Conduction (1 per energy is being moved or transferred from one place to another. Look for student or group as needed) patterns of heat transfer. Handout: Conduction (ELL) (1 per student or group as needed) 4. The activity today will include the transfer of heat that we call conduction. Handout or transparency: Hot Stuff (1 per student or group) 5. Begin handout: Hot Stuff investigation. The students will observe the direction Hot Stuff Activity- heat travels by watching the melting 6. Students should wear safety goggles. patterns of falling thumb tacks. 7. Cover the testing area with a sheet of aluminum foil. 8. Light paraffin candle and place in a safe position in the lab area. Observe MISCONCEPTIONS: all safety rules for an open flame in lab. Heat and temperature are the same thing. 9. Have each student group prepare their testing area by placing the two Temperature is a property of a baby food jars with lids (or other heat resistant structure that is stable particular material or object (metal is enough to hold an aluminum bridge) approximately 15 centimeters apart. naturally colder than plastic to most These will act as the base for the aluminum bridge. students). 10. Cut a piece of aluminum foil that is 18 cm long. 11. Have the students fold their piece of aluminum foil four or more times into a foil bridge, approximately 4 cm wide. Note: 12. Students need to make a pencil mark 6 cm from one end of the bridge. Review heat energy transfer by conduction with students by explaining 13. Students need to continue to make pencil marks at 8 cm, 10 cm, 12 cm, that conduction is the flow of heat and 14 cm. through a material from areas of higher temperature to areas of lower 14. Students carefully use tweezers to place the head of a thumb tack into the temperature. Write this definition on the buildup of wax at the base of the burning candle. Then the students place board for students to copy into their the tack head with wax down on the first mark (8cm) on the aluminum notebooks. bridge. Students will need to repeat this procedure until they have placed Explain that conduction can be from one tacks at the 10 cm, 12 cm, and 14 cm marks. area of a material to another or from one material to another material in direct 15. Students need to allow the tacks and wax to cool. contact. For example, if you hold a 16. Invert the cool bridge and place the aluminum foil bridge on top of the two metal spoon, the heat energy from your baby food jar lids. warmer hand is conducted to the cooler spoon. Your hand actually warms it up. ©2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 9 of 53
  10. 10. 4th Grade Science Unit: 02 Lesson: 01 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher 17. Place the small candle (tea light) directly below the first tack. 18. Before lighting each candle, ask students to feel the end of the aluminum foil bridge, which should feel very cool to the touch. Remind them not to Safety note: touch the bridge or tacks during the experiment for safety reasons. Before beginning the experiment, stress 19. Teacher lights the candles and students begin their stopwatches. the importance of safety to the students. Take every precaution necessary to 20. Have students record the time it takes for each tack to drop. Remind ensure a safe environment and keep a students to keep the stopwatch going to record the total amount of time it fire extinguisher handy. This activity took for each tack to drop indicating melting of the wax has occurred. should be done in small groups so that students can observe and record the 21. After all tacks have fallen or the teacher calls time, extinguish the candles. physical changes. Safety issues to discuss with students include the 22. After a few minutes of cooling time, Students should feel the same end of following: the aluminum foil to describe the increase in temperature. Remove coats or fold up arms of long sleeved shirts. 23. Tell students to use their recorded information on their data chart to draw Tie any long hair back. conclusions about the conduction of heat and the falling thumb tacks. Place non-flammable surface like Ask: aluminum foil under work area. What patterns did you notice? Answers will vary but lead students to Have teacher light and extinguish the the understanding the heat started above the candle and traveled out candle flame. from there. Do not use the lab equipment Why do you think this happened? Answers will vary. inappropriately (tacks). Do not touch any surface until it has 24. Lead or redirect student answers to reflect that as the candle flame completely cooled. radiates heat energy to the particles in the foil directly above it, the tacks Do not remove any lab item from lab anchored in wax will display the transfer of heat energy by dropping. The heated molecules of aluminum will start to vibrate rapidly, bumping into Tacks work well in this experiment nearby molecules and passing energy to them. This next set of vibrating because they have a flat surface and molecules bumps into their neighbors and passes heat energy on. The are light weight. Make sure each group molecules do not travel along the solid; they just vibrate in place, bumping returns the tacks at the end of the against their neighbors in a game of "pass it on". Through this process of experiment. conduction, heat energy is carried along the foil bridge. This activity can be done as a class demo. If the teacher is using it as a class demo, candles larger than tea lights can be used on the aluminum bridge. If students perform the investigation under teacher supervision, tea light candles are suggested. Safety Note: You must supervise this process. Having one larger candle producing wax for all groups is suggested to minimize risks. Make sure students record their data on their lab papers. After the lab, go over the lab questions and be sure to explain that just like mass and volume, conduction is a physical property of matter. Explain that through the conduction of heat, states of matter can ©2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 10 of 53
  11. 11. 4th Grade Science Unit: 02 Lesson: 01 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher change from a solid to liquid through melting or from a liquid to a gas as in evaporation. Ask students to share any related examples of this with the class. EXPLORE/EXPLAIN Suggested time: Day 6 1. Currently, we have been studying about the state of matter and how the addition or removal of heat energy causes the states of matter to change. Ask: Another resource: Bridging II What are physical properties? Observable characteristics of matter. TAKS: Using Tools to Explore Matter Are states of matter physical properties? Yes. has a great 4th grade lesson on density. What are some other physical properties of matter? Size, shape, color, mass, volume. Note: 2. Today, we are going to explore another physical property of matter – Volume is often referred to in density. mathematics as capacity. Ask: Have you ever noticed that some things float in water and some Students will not have had lots of things sink? experience determining volume. They What kind of things have you seen that float? Sink? may not even know the difference What makes some things float while others sink? Student answers between mass, volume, and density. will vary but may include a reference to mass or heft. MTR (Math TEKS Refinement) has How can boats like battleships and tankers float when they are so numerous activities for the fourth grade massive? Do not answer this question at this time. Just pose the that develop these concepts. Ask a question to get students to thinking. math teacher to let you see this state curriculum for ideas on how to 3. Density is the relationship of mass to volume. Mass is defined as the supplement these complex concepts. amount of matter contained in an object. Volume is defined as the amount of space an object takes up. Most of the time, the density of many objects is compared to the density of water. People want to know if substances or objects will sink or float in water. MATERIALS: Handout: Float or Sink Test (1 per student or group) Handout: Floating, Flinking, and Sinking (1 per student or group) Handout: Float, Sink, or Flink? (1 per group or teacher) triple beam balance (optional) container of water various float/sink items: (paper 4. We are going to take several common substances and see if they sink or clips, wood blocks, metal washers, float in water. coins, rocks, marbles, toys, etc.) small air tight containers (plastic baby food containers, over the counter containers, pill bottles, film canisters) transparent containers are recommended popcorn (unpopped), pennies, or paper clips triple beam balance 5. After testing the various objects, allow students to share their results. large clear water container 6. Record the class results on the board or overhead. Record the objects that The sealed containers need to be very are denser than water in one column and the objects that are less dense light and float high in the water. Your than water in the other column. water test containers could be anything, ©2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 11 of 53
  12. 12. 4th Grade Science Unit: 02 Lesson: 01 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher but containers that are transparent work Float, Sink, or Flink? (optional) This will take approximately 1 day. best (aquarium). What you place into the sealed container is up to you. 7. Once students have begun to explore sinking and floating, introduce the Pennies (approximately 2.5 grams a invented property of flink. To flink means the object doesn’t float on top of piece), large paper clips (approximately the surface and does not sink to the bottom, it flinks half way in-between. one gram a piece) will all work. The filling objects need to be small enough to fit in the container but have some heft. Un-popped popcorn might work if the original container is larger enough. It will take more popcorn to sink a container than pennies. It is just important to keep the filling objects 8. Two factors contribute to density – mass and volume. In the next activity uniform. on density, we are going to explore how changing the mass of an object Containers may not sit up right in the affects its density. water. This activity will still work with containers that lay on their sides. 9. After students have finished their Float, Sink, or Flink? activity, ask: Did you have to add or remove matter to get the container to drop The difference between sinking and lower in the water? Matter had to be added. flinking may be less than the difference When the empty container was placed in the water, did it float, of one penny. The student may be sink, or flink? The empty container floated. floating with 10 pennies (25 grams) and How many __________ did it take to flink the container? Answers sinking with 11 (27.5 grams) pennies. will vary. To flink, they may have to add 10 How many __________ did it take to sink the container? Answers pennies and one paper clip which would will vary. be 26 grams. Try to keep the filling By adding _______, were we increasing the mass or volume of the objects uniform but the student may container? We were increasing the mass. have to manipulate the objects to obtain Did the volume of the container change in the experiment? The “flink”. volume remained constant during the experiment. EXPLAIN Suggested time: Days 7 and 8 Mystery Liquid Activity 1. Explain to students that they will use their scientific knowledge and skills to solve the mystery liquid activity. MATERIALS: 2. Display the empty cylinder to be used for the three liquids in this Handout: Are you Dense? (1 per demonstration. Next, tell students to closely observe the demonstration student) quietly. Milk Lamp Oil 3. Cover the cylinder with aluminum foil so that the students cannot see the Syrup results until the appropriate time. This is easily done by wrapping the foil Food coloring around the cylinder tightly. Large transparent cylinder or glass (This cylinder or tall glass needs to 4. Then, display the three mystery liquids A (milk), B (blue lamp oil), and C be transparent so that the students (red syrup). Turn each liquid upside down in its container to show students can clearly see the results after the how the liquids flow. liquids have been combined) Crayons/map colors 5. Remind students to observe closely. Small containers with lids like water bottles for liquids A, B, and C 6. Complete demonstration by pouring the same amount of all three of liquids Aluminum Foil slowly into the covered cylinder while the students observe closely. 7. After all three different liquids have been poured into the same container, ask students to use their crayons or colored pencils to color in their prediction of the results of pouring these three very different liquids ©2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 12 of 53
  13. 13. 4th Grade Science Unit: 02 Lesson: 01 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher together on their handout: Are you Dense? 8. When all students have completed coloring their cylinders, ask various Many students will ask you to share students to share how and why they made their predictions. more with them, but it is best to tell the students to use their scientific reasoning 9. Make sure to discuss each prediction and the logic behind each conclusion skills and their prior knowledge of matter given. to solve the problem. They do not need to know what the mystery liquids are, 10. Ask other students to raise their hands in agreement or disagreement to and you will need to remind them to only discuss other possible predictions. focus on the liquids physical properties. 11. Finally, after all predictions have been discussed, unveil the cylinder by removing the aluminum foil. Explain that the molecules are closer 12. The three liquids will be layered according to their density with the thick red together in the thick liquid syrup making syrup on the bottom, the white milk in the middle, and the light blue lamp it extremely dense and heavy. The oil on top. molecules in the milk are not quite as dense, but are spread out further apart 13. Have students to share if their prediction was correct by raising their hands making the liquid less dense than the and discuss the results. syrup. That is why the milk floats on top of the thick syrup. Then explain that the 14. Tell students to draw and color the actual results of the demonstration next lamp oil molecules are not very dense to the prediction cylinder on their handout: Are you Dense? and are spread much further apart Ask: making them lighter than both the milk Can you guess why the three liquids are layered this way? They and syrup. All three of these liquids should be able to explain that the different densities of each liquid have different densities as their physical made it lighter or heavier than the others displaying a unique physical properties of matter. Density is another property of that liquid. important physical property of matter. 15. To complete the activity, ask: How can the density of matter affect its physical properties? Discuss student answers in relation to the demonstration. Science Notebook: 16. Notebook Entry- Assign students to write a notebook entry describing the Entry “density” of different liquids in their notebook or interactive notebook. Students will need to explain why the three liquids layered with the red, white, and blue pattern in their own words. Tell students to describe the density of each liquid in relation to its position in the cylinder. MATERIALS: Does Density Matter? Activity Handout: Does Density Matter? (1 per student or group) 17. Place all density blocks out for students to view without touching. density blocks metric ruler 18. Ask students to brainstorm the physical properties of the blocks together triple beam balance as a class. Density Blocks can be ordered from a 19. Record these on the board or overhead and have students record physical science supply company or check with properties on chart on their handout: Does Density Matter? your local middle or high school. Density blocks are commonly used in the upper 20. Some examples might include color, size, shape, etc. Most students will grades. recognize that the blocks are very similar in shape and size. 21. Students will complete their charts independently or in a small group. Students have studied measurement 22. Ask the students to predict if they think the blocks have the same density. but they will not use formulas to Some may want to touch them at this point, but tell them to devise a determine volume until the 5th grade. scientific test that the class could do to test for the density of the blocks. Volume (capacity) is still a conceptual ©2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 13 of 53
  14. 14. 4th Grade Science Unit: 02 Lesson: 01 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher skill for them at this time. Demonstration of volume will allow the class to explore 23. Ask students to share their ideas and discuss the relationship of mass to with volume without having to density. understand how to calculate it at this Ask: time. Would a heavier item have more density? Would a lighter object be less dense? Note: How could we test this? Other household items can be easily tested for their density and buoyancy 24. Have students measure and record the mass of each block. Students will including plastic lids, gallon milk jugs, need to record this information on their chart. two liter soda plastic bottles, and various kinds of fruit 25. Demonstrate for the class how to determine the volume of each block. 26. Tell the students to record the volume on their handout. Ask: What do students think will happen when the blocks are placed into the container of water? Will they have buoyancy and float? Will they sink to the bottom? 27. Have students share their predictions aloud and record in their notebooks. Science Notebook: 28. Test each block and record the results. 29. Explain that we already know that all solids are made up of molecules that are closely fit together, and remind them that not all solids are the same. Some solids contain more molecules which are fit very tightly together compared to other solids in which the molecules are spread further apart. The concept of a solid’s density is another physical property of matter. 30. Have students share their results of their testing with their small group or class. 31. Discuss and review the relationship of the physical properties of density, mass, and buoyancy. EXPLORE /EXPLAIN Suggested time: Day 9 Buoyancy 1. During this unit, we have been working with matter and how its density determines if it floats or sinks in water. MATERIALS: Handout: Drop Me (1 per student or 2. Today, we are going to continue to investigate what is happening when group) objects are placed in water. water graduated cylinder (clear plastic 3. Displacement Activity: Drop Me. works best because it will not break when objects are added) 4. A Greek mathematician named Archimedes worked with water displacement non-wood centimeter cubes in a way very similar to what you have just explored. From his work, a law marbles of science was discovered. Archimedes’ Principle states that any object third object (rocks) of the teachers partially or completely immersed in a liquid is pushed upward by a buoyant choice force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced. Note: Centimeter cubes are used here 5. Teacher Demonstration or group activity: because they should displace 1 mL of ©2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 14 of 53
  15. 15. 4th Grade Science Unit: 02 Lesson: 01 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher water. Wood centimeter cubes can not be used because they will float. Marbles are also used as a second object. The third object is at the discretion of the teacher. It could be small rocks or other objects that will sink in water. Students can look up information on Archimedes using computers or search for local library books about his life and work. One book that covers this story is “Who Sank the Boat?” by Pamela Allen This activity can be done as a teacher demo or in groups. EXPLORE/EXPLAIN Suggested time: Day 9 Egg-citing Eggs! Activity 1. This lab addresses buoyancy as well as density. Students will identify that all the eggs have the same physical properties including density, but will react differently when the “buoyant” force is placed upon each egg in the three different solutions. This can be done as a demonstration for the MATERIALS: whole class or in small groups of three to five students. Handout: Egg-citing Eggs (1 per student) 2. Label the three quart containers A, B, & C. raw eggs water 3. Fill container A with 450 mL of warm water. salt (Kosher salt will dissolve and leave the solution clear) 4. Fill container B with 250 mL of warm water and add 7 grams of salt. Stir 3 quart containers (clear) the salt into solution. measuring spoons graduated cylinder 5. Point out that the salt, a solid, disappears into the liquid. wooden spoon Ask: Where does the salt go? The water molecules that make up the Explain the process of dissolving as this water allow the salt molecules to be incorporated into the water making lab progresses. a salt solution. 6. Finish filling container B with 200 mL of water and stir the solution. Sea water has a consistency of ¼ pound of salt per gallon of water. This 7. Fill container C with 250 mL of warm water and add 7 grams of salt. Stir works out to be about 0.1 L of salt to the salt into solution. every 3.8 L of water in the metric system. 8. Place the spoon inside container C and slowly pour 200 mL the fresh water down the spoon into the container. Be careful not to mix the two layers. A fresh water layer will develop on top of the layer of salt water. As the water Using the spoon is very important. It is level rises, lift the spoon up also to minimize the mixing of fresh water with important that the two layers do not mix. the salt water. 9. Add one egg to each container. It is best to place the egg in the spoon and lower the spoon into the liquid gently rolling the egg into the liquid. 10. Observe what happens and record on the data & observations chart. 11. The egg in the first container will sink to the bottom of the container. The egg in the first container (fresh water) is denser than the water. The egg in ©2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 15 of 53
  16. 16. 4th Grade Science Unit: 02 Lesson: 01 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher the second container will float. The egg is less dense than the salt water. The third egg is denser than the fresh water, but less dense than the salt water, so it floats in the middle. 12. Tell students to give their own explanations for the results to record in their science notebook or interactive notebook. 13. Place the word “Buoyancy” on the board or overhead. Have students explain what buoyancy is and to give some examples of buoyancy. Record student answers and relate buoyancy to the density blocks in previous lessons. 14. Explain to students that all liquids have what is called a buoyant force. It is the force of molecules in the liquid that push up on a foreign body that is in Buoyant the liquid. force Ask: Have you ever been in a pool and tried to hold a beach ball or an air-filled ball under water? Balls filled with air are very hard to hold under water. As soon as you loose your grip, the ball will shoot to the surface. Demonstration: 15. Using a graduated cylinder or other water container (clear is better) and a ping pong ball, have a student volunteer try to submerge the ping pong ball MATERIALS: in the water with a pencil. Ask: ping pong ball or other small object that is less dense than water Do you feel a push against you when you try to submerge the ping pong ball? Students should feel a push against the pencil. If they container of water or large graduated cylinder do not have the pencil in the right position the ping pong ball will escape and pop to the top of the water. pencil What is in the inside of a ping pong ball? Air. What happens if you let go of the ping pong ball under water? It shoots to the top. Since a force is called a push or a pull, would you say the action Explanation: of the ping pong ball as it rises is due to a force? Yes, because the Container A contained fresh water. The ping pong ball is pushed to the water’s surface. downward force of weight of the egg was greater than the upward force of 16. This force that pushes up is called buoyancy. buoyancy of the water, so the egg sank. In container B, the salt increased the 17. Now let’s apply what we have learned about this upward force in water to buoyant force of the water so much that our egg experiment. the weight of the egg was supported by the liquid. Container C was filled with 18. Explain to the students what happened in the egg experiment. both salt and fresh water. The weight of the egg was too great for the buoyant 19. Have students complete filling in their scientific notebook explaining their force of the fresh water in the top half of own conclusions briefly while filling in the chart. the container. When the egg sank to the middle of the container, it reached the 20. Complete this lesson by asking students to explain what they think would salt water layer and stopped sinking. happen to their own buoyancy if they tried to float in a fresh water lake as The buoyant force of the salt water was compared to a highly dense salt water lake. great enough to support the weight of the egg. 21. Also allow the students to explore if a ship loaded with cargo should be more worried going from the open sea into a fresh water port or when they are going from a fresh water port and to the open seas. Students need to use what they have learned to explain their answers. Students need to understand that a loaded cargo ship should be more concerned coming into a fresh water port because fresh water is less buoyant than salt water ©2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 16 of 53
  17. 17. 4th Grade Science Unit: 02 Lesson: 01 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher and it could run aground easier. EXPLORE/EXPLAIN Suggested time: Day 10 Buoyancy 1. To further explain buoyancy, we are going to explore using clay and the sport of boating. Ask: MATERIALS: Has anyone ever gone boating? Answers will vary. Handout: Ships Ahoy!! (1 per What does a boat look like? Answers will vary. Lead students to student or group) include that all boats have a hull. Handout: Ships Ahoy!! KEY (1 per Are boats all the same size? No some boats are very large. They are teacher) even referred to as ships. container of water What do people use boats for? Boats are used for a variety of clay reasons. Some people use boats for recreation. Sometimes boats are uniform weights like washers used to transport cars and people over bodies of water. Ships also are important because they can hold lots of material that countries trade with one another. Ships have also been used throughout history in war battles. Students may have had different How do boats stay afloat, especially big ships? That is what we are experiences with boats or ships. They going to explore today. Boats and ships stay afloat because they are might enjoy discussing these questions designed to use the buoyant force of water or seawater to keep them in small groups and reporting to the afloat. Ship builders make many calculations to build ships that can groups as a whole. hold lots of mass and still float! Activity: Ships Ahoy!! 2. In this activity, you will be exploring what makes a boat float. Your challenge is to engineer a clay boat that can hold the most cargo. 3. After the activity, ask the following questions: Which boat design held the most cargo? Answers will vary. What makes boats float? The ball of clay sank, so the shape of the boat determines if it will float. Does shape matter? Yes, the buoyant force has to have a surface upon which to push. If a force is defined as a push or a pull, what makes buoyancy a force? It is the upward push exerted by water (salt water or liquid) onto the object. This is a review of yesterday’s topic. Are density and buoyancy related? Yes, density of a material is determined by the object’s mass and volume. Buoyancy is related to density and the boat’s bottom surface (volume) affects if it floats or not. . ELABORATE Suggested time: Day 11 1. Scuba diving is a popular sport that relies on understanding buoyancy and weight. The weight of an object pulls it down toward the Earth, but if the object is placed in a liquid, a force called buoyancy acts in the opposite direction. The buoyant force is equal to the weight of liquid that the object MATERIALS: displaces, or pushes aside. Handout: Deep Sea Diver Ask: Word Bank (1 per student) When you relax in a pool, do you tend to float? Normally, humans Handout: Deep Sea Diver (1 per will feel buoyancy when they relax in a pool. Relaxing on your back student) and floating is one of the first things life guards teach you when you Handout: Deep Sea Diver KEY (1 are learning to swim. Some people who have lots of muscle mass may per teacher) not be as buoyant as others because their body is denser. Muscle Handout: Images of Deep Sea tissue is denser than fat (adipose tissue). Divers (ELL) (1 per student as ©2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 17 of 53