4th u3 l1_weathering_erosion

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4th u3 l1_weathering_erosion

  1. 1. Fourth Grade Science Unit 04 Lesson: 01 Suggested Duration: 11 days Weathering and Erosion © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 1 of 59 Lesson Synopsis: In this lesson students will explore events that change the surface of the Earth. TEKS: 4.5 The student knows that complex systems may not work if some parts are removed. 4.5A Identify and describe the roles of some organisms in living systems such as plants in a schoolyard and parts in nonliving systems such as a light bulb in a circuit. 4.10 The student knows that certain past events affect present and future events. 4.10A Identify and observe effects of events that require time for changes to be noticeable including growth, erosion, dissolving, weathering, and flow. 4.11 The student knows that the natural world includes Earth materials and objects in the sky. 4.11B Summarize the effects of oceans on land. Process TEKS: 4.1 The student conducts field and laboratory investigations following home and school safety procedures and environmentally appropriate and ethical practices 4.1A Demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations. 4.1B Make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials. 4.2 The student uses scientific inquiry methods during field and laboratory investigations. 4.2B Collect information by observing and measuring. 4.2C Analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct and indirect evidence; 4.2D Communicate valid conclusions. 4.3 The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. 4.3C Represent the natural world using models and identify their limitations, 4.4 The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. 4.4A Collect and analyze information using tools including calculators, safety goggles, microscopes, cameras, sound recorders, computers, hand lenses, rulers, thermometers, meter sticks, timing devices, balances, and compasses; GETTING READY FOR INSTRUCTION Performance Indicator(s):  Students will identify, describe and summarize events that shape the Earth in a narrative story about the journey sediment takes on Earth. (4.10A, 4.11B) ELPS: 1C, 1E, 2E, 2I, 3D, 3J, 4E, 5B, 5F, 5G KEY Understandings and Guiding Questions:  Weathering can be caused by agents such as water, wind, temperature, and even plants. Weathering is the gradual process of breaking rocks down into smaller pieces called sediment. — How has weathering affected our world? — Can weathering be considered constructive as well as destructive?  Erosion is a process that slowly changes the Earth’s surface over time. — What natural agents contribute to erosion? — Can erosion be considered constructive as well as destructive?
  2. 2. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 2 of 59 Vocabulary of Instruction:  weathering  erosion  gravity  mechanical weathering  ice wedging  chemical weathering  root pry  abrasion  dissolving  deposition  shoreline  tides  constructive  destructive Materials:  unfix or pop cubes  paper  ramen noodles  graduated cylinders  clear cups  vinegar  medicine droppers/ pipettes  goggles  small container with lid (portion cup, film canister, take out cup)  lid to seal above cup  chalk  baggies that seal  nails  gobstopper candy  sandpaper  dice  paper plates  wood blocks  large metal pan or container  sponges  water bucket  water  pencil  sand  clay  pea gravel  rocks  cups or watering can  hair dryer or small fan  small container for glacier  freezer  ketchup in a squeeze bottle  pie tin  oven or toaster oven or hot plate  box of sugar cubes  pitcher  wooden spoon  warm water  microwave (opt)  small container  map of Texas  sedimentary rock samples  hand lens  clear container for ocean model  catch basin or sink Appropriate materials may be substituted as needed to incorporate district resources and availability. Resources:  Before and after Hurricane Katrina pictures for Engage Activity can be found at: http://www.pbase.com/nomofilm1/hurricane_katrina_before_and_after  USGS Images of Hurricane Katrina before and after: http://landsat.usgs.gov/gallery/detail/412/  Flooding of Missouri River before and after: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a000900/a000929/index.html  Mt. St. Helens before and after eruption: http://www.olywa.net/radu/valerie/StHelens.html  Before and after pictures of Kansas tornado: http://blogs.guardian.co.uk/technology/archives/2007/05/10/google_does_before_and_after_shots_of_kansas_to rnado.html  Tsunami 2004 before and after: http://landsat.usgs.gov/gallery/detail/405/  Wildfire: http://landsat.usgs.gov/gallery/detail/433/  Mississippi River Delta showing three decades of change: http://landsat.usgs.gov/gallery/detail/389/  Dallas Fort Worth Expansion: http://landsat.usgs.gov/gallery/detail/379/  Palo Duro Canyon information for Elaborate available at: http://www.destination360.com/north- america/us/texas/palo-duro-canyon-state-park.php and also at http://www.americansouthwest.net/texas/palo- duro-canyon/state-park.html .  Images of South Padre Island after Hurricane Rita for the Ocean Explore/Explain can be found at http://www.spionline.com/albumpics/rita_tide0905/  http://home.hiwaay.net/~krcool/Astro/moon/moontides/ is a great site to explore to show the interactions of Earth/moon/tides for the Ocean Explore/Explain.  http://web2.airmail.net/danb1/annualrainfall.htm and http://www- das.uwyo.edu/~geerts/cwx/notes/chap17/rain_usa.html show annual precipitation data and graphics to enhance the discussion of oceans affects on land.  Optional Reading Sources:  Book: Rivers and Oceans by Barbara Taylor
  3. 3. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 3 of 59  Book: Iceberg and Glaciers by Seymour Simon  Book: Oceans by Seymour Simon Advance Preparation: 1. Make copies of the following handouts:  Mississippi River Delta (1 per student or group)  Urban Expansion – DFW (1 per student or group)  Black Hills Fire (1 per student or group)  A Sample sheet manipulative (as needed)  Destructive Frayer Model (1 per student)  Constructive Frayer Model (1 per student)  A Sandy Journey Instructions (1 per teacher)  A Sandy Journey Cards (1 per lab)  A Sandy Journey Record (1 per student)  Mud Pie Demo (Teacher Only) (1 per teacher)  Mud Pie Pictures Only (optional)  Breaking Down Stations (1 per lab)  Breaking Down Stations KEY (1 per teacher)  Breaking Down Stations Cards (1 per student or group)  Breaking Down Stations Venn Diagram KEY (1 per teacher)  Breaking Down Stations Venn Diagram (1 per student or group)  Weathering Description Notes (1 per student or group)  Breaking Down Stations Matching (1 per student)  Breaking Down Stations Matching KEY (1 per teacher)  Frayer Model (optional)  Sediment on the Move KEY (1 per teacher)  Sediment on the Move (1 per student or group)  The Ocean’s Motion Observation Sheet (1 per student)  Canyon Demo Teacher Only (1 per teacher)  Optional Evaluation Pictures and Terms (1 per student)  Evaluation Example (1 per student)  Rubric for Evaluation Creative Story (1 per student) 2. Create identical Unfix cube structures for each group during the Engage. 3. Print and laminate (optional) handout: A Sandy Journey Cards. 4. Cut apart handout: “A Sandy Journey” cards. 5. For Explore, place handout: “A Sandy Journey” station cards around the room. Place a die at each station. 6. Reserve oven for use with handout: Mud Pie Demo Teacher Only 7. Fill small container with water and place in freezer to make glacier for Erosion Explore/Explain. 8. Prepare ocean shoreline container model for Explore/Explain. Background Information: The Earth is in a constant state of change. Some of these changes occur quickly, and other changes occur over centuries. When rocks are broken down, soil is formed. The formation of soil is very important because, eventually, from soil will come life. Sometimes on Earth, events such as wildfires are misunderstood because they seem so destructive; however, wildfires serve a purpose. They thin out trees and allow reforestation to occur. Yes, wildfires are destructive, but in the end they lead to a constructive time on Earth because rivers wash sediments away and later deposit those sediments on our shorelines. Over millions of years, weathering has changed the Earth’s surface. Weathering is the process that breaks rocks into smaller and smaller pieces such as sand, silt, and clay. Two types of weathering exist: mechanical and chemical. Both types of weathering work together to reshape the Earth. Mechanical weathering is evident when rocks are broken down by physical processes like abrasion, animal action, plant action, or ice wedging. Chemical weathering occurs when minerals in a rock are dissolved or changed into a new mineral. Chemical weathering can take the mineral feldspar (found in the igneous rock granite) and turn it into clay. Limestone fizzes and changes when acid rain (carbon dioxide + rain = carbonic acid or acid rain) hits its surface. Majestic caves occur all over the Earth as a result of this process. Rusting is another example of weathering.
  4. 4. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 4 of 59 Erosion is the natural process by which sediment is moved from the place it was formed. Erosion is the result of many agents: wind, water, glaciers, animals, lava, and humans. Some types of erosion occur faster than others. During a flood, more sediment is moved by a river than when it is flowing normally. The oceans are an important agent of erosion. Oceans move tons of sediment to the beach during the summer seasons and drag the sediments back out onto sandbars during the more active winter months. Oceans also influence weather. Hurricanes, powerful erosion agents, occur over warm tropical ocean water and, when they move inland, can cause extreme damage. Thunderstorms occur often around oceans. In addition to weather, the moon and the Earth have a very unique relationship with the ocean. The moon tries to pull everything on the Earth toward it! Well, the Earth is larger than the moon and is able to “hold onto” most Earth materials with the exception of the water on Earth. The moon is able to pull the waters of Earth (it's oceans) toward it. This causes the sea level to rise and fall, creating tides. Tides can carry ocean animals and seaweed onto the shore. Often you can see where the tide has been by the debris it leaves behind. That is because tides occur in cycles. During the day, the beach will experience high and low tides. High tides crash further onto the beach. Low tides recede into the ocean and do not push as far onto the shore. Each day two high tides and two low tides occur. About 12 hours separate the two high tides. GETTING READY FOR INSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL PLANNING DOCUMENT Instructors are encouraged to supplement, and substitute resources, materials, and activities to differentiate instruction to address the needs of learners. The Exemplar Lessons are one approach to teaching and reaching the Performance Indicators and Specificity in the Instructional Focus Document for this unit. A Microsoft Word template for this planning document is located at www.cscope.us/sup_plan_temp.doc. If a supplement is created electronically, users are encouraged to upload the document to their Lesson Plans as a Lesson Plan Resource in your district Curriculum Developer site for future reference. INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher ENGAGE Suggested Time: Day 1 1. Everyone experiences changes. Many of you have changed so much since last year! Just think – we grow, we change. Ask:  Are we the only things that change? No! Just look at my classroom. Last year it looked different. Sometimes changes occur quickly, and sometimes changes occur slowly. Ask:  Can you think of anything that has changed?  Has the Earth always looked like it does today?  What causes the Earth to change?  Are changes on the Earth fast or slow? 2. Encourage students to relate ways the Earth is changing. Some changes occur very slowly like the formation of the Grand Canyon. Other changes to the Earth can occur very quickly like the changing of Mt. St. Helens after the eruption on May 18, 1980. Ask:  Can you name some events on the Earth that changed the Earth quickly? Accept any event that caused the Earth to change quickly. For example: volcanic eruptions, flooding, hurricanes, tornadoes, and human expansion - construction and deforestation.  Can you name some factors that change the Earth slowly? Accept gravity, wind, water, plants, oceans, humans. Note: To inspire your students you might use the many websites that contain “before” and “after” pictures of the Earth during past events like Hurricane Katrina, Mt. St. Helens, flooding. Many sites have already been found for your lesson and are located in the “resource” section of the lesson. MATERIALS:  Handout: Mississippi River Delta (1 per student or group)  Handout: Urban Expansion – DFW (1 per student or group)  Handout: Black Hills Fire (1 per student or group)  Handout: A Sample sheet manipulative (as needed) Use of a sheet manipulative would be a
  5. 5. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 5 of 59 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher 3. Have students explore images of fast and slow Earth changes. Many internet sites that give images of before and after Earth events are listed in the resource section. Have students compare a slow changing Earth event to a faster changing Earth event in their interactive notebooks. 4. Say: Some changes on the Earth are due to the Earth breaking down and some changes are caused by the deposition of sediment (Earth building up). Mountains may break down and send their sediment into a nearby river, and that river carries some of that sediment all the way to the ocean and drops it along the shore. The events are a system and the breaking down is related to the building up. Today we want to look at two words. One you have heard before and one you may not recognize. Let’s start with the new word – destructive. Ask:  What do you think destructive means? Accept all answers  Has a little brother or sister ever been destructive to your toys? Accept all answers 5. Say: I am going to give you some structures. I want you to carefully take them apart when I ask you to. 6. Distribute Unifix cube structures. 7. Have the students observe their cubes. Ask:  What words can you use to describe your structures? Accept all answers 8. Have the students carefully take their structure apart. 9. Tell the students to observe the torn apart structure. Ask:  How would you describe your structure now? in pieces, torn apart, etc. 10. Say: When you broke apart your structure, you were a destructive force. Destructive forces break objects into smaller objects or pieces. 11. Say:  Let’s do a Frayer Model on our new word – destructive. In your notebook, make your Frayer 4 windowed box. Place the word nice way to compare the before with the after. An example has been supplied for you in the handout: Before and After sheet manipulative. The sample shows how students can create their own images after research. Sheet manipulatives can also be created from the images of the Mississippi River Delta, Urbanization- DFW, or the Black Hills that have been supplied for you. Science Notebook: Weather information is still being monitored by the class. (unit 1) Generally, several hurricanes have occurred across the globe by the end of each summer; knowledge of their strength and the change that they make on the Earth would strengthen this discussion. MATERIALS:  unifix or pop cube structures for each group. **Structures need to be alike for each group – same shape, same number of cubes, etc.  Handout: Destructive Frayer Models (1 per student)  Handout: Constructive Frayer Model (1 per student)  sample cube structure Examples of the Constructive and Destructive Frayer Models are available in the handouts. English Language Learners or special needs students may
  6. 6. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 6 of 59 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher destructive in the center.  Write your own definition of what “destructive” means in the upper left corner. (Accept breaks down, tears apart, etc)  In the upper right corner record some characteristics. takes energy, smaller pieces, not whole, etc.  In the bottom left corner give some examples. broken toys, rip apart fruit roll ups, tear paper, crumble crackers, etc.  In the bottom right corner give some NON examples. put together models, build toy forts, make cookies, etc. 12. A “class” Frayer Model for destructive can be placed on the word wall. 13. Say: Look back at your Unifix cubes. I want us to explore another word – constructive. Ask:  What do you think constructive means? (Accept all answers) 14. Lead students to understand that constructive means to build. Ask:  How do you think we can demonstrate “constructive” with our cubes? (Put the cubes back together) 15. Tell the students to take their cubes and construct another structure. Tell them that their structure must use all the cubes but not be in the same form as the original structure. Ask:  How is your structure different from the original structure? different shape maybe even a different purpose  How is your structure similar? It is made of the same materials but in a different form  What do you notice about each group’s structure? They are all composed of similar things but look different. 16. Say: Using your “destructive” Frayer Model as a guide, create another Frayer Model for the word – constructive. 17. Add the class example of Frayer Model to the word wall. Ask:  How are some of the events we have looked at today both destructive and constructive? (Mississippi River weathers sediment and moves it down stream, where it builds up new land in the delta area; wildfires destroy lots of plants, but allow new plants to grow in their places; hurricanes may break down beaches and buildings, but when sediment from the beaches is dropped it becomes a part of the soil or rock in the new place plus humans rebuild buildings need this graphic to help them organize their thoughts. Remember, nonlinguistic representations (pictures) are encouraged! Science Notebook: Students can draw the Frayer Models directly into their interactive notebooks. A word wall will help make connections for English Language Learners. Keep it up all during the unit and refer to it often throughout the unit! Science Notebook: Students can draw the Frayer Models directly into their interactive notebooks. EXPLORE Suggested time: Day 2 1. A great way to start the day would be to allow the students to write about their own experiences with events that change the Earth. Notebook Prompt:  Have you (or someone in your family) been affected by an Earth event that changed the Earth’s surface? Tornado, hurricane, fire? Write and illustrate your experience in your interactive notebooks. In Unit 1, students may have explored impactful weather events. This is a great time to recall what they discovered. Science Notebook:
  7. 7. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 7 of 59 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher 2. Say:  Yesterday, we talked about how events can change the Earth’s surface. Some events require lots of time for change (building of the Mississippi River Delta) while other events occur quickly (fires).  Today we are going to take a journey as a particle of sand. During the journey you may travel great distances. Keep a record of your journey and be prepared to discus your “sandy journey." 3. Refer to the handout: A Sandy Journey Instructions. 4. After the activity, ask:  Where did you spend the most time? (Answers will vary.)  Did you get trapped anywhere? (Answers will vary…ocean, soil, and glaciers are a good trapping place.)  Why do you think some stations were harder to escape from than others? (Some areas like glaciers and oceans keep the sediment locked up until major Earth events set the sediment free.)  Which station allowed you to move the easiest? Why? (The wind and the animal because the sediment may become too heavy for the wind to keep it aloft and the animal may shake it off very quickly.) 5. Although we all had a similar experience, each journey was unique. The journey of sediment across the Earth is a system. Keep this journey in mind as we explore events that change the Earth’s surface over the next few days! This creative writing may take 15 minutes or more if you have the time to spend on this activity. It can be started today and finished later. MATERIALS:  station Cards  dice  Handout: A Sandy Journey Instructions (1 per teacher)  Handout: A Sandy Journey Cards (1 per lab)  Handout: A Sandy Journey Record. (1 per student) Handout: A Sandy Journey instructions will tell you how to set up the activity. During the lab, if students begin to back up at one station – don’t worry. Students should begin to pile up in the ocean, in the rock, and in glaciers. If you see them piled up – stop the lab for just a moment. Have kids look around and see that lots of sediment is “trapped” in these places and ask if they can think of why. It is a nice teachable moment. EXPLORE/EXPLAIN Suggested time: Days 3 and 4 1. Say: Yesterday, we explored the journey that sediment may take on Earth. Today we are going to explore further specific events that affect sediment. Ask:  Where does sediment come from? (Sediment comes from the break down of rocks on the Earth’s surface. This process is known as weathering.)  Can water break up rocks? (Water can move rocks against each other causing them to crumble.)  What color do we normally associate with rivers? (Many times, as MATERIALS:  paper plates  ramen noodles  chalk  gobstoppers  vinegar  medicine droppers/ pippettes
  8. 8. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 8 of 59 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher children, we color them to be blue, but actually most rivers have brown tints to them because they are carrying lots of sediment as they flow.)  What events have we discussed that would involve the breakdown of rocks? (Violent eruptions such as Mt. St. Helens, the churning action of bodies of water can break down rocks.) 2. Ask:  Remember the soil station? One of the options for sediment at the soil station was to become incorporated into a rock. Sedimentary rocks are made of sediment that have been pressed together (compressed) or cemented together by natural cements. Sedimentary rocks are often layers of sediments stacked on top of one another. 3. Tell the class that today they are going to explore how different forces affect sedimentary rocks. 4. Explain that when we break down rocks the process is known as weathering. There are two types of weathering: mechanical and chemical. Mechanical weathering occurs when rock is broken apart but not changed chemically. Chemical weathering occurs when a rock undergoes a change and is no longer the same. 5. Show the class some examples of sedimentary rocks. Make sure you show examples of limestone, sandstone, etc. 6. Tell the class that in lab today, they will be using ramen noodles, chalk, and gobstoppers to represent sedimentary rocks. Ask:  How are ramen noodles like a rock? (They have noodles which are compacted together to make a brick or rock.) 7. Say: Gobstoppers are like sedimentary rocks as well. After the lab you should be able to tell me how they are like sedimentary rocks. 8. Tell the students that they are also going to be using vinegar in the lab today. A KEY ingredient in vinegar is acetic acid. Vinegar is going to represent “acid rain.” Acid rain occurs when carbon dioxide from the air mixes with water in the rain. This changes the rain into an acid rain. Pollution combined with rain can also cause acid rain. 9. Safety should be addressed. Students should wear goggles and should use the chemical as directed by the lab. If a spill occurs, the student should inform the teacher. Ask:  What safety precautions do we need to take during lab today? Wear goggles, do only what the lab asks us to do, report spills  Where does acid rain come from? Carbon dioxide and rain  Does pollution affect the acidity of rain? Pollution can also cause acid rain. 10. Explain to the students that they will be in rotation lab stations. 11. Before they begin Breaking Down Stations rotation lab, start or share pictures of the Mud Pie Demo with the class. You can actually do this activity or you can use the images in this lesson to tell the “mud pie” story. Use the handouts: Mud Pie Demo (Teacher Only) and/or Mud Pie  clear cups  goggles  small containers with lids (can be film canisters, portion cups, or even take out cups – as long as each has a lid)  graduated cylinder  baggie that seals  nails  sandpaper  sedimentary rock samples Note: Want to make your Ramen noodles go further? Break them up! Smaller pieces work better and the noodles break apart easily! Need to substitute? No problem. If you don’t have ramen noodles or you want to do the experiments on a smaller scale use a Chex cereal, Triscuits, or a type of shredded wheat. As long as it breaks apart under pressure it can be used. No chalk? You can actually use egg shells or small pieces of limestone if you have it to spare. English Language Learners (ELL): Realia, “real items,” help English Language Learners make connections! The samples that you choose to use are at your discretion. Limestone is encouraged because chalk in the lab represents limestone. Sedimentary rocks with fossils are another great example, but they are not required, only suggested. Safety note: Wear goggles when handling and chemical such as vinegar. Inform the teacher if a spill occurs. MATERIALS:  Handout: Mud Pie Demo (Teacher Only) (1 per teacher)  Handout: Mud Pie Pictures Only (as needed)  clay
  9. 9. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 9 of 59 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher Pictures Only. Ask:  What does the oven represent? (the Sun and a change in temperature)  Does heating a rock cause it to break down? (Yes, the heating of the mud pie caused it to crack and become brittle) 12. Say:  Labs are set up in rotation stations. Each group should read the directions at each station and ask questions for clarification BEFORE they begin.  When I indicate it is time to start the lab go to your assigned lab station.  When I indicate time is up for that station, rotate to the next lab station.  Make sure you clean up each station before you leave it. 13. After the lab, have the students orally report their findings from each station. Use the handout: Breaking Down Stations KEY to guide you with their responses. Ask:  How were the gobstoppers like a sedimentary rock? They have layers like sedimentary rocks have layers. They are a good model for layering but not a good model to show compaction of sediments or cementation 14. (Optional if you used pictures you will NOT need to do this step) After several minutes or hours – according to how thick your “mud pie” was, return to the Mud Pie Demo. Take the “pie” out of the oven and compare the mud pie to the original mixture of clay and water. 15. Lead students to categorize each station by referring to the two main types of weathering: mechanical and chemical. 16. Have students take the station cards and create a Venn diagram in their interactive notebooks to organize whether the station was an example of mechanical weathering, chemical weathering, or both. 17. After the students have sorted their station cards on the Venn diagram, check for understanding. Correct any wrong predictions. Then have the students place their Venn diagrams into their interactive notebooks. 18. After students have explored the weathering stations, review descriptions of common weathering processes with them through notes. Some notes on weathering descriptions can be found on handout: Weathering Description Notes. 19. Have the students determine which station represented the types of weathering in the handout: Breaking Down Stations Matching.  water  oven or hot plate  pie tin **Smaller, thinner mud pies take LESS time. If your mud pie is not cracking, put a little pressure on the pan and it will crack easily. Assign members and starting stations for each group. Groups may need help rotating the first few times. Science Notebook: Handouts don’t have to be copied. Students can record their answers and Venn Diagram in their interactive notebooks. MATERIALS:  Handout: Breaking Down Stations  Handout: Breaking Down Stations KEY  Handout: Breaking Down Stations Cards  Handout: Breaking Down Stations Venn Diagram KEY  Handout: Breaking Down Stations Venn Diagram  Handout: Weathering Description Notes  Handout: Breaking Down Stations Matching  Handout: Breaking Down Stations Matching KEY Handout: Frayer Model Copying the handout is optional…the framework of the model is easy to
  10. 10. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 10 of 59 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher 20. After the debriefing allow students to use the Frayer Model to define the following terms in their interactive notebook: weathering, mechanical weathering, and chemical weathering. Ask:  How are gobstoppers like sedimentary rocks? They have layers.  Is weathering an important process on Earth? Yes, weathering breaks down substances which can be reused or reformed into something else – rocks break down into sediment, sediment becomes an important part of the soil  Is weathering constructive or destructive? Answers will vary, most students will identify weathering as a destructive force on the Earth’s surface reproduce. ELL: Use of Frayer Models to explore new vocabulary can increase mastery by English Language Learners! Use examples of the students work to create a word wall (an area of the classroom that reflects current vocabulary). Freeze “glacier” for tomorrow’s lab. EXPLORE/EXPLAIN Suggested time: Days 5 and 6 1. Say: Yesterday, we explored the process of how rocks break down. Ask::  What is this process called? (weathering)  What are the types of weathering? (mechanical and chemical) weathering  Who can give me an example of mechanical weathering? (Answers will vary)  Who can give me an example of chemical weathering? (Answers will vary.) 2. Refer back to the Frayer Models created at the end of class yesterday to review individual student ideas about weathering. 3. Weathering is just part of the story. Ask:  Remember the activity, “A Sandy Journey?”  Who can tell me what happened to the sediment? (Different things (gravity, wind, water) moved the sediment from place to place). 4. Tell the students that today they are going to explore the process of erosion. Explain that erosion is the movement of sediment from one place to another. Sometimes erosion happens slowly and sometimes it happens quickly. 5. Using the lab handout: Sediment on the Move demonstrate for your class four common agents of erosion. 6. During each “flow” in the demonstration, explain how the agent of erosion causes the sediment to move. 7. Allow the students to fill out the questions in their student version. Students can also record their observations in their interactive notebooks. MATERIALS:  Handout: Sediment on the Move KEY (1 per teacher)  Handout: Sediment on the Move (1 per student)  wood blocks or textbooks to elevate steam table  large metal pan or tray or waterproof container  sponges  goggles  sand  pea gravel  rocks  water  water bucket  cups or watering can  pencil to punch holes in cups  hair dryer or small fan  small pan for glacier mold  freezer  ketchup in a squeeze bottle Many materials can be switched out in this activity. If you have something else that will work just as well – use it. Be flexible. One day prior to the activity, take the smaller container and fill it ¾ full of water. Place it in the freezer overnight. This will create your glacier for flow # 4. The activity “Sediment on the Move” is set up as a demonstration. You may
  11. 11. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 11 of 59 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher 8. After the demonstration, allow the students to complete a Frayer Model of the word “erosion." Ask:  Is erosion an important event on Earth? (Yes, because it moves sediment from one place to another)  How can erosion be destructive? (If sediment is removed from an area like an agricultural field, it can make the farmer’s job very difficult. Farmers needed soil to grow crops.)  Can erosion be constructive? (Yes, by moving sediment to another area it can build up land where it has not been previously. New lava flows make the Hawaiian Islands grow larger all the time! Also, the area around the Mississippi River where it flows into the ocean is growing all the time as well. When beaches erode, sand bars in the ocean grow. When sand bars in the ocean erode, beaches grow.) 9. Make sure that the students understand that weathering and erosion are a very important part of the system of events that shape the Earth’s surface. choose to let the students create their own stream tables if you have more time. Student volunteers are used in this demonstration. Using student volunteers can be an effective way to bridge this activity from being totally teacher driven to a mixture of participation involving both the teacher and student. Frayer Model can be placed in their notebooks or on the word wall! EXPLORE/EXPLAIN Suggested time: Days 7 and 8 1. Say: We have talked about weathering and erosion – now I want us to explore a system that is very active in weathering and erosion that we mentioned yesterday: Ask:  How many of you have ever been to the beaches or coastal shorelines of Texas? (Answers will vary) 2. Explain to the class that they are going to create a mental image in their heads about what a beach looks like, sounds like, and feels like. 3. Instruct them to close their eyes and begin creating their mental image. Encourage them to use their prior knowledge and personal experience, what they have read in a book, a photo they have seen, and/or recall images they have seen on television. 4. After a couple of minutes, allow students to share what they could see, hear, and feel at the beach. Write their responses on the board or overhead. If students do not offer many responses, please include them yourself: see – sand; waves, rocks; hear – crashing waves, moving water; or feel – breeze, wind, then include these responses. Ask::  What are some of the names of the towns on the coast of Texas? (South Padre Island, Galveston, etc) A map of Texas needs to be included to show where these popular Texas locations can be found. Maps of Texas and coastal areas have traditionally been on the TAKS assessment. Based upon past released questions, these areas will probably be on the test again. If you contract for united streaming, look up a video to show the students a short clip about the actions of the oceans. No video streaming? Check your local library.
  12. 12. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 12 of 59 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher  What famous types of weather have we been noticing in this area? (flooding, thunderstorms, and hurricanes)  Has anyone ever noticed the waves that hit the beach? (Answers will vary)  What kind of natural things can you find on the beach? (shells, seaweed, jellyfish, turtles, fish) 5. Lead students to discuss how the waves seem to crash onto the beach. They can carry ocean animals and seaweed onto the shore. Often you can see where the tide has been but it is not anymore. That is because tides occur in cycles. During the day, the beach will experience high and low tides. High tides crash farther onto the beach. Low tides recede more gently into the ocean and do not push as far onto the shore. Each day, two high tides and two low tides occur with about 12 hours between high tides. Ask:  Why does the ocean experience high and low tides? (Tides are caused by the attraction between the Earth and the moon.) 6. Show website for tide explanation. http://home.hiwaay.net/~krcool/Astro/moon/moontides/ 7. Explain that the moon tries to pull everything on the Earth toward it! Well, the Earth is larger than the moon and is able to “hold onto” most Earth materials with the exception of the water on Earth. The moon is able to pull the waters of Earth toward it. This causes the sea level to rise and fall as tides. 8. Explain that coastal regions are noted for their weather. Often afternoon thunderstorms occur at the beach. The ocean is a large body of water and with the heat of the day water evaporates from the ocean and forms clouds. As the clouds grow, thunderstorms often occur. 9. In addition to thunderstorms, hurricanes often travel into the Gulf of Mexico (Hurricane Rita) dumping lots of additional rain and exposing the shoreline to heavy winds. 10. Explain to the students that you are going to model the movement of waves on the shoreline. They need to pay close attention to the relationship between the ocean’s waves and the shoreline. 11. Discuss with the students what they observed by asking the following questions:  What happened when the waves hit the shoreline? (The waves began to weather and erode the shoreline)  Did the shoreline change in any way? (Yes, it broke down and slid into the ocean)  When the wave fell back and moved away from the shoreline, did it take anything with it? (Yes, it took the sediment from the shoreline)  What happens to the sediment it takes with it? (It settles at the bottom of the ocean) 12. Explain to the class that the process of dropping the sediment is called Weather is being monitored all year! It started in Unit 1. Oceans and Tides 5th grade will explore tides further. Your job is to introduce it and connect it back to the big picture, weathering and erosion. http://home.hiwaay.net/~krcool/Astro/mo on/moontides/ shows tidal information and has video segments as well as information. . MATERIALS:  large clear container  sand  water  wooden spoon  wood blocks  Handout: The Ocean’s Motion Observation Sheet (1 per student) Oceans affect on Weather http://web2.airmail.net/danb1/annualrain fall.htm shows how areas where moist coastal flow over the land receive more rainfall than other areas. http://www- das.uwyo.edu/~geerts/cwx/notes/chap1 7/rain_usa.html show annual precipitation rates for the USA. Coastal areas receive more precipitation. To make the model of the ocean shore:  Place the sand at one end of the CLEAR container so it covers about ½ of it. The sand should form a solid wall, so that there is not a slope.  Place 2 wood blocks under the sand side of the container. This
  13. 13. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 13 of 59 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher deposition. Sometimes the incoming wave carries sand particles that are dropped off and then slowly build beaches and dunes. 13. They should have noticed that the sand wall started to break down and erode due to the movement of the waves. Students should fill out the handout: The Ocean's Motion Observational Sheet. Allow students to ask questions and see if other students can help answer them. 14. Explain that summer waves are gentle and flow onto the coastal shore depositing sediment that forms the beaches we love to play on so much. But do you know that beaches can disappear overnight? Violent storms can drag beautiful beaches back into the ocean very quickly. Often storms and waves are more powerful during the winter months. This explains why many beaches become very small during the winter and grow during the summer. This is a dynamic system with many interacting parts – the water, the tides, the moon, the Earth, the weather, the winds, the waves, the sediment, etc. Vegetation like sea oats and grass helps to keep the sand in place. creates a slope and illustrates that the land is above sea level.  Slowly pour water into the other end of the container, until it is about 2 inches from spilling out.  Gently take the spoon and place it in the water. Move it back and forth in a regular rhythm to make waves. Do this for a couple of minutes.  Remove the spoon and allow the water to settle. Ask students to write down their observations and any questions they may have. Oceans and Weathering and Erosion http://www.spionline.com/albumpics/rita _tide0905/ shows many images of South Padre Island after Hurricane Rita ELABORATE Suggested time: Day 9 1. Ask:  What term do scientists use to indicate that a rock is being broken down into sediments? (weathering)  What term do scientists use to indicate that sediment is being moved from one place to another? (erosion)  Why do you often hear weathering paired with erosion? (The two events often happen at the same time. What weathers a rock can also have enough force to move the created sediments from one place to another.) Tell the students that today we are going to look at another famous feature of Texas: Palo Duro Canyon. Ask:  Based on what you have learned, how do you think Palo Duro Canyon was formed? Water carved out the canyon but answers will vary If students don’t have strong answers…lead them by letting them ask details about the canyon. For example students may ask:  Is there a lot of wind in this region? Yes, this region the Panhandle Plains is known for its extreme winds – but they do not blow all the time.  Is there a river near by? Yes, the Prairie Dog Town Fork of the Red River is located there.  Are there glaciers? Currently, there are no glaciers in the canyon.  What type or rock makes up the canyon? Shale, limestone, and clay make up the canyon, which are all sedimentary rocks just like we simulated in lab. 2. Let students predict what they believe carved out Palo Duro Canyon. A map of Texas needs to be included to show where this canyon is located. Many pictures of Palo Duro Canyon can be found at the websites sited in the resource section! MATERIALS:  box of sugar cubes  warm water  nail  wood blocks to elevate one end of the box  basin or sink to catch waste water  pitcher  Handout: Canyon Demo Teacher Only
  14. 14. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 14 of 59 Instructional Procedures Notes for Teacher Record their prediction on the board. Then show them the sugar cube demonstration found in the handout: Canyon Demo Teacher Only. 3. Have students write in their interactive notebooks how the model of the canyon was an example of weathering and erosion. EVALUATE Suggested time: Days 10 and 11 1. Remind the students that over the last few days they have worked with constructive and destructive forces on the Earth. Ask:  Can anyone remind me what weathering is? (Weathering is the break down of rocks)  Can anyone remind me what erosion is? (The moving of sediment from one place to another)  What is a way rocks can weather mechanically? (Answers will vary but may include grinding, ice wedging, heat and temperature, etc.)  What is a way rocks can weather chemically? (Acid rain and dissolving)  What are some of the agents of erosion? (Answers will vary but may include wind, water, glaciers, gravity) 2. Ask:  Remember our sandy journey? We have learned so much about weathering and erosion since then. Today, you are going to show me how much you understand about these processes. 3. Say: Using your handout: A Sandy Journey Record, I want you to write a sediment story. Your job is to write about your sediment’s journey using the information you have learned in this unit. A set of KEY words and pictures need to be cut apart and incorporated into your story when appropriate. Not all pictures and terms will be used. It all depends on your journey. Remember the information on the word wall can help you. Refer to your rubric to keep you on track. I encourage you strongly to use as many of the pictures as you can and understand that you can add other graphics if you feel they are helpful. Your journey must be a series of paragraphs with cut out terms and pictures that tell the story of your journey. Once again, make sure you incorporate KEY ideas from the unit and the adventures and emotions your sediment experiences along his or her journey. Be creative! Every journey is different. 4. A sample set of pictures and terms has been provided for you in the handout: Optional Evaluation Pictures and Terms. Use it or make your own. 5. An example of an AVERAGE creative story has been provided for you in the handout: Evaluation Sample. 6. A rubric has already been created in the handout: Rubric for Evaluation Creative Story. Writing is an important life skill. It is very important in the 4th grade because in addition to the traditional TAKS assessments this year you also have a TAKS writing assessment. Some students with special needs may need to work in small groups to accomplish this goal. The use of pictures can also help the English Language Learner communicate their understanding. Allow the students to have the rubric FROM THE BEGINNING. It will help them stay on track. MATERIALS:  Handout: Optional Evaluation Pictures and Terms  Handout: Evaluation Sample  Handout: Rubric for Evaluation Creative Story Once the students have finished their stories they can share them with the class. Another idea is to create a creative writing corner where their work can be displayed.
  15. 15. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 15 of 59 A Sandy Journey Instructions Prior to Activity: 1. Cut apart “A Sandy Journey Cards." Each card contains an image on the left and six sentences on the right. 2. To set up Journey stations, place the cards around the room in various places Any area can work! 3. Place a die at each station. 4. Make a copy of “A Sandy Journey Record” for each group of students or for each student. Note: Students can easily create this record in their notebook and duplication of the handout would not be needed. 5. Place students into appropriate groups. Assign each group a place to start their journey. To introduce the activity: 1. In your groups, you will represent “sediment.” Introduce the vocabulary sediment by showing students sand, soil, or a crumbling rock. 2. Areas where you might find sediment are posted around the room: soil, lake, ocean, river, animals, glaciers, wind, and beach. 3. Each group should start their journey at their assigned area. 4. Once at the area, record the starting position (or station) on the record sheet. 5. Roll the die. 6. The roll of the die indicates the number sentence for the direction of your journey. In a complete sentence, record your action (or lack of action) on your record. Some sediment will become trapped at a station. If you are trapped, rotate to the back of the line and wait until your group can roll again. If the roll of the die indicates you move to another station, move to the next station. Make sure you record each event in your journey as sediment. Continue to roll and record until you move to another station or your teacher calls time. 7. Model a group’s action by going to a station, recording the original position, roll the die, locate the journey statement that corresponds to the number on the die, record the next stage in your journey on your record and move if appropriate. For example: If you were modeling at the station Wind, record wind as your current position, roll the die. If you roll a four, you record that the sediment moves into the ocean. At this point, you would move to the Ocean station (remember you have already recorded it when you found the journey statement for your last roll) and roll the die to see where your journey takes you next.
  16. 16. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 16 of 59 A Sandy Journey Cards ( pp. 1 of 3) Rock/Soil 1. Sediment stays trapped in the soil and becomes a sedimentary rock. 2. Sediment stays trapped in the soil and becomes a sedimentary rock. 3. Sediment stays trapped in the soil and becomes a sedimentary rock. 4. Flood! Rock is broken and sediment is swept away after a rainstorm into a nearby river. 5. Several rocks rub against one another. Rock is broken up and wind picks up the sediment and moves it into the air 6. Rock is broken under the foot of a bear, and sediment is trapped into the fur of a bear cub (animal). Rivers 1. Sediment stays in the flow of the river. 2. Sediment stays in the flow of the river. 3. Sediment flows into a lake. 4. Sediment is dropped along the banks of a river and becomes soil. 5. Sediment flows into Ocean. 6. Sediment flows into Ocean. Ocean 1. Sediment stays in the ocean. 2. Sediment stays in the ocean. 3. Sediment stays in the ocean. 4. Sediment is deposited onto the beach. 5. Sediment is deposited onto the beach. 6. Sediment is trapped in the fur of an animal.
  17. 17. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 17 of 59 A Sandy Journey Cards ( pp. 2 of 3) Beach 1. Sediment is pulled back into the ocean at high tide. 2. Sediment is pulled back into the ocean at high tide. 3. Sediment is pulled back into the ocean at high tide. 4. Sediment collects on a sea oat (plant) and stays on the beach. 5. Wind picks up the sediment and carries it away. 6. Wind picks up sediment and carries it away. Wind 1. Winds stay strong and sediment is kept aloft. 2. Winds die down and sediment falls onto the back of a bear. 3. Wind dies down and sediment is dropped into the soil. 4. Wind dies down and drops the sediment back into the ocean. 5. Wind dies down and drops the sediment back into the ocean. 6. Wind carries the sediment and drops it into a river. Animal 1. Sediment remains trapped on animal. 2. Sediment is dropped into the soil when the animal rests. 3. Sediment is dropped into the soil when the animal rests. 4. Sediment is dropped into a river as the animal crosses. 5. Sediment is dropped into the ocean as the animal swims. 6. Sediment is dropped into the ocean as the animal swims.
  18. 18. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 18 of 59 A Sandy Journey Cards ( pp. 3 of 3) Lake 1. Sediment stays in the lake. 2. Sediment stays in the lake. 3. Sediment is deposited on the shore to become soil. 4. Sediment leaves lake by flowing into a river. 5. Lake recedes and sediment is picked up by wind. 6. Lake floods and drops sediment into a field to become soil. Glacier 1. Sediment stays in the glacier. 2. Sediment stays in the glacier. 3. Sediment stays in the glacier. 4. Sediment stays in the glacier. 5. Sediment stays in the glacier. 6. Temperatures rise and sediment is swept away into the river.
  19. 19. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 19 of 59 A Sandy Journey Record Record your starting position. Record what happens and the next location. Remember you might not change locations every time – but you still MUST record your extended stay at that location as well as a change in station. Roll Location What happens? Stay, drop into river, picked up by wind, etc. 1st roll Beginning station: 2nd roll Next station: 3rd roll 4th roll 5th roll 6th roll 7th roll 8th roll 9th roll 10th roll 11th roll 12th roll 13th roll 14th roll 15th roll 16th roll 17th roll 18th roll 19th roll 20th roll
  20. 20. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 20 of 59 Mud Pie Demo (Teacher Only) Before the “Breaking Down Stations” Lab, demonstrate how heat and temperature affect weathering. Mix clay with water to make a mixture the consistency of pudding. Pour into a pie tin. Have students observe the “mud pie.” What does it look like? (runny, solid, brown, thick, smells earthy) What do you think will happen when we place it in a heated environment? (Dry out) Place mud pie in a preheated 500 degree oven. Allow it to “cook” while the students are working the rotation stations of “Breaking Down Stations.” Cooking the pie will take a while. Results can be shown later in the day or the next day. If no oven is available, cook it at home. Also, these pictures have been provided so you actually do not have to cook it at all – just share the photos! Ask: Can heat be an agent of erosion? (Yes, because it breaks down rocks) What is a source of heat on Earth? (The Sun) Changes in temperatures can cause rocks to expand and contract, leading to weathering.
  21. 21. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 21 of 59 Mud Pie Pictures Only
  22. 22. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 22 of 59 Breaking Down Stations (pp. 1 of 5) Station 1:  Take the ramen noodle “rocks” and rub them together over a paper plate.  What did you observe?  If the ramen noodles represent a sedimentary rock, what do the pieces on the plate represent?  Record your observations.  Clean up your area and reset your lab for the next group! Station 2:  Using a graduated cylinder, measure 30 ml of vinegar into the clear cup.  Carefully place the ramen noodle rocks into the cup.  Observe.  What happens to the ramen noodles over time?  If vinegar represents acid rain and the ramen noodles represent sedimentary rocks, what happens to sedimentary rocks over time when they are exposed to acid rain?  Clean up your area before you move on. Rinse the graduated cylinder and invert on a paper towel.  Take your cup with you to the next station.
  23. 23. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 23 of 59 Breaking Down Stations (pp. 2 of 5) Station 3:  Place your group’s name on your cup/lid system.  Completely fill plastic cup with water.  Put the lid on the cup.  Place the cup into a freezer and leave it overnight.  Observe the cup the next day.  What happened to the lid?  Water can seep into the spaces between rock sediments. If that water freezes, what can happen to the rock? This is known as ice wedging. Water in the pore spaces of rocks expands when it freezes causing the rock to crack and make sediments.  Note your observations in your notebook. Station 4:  Place a piece of chalk into a clear cup.  Using an eyedropper, add vinegar to the chalk in a constant stream. Make sure you are wearing your goggles.  Observe the surface of the chalk. A hand lens might help.  Observe the chalk over time.  Remember that vinegar represents acid rain. Chalk represents a common sedimentary rock called limestone.  What happened when you dropped the vinegar onto the chalk?  Did the vinegar look the same after it mixed with the chalk?  Clean up your area. Throw away your cups.
  24. 24. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 24 of 59 Breaking Down Stations (pp. 3 of 5) Station 5:  Place the ramen noodles into a baggie.  Seal the baggie.  Apply a smashing pressure to the outside of the bag.  What happened to the noodle rock?  Clean up the area and reset it for the next group.  Take your sealed baggie with you. Station 6:  Place a ramen noodle rock onto a paper plate.  Using a nail, carefully and slowly drill into the rock with the nail. The nail represents roots that grow down from plants and trees through rocks, so the drilling will be slow. These roots force their way into the rocks.  What happens to the “rock” after drilling with the nail?  Make sure to leave the nail at the station.  Dispose of your broken rocks.  Clean off the plate.  Reset the area for the next group!
  25. 25. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 25 of 59 Breaking Down Stations (pp. 4 of 5) Station 7:  Label a clear cup as water. Fill it only half full of water.  Label a second clear cup as vinegar. Fill this second cup only half full of vinegar.  Place a gobstopper into each cup.  Do not disturb the cups.  Make observations.  What happens to the gobstoppers?  The gobstoppers represent rocks; does the water build them up or break them down?  Did the vinegar react to the gobstopper in the same way as the water?  Did the reactions happen at the same rate?  Record your observations in your notebook.  Throw away cups and gobstoppers.  Clean up the area and reset it before moving to the next station. Station 8:  Place a piece of ramen noodle onto a paper plate.  Take a piece of coarse sandpaper and rub the ramen noodle rock.  What happens to the rock?  Record your findings and throw away results.  Clean the area and reset the station before moving to the next station.
  26. 26. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 26 of 59 Breaking Down Stations (pp. 5 of 5) Station 9:  Place a plate on the floor.  Take a ramen noodle, raise it chest high, and drop it onto the plate.  What happened to the noodle rock?  What force pulled the noodle rock down?  Throw away noodles after experiments and record findings in your notebook.  Clean the area and reset the station before moving to the next station. Station 10:  Take two ramen noodle rocks and grind them together over a paper plate.  Fill a clear cup half full of Vinegar.  Take the particles of noodle rock and mix them into the cup of vinegar. Mix by swirling the liquid/noodles in the cup.  What happened to the noodle rock after the grinding?  What happened to the noodle rock after exposure to vinegar?  Throw away noodles/cup/vinegar mixture. Record findings in your notebook.  Be sure to clean the station before moving to the next one. Breaking Down Stations Material Lists: Station 1 Paper Plate Ramen Noodles Station 2 Ramen Noodles Graduated Cylinder Vinegar Clear Cups Goggles Station 3 Small container Water Lid Freezer Station 4 Chalk Vinegar Clear Cup Dropper Hand Lens Station 5 Ramen Noodles Sealable Baggie Station 6 Ramen Noodles Paper Plates Nails Station 7 Clear Cups Water Vinegar Gobstoppers Station 8 Ramen Noodles Sandpaper Paper Plate Station 9 Paper plate Ramen Noodles Station 10 Ramen Noodles Paper Plates Clear Cup Vinegar Goggles
  27. 27. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 27 of 59 Breaking Down Stations KEY Station 1: What did you observe? The ramen noodles broke into smaller pieces If the ramen noodles represent a sedimentary rock, what do the pieces on the plate represent? sediment Station 2: What happens to the ramen noodles over time? The ramen noodle rocks seem to dissolve over time and put smaller noodle particles into the water. If vinegar represents acid rain and the ramen noodles represent sedimentary rocks, what happens to sedimentary rocks over time when exposed to acid rain? Sedimentary rocks will dissolve. Station 3: What happened to the lid? The lid popped off. Water can seep into the spaces between rock sediments. If that water freezes, what can happen to the rock? The rock can split and break down into sediments. Station 4: What happened when you dropped the vinegar onto the chalk? The chalk bubbled. Did the vinegar look the same after it mixed with the chalk? No, it looked milky. Station 5: What happened to the noodle rock? It broke into small pieces. Station 6: What happens to the “rock” after drilling with the nail? Holes appear and parts of the rock fall off. Station 7: What happens to the gobstoppers? Dissolve layer by layer If the gobstoppers represent rocks, does the water build them up or break them down? Breaks them down Did the vinegar react to the gobstopper in the same way as the water? Yes Did the reactions happen at the same rate? No Station 8: What happens to the rock? Small pieces of the “rock” broke off and fell onto the plate. Station 9: What happened to the noodle rock? Broke apart What force pulled the noodle rock down? Gravity Station 10: What happened to the noodle rock after the grinding? Broke into smaller pieces What happened to the noodle rock after exposure to vinegar? Changed into something else.
  28. 28. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 28 of 59 Breaking Down Stations Cards Station 1: Ramen Noodle Grind Station 6: Ramen and Nail Station 2: Ramen and water Station 7: Dissolving Station 3: Frozen Canister Station 8: Sandpaper Action Station 4: Chalk and Vinegar Station 9: Noodle Drop Station 5: Smashing Noodles Station 10: Noodle grind and soak
  29. 29. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 29 of 59 Breaking Down Stations Venn Diagram KEY MW = Mechanical Weathering CW = Chemical Weathering Station 1: Ramen Noodle Grind MW Station 6: Ramen and Nail MW Station 2: Ramen and Water CW Station 7: Dissolving CW Station 3: Frozen Canister MW Station 8: Sandpaper Action MW Station 4: Chalk and Vinegar CW Station 9: Noodle Drop MW Station 5: Smashing Noodles MW Station 10: Noodle Grind and Soak MW and CW
  30. 30. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 30 of 59 Weathering Description Notes Weathering Description Gravity is the force at the Earth’s surface that pulls objects down. When pieces of land fall in mudslides, landslides, or avalanches, rocks move against one another and break into smaller pieces. This grinding plus the impact at the end of the fall represents the weathering. Gravity helps weathering happen. Rocks can grind against one another. Rocks that are carried by water bump along and weather. River rocks generally have a very smooth surface due to this abrasion. Wind can also pick up sediment and scrape at the Earth’s surface just like sandpaper over a piece of wood. This is called abrasion. Sometimes animals can dig into the Earth breaking up rocks into sediment. Plant roots can be very powerful. As they grow, they can grow in the spaces in rocks and break them apart. Roots are not the only thing that can get into the small spaces in rocks. Water can also seep into these small spaces. When the water freezes, the expansion of the water as it turns to ice can break the rocks down. This is called ice wedging.
  31. 31. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 31 of 59 Weathering Description Notes Weathering Description Acid rain can break down a rock and wash it away. Many caverns contain spectacular stalactites and stalagmites that are the result of the acid rain/rock solution that is re-deposited over time. Some rocks dissolve in water. This process is known as dissolving.
  32. 32. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 32 of 59 Breaking Down Stations Matching The stations in this lab were models of weathering. In the table below you will find descriptions of actual weathering processes in the natural world. Match the station model with the correct weathering description. Not every description will have a match, and more than one station can be matched up to a description. Station Weathering Description Gravity is force at the Earth’s surface that pulls objects down. When pieces of land fall in mud slides, land slides, or avalanches, rocks move against one another and break into smaller pieces. Sediments are also created upon impact with the Earth. Rocks can grind against one another. Rocks that are carried by water bump along and weather. River rocks generally have a very smooth surface due to this abrasion. Wind can also pick up sediment and scrape at the Earth’s surface just like sandpaper over a piece of wood. This is called abrasion. Sometimes animals can dig into the Earth breaking up rocks into sediment.
  33. 33. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 33 of 59 Breaking Down Stations Matching Plant roots can be very powerful. As they grow they can grow even in the small spaces in rocks and break them apart. Roots are not the only thing that can get into the small spaces in rocks. Water can also seep into these small spaces. When the water freezes, the expansion of the water as it turns to ice can break the rocks down. This is called ice wedging. Acid rain can break down a rock and wash it away. Many caverns contain spectacular stalactites and stalagmites that are the result of the acid rain/rock solution that is re- deposited over time. Some rocks dissolve in water. This process is known as dissolving.
  34. 34. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 34 of 59 Breaking Down Stations Matching KEY Station Weathering Description Station 9 Noodle Drop Gravity is force at the Earth’s surface that pulls objects down. When pieces of land fall in mud slides, land slides, or avalanches, rocks move against one another and break into smaller pieces. Station 1 Ramen Noodle Grind Station 5 Smashing Noodles Station 8 Sandpaper Action Part of Station 10 Noodle Grind Rocks can grind against one another. Rocks that are carried by water bump along and weather. River rocks generally have a very smooth surface due to this abrasion. Wind can also pick up sediment and scrape at the Earth’s surface just like sandpaper over a piece of wood. This is called abrasion. Not represented Sometimes animals can dig into the Earth breaking up rocks into sediment. Station 6 Ramen Nail Plant roots can be very powerful. As they grow they can grow in small spaces in rocks and break them apart. Station 3 Frozen Canister Roots are not the only thing that can get into the small spaces in rocks. Water can also seep into these small spaces. When the water freezes, the expansion of the water as it turns to ice can break the rocks down. This is called ice wedging. Station 4 Chalk and Vinegar Part of Station 7 Dissolving (gobstopper and vinegar) Part of Station 10 Noodle soak Acid rain can break down a rock and wash it away. Many caverns contain spectacular stalactites and stalagmites that are the result of the acid rain/rock solution that is re-deposited over time. Part of Station 7 Dissolving (Gobstopper and water) Station 2 Ramen and water Some rocks dissolve in water. This process is known as dissolving.
  35. 35. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 35 of 59 Sediment on the Move KEY Sediments move on the Earth’s surface. Erosion is the movement of sediment from one place to another. An agent of erosion is the force that causes the sediment to change positions. There are many agents of erosion. One day prior to activity: Place water in smaller container and freeze for glacier model in Flow # 4. Collect the following materials: Stream container Sand, pea gravel, and rocks  Build four (or at least three) river systems by placing a base of sand in ¾ of the container. Place the sand at an angle (slope). Some models may be reused if needed.  Create a river system by dragging your pencil across the sandy slope until you reach the “ocean." View of river system from the top.  Place a few rocks and pea gravel on the land portion of your model.  Ask the students to draw a diagram of the river system in their interactive notebook.  Raise the river system by placing wood blocks (or anything handy) under the river system. River
  36. 36. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 36 of 59 Sediment on the Move KEY **Teacher Note: Set up the “glacier” model first – Flow # 4. Do the first three steps with the students. This will allow significant time for the glacier to move. Have students monitor the glacier flow as the other labs are set up and discussed. Note the time you started the glacier model. Flow # 1  Place a fan or hair dryer at the raised end of the model. If you have student volunteers, make sure their goggles are on! Turn the wind machine on low. What do you observe? Sediment should move down the slope toward the far end.  Change the setting to high, what do you observe? Sediment bounced and rolled faster. More land was moved.  Would you consider this fast or slow? Fast  Unplug and remove wind machine and return it to the materials station.  Wind Machines can be: fans, hairdryers, straws that kids blow through weakly and then strongly, syringe where the plunger is weakly pushed and then forcefully pushed, etc. Any system that moves air can be used. Be creative. **Check on the glacier. Has anything happened? How much time as elapsed? Flow # 2  Take a cup and poke holes with a pencil in the bottom. This cup will represent a rain cup. Fill the cup half full with water. Have one student hold the “holey” cup at the top end of the river system. Have another student fill a different cup with water and pour the water into the cup. Water should leave the cup through the holes and “rain” on your river system. Continue to refill the “rain” cup until water fills the bottom 1/3 of the container. STOP THE RAIN BEFORE YOU HAVE A FLOOD. You can also use a watering can or water bottles with holes in their lids and cut off bottoms in place of the holey cups – use whatever gives you a nice flow of distributed water.
  37. 37. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 37 of 59 Sediment on the Move KEY  Observe the flow of water over the river system. How does the water affect the sediment? Where does the sediment ultimately end up? The flowing water causes the sediment to flow down the slope. The sediment ultimately ends up at the far end.  What would happen if you doubled the amount of water flowing into your system? If the amount of water released into the river system was doubled, the amount of sediment moved would increase. This is like a flood. **Check on the glacier. Has anything happened? How much time as elapsed? Flow # 3:  Using another river system model. (To reuse the water flow river system model you would need to remove excess water by using sponges to remove extra water. Place it back in the original water pail or place it in another bucket for used water.)  Continue to have the system raised using wood blocks.  To demonstrate the flow of lava over the land, obtain a squeeze bottle of ketchup. Using the same technique as with the watering cups or can, place the ketchup over the upper end of the river system and allow it to flow slowly and then quickly through the system. Allow students to make observations each time. Molasses or any viscous substance may be used in place of ketchup. Does sediment move with the “lava”? Yes, sediment moves with lava but it moves differently.  How does the movement of sediment compare with slow lava versus fast lava? The sediment movement is very slow with slow lava. When the lava is forced to flow quickly, more sediment is moved.
  38. 38. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 38 of 59 Sediment on the Move KEY Flow # 4  Refer to the river system model that was set up from the beginning.  Have students make careful observations of the glacier. Is it clear? What shape is it?  Place your glacier at the top of the system. Allow time for glacier to move. Record time.  After the glacier has moved to the base of the system, make observations of the river system as well as the glacier.  Has the glacier changed? The glacier has changed. It is smaller and has picked up bits of sediment on its bottom.  Has the river system changed? The surface of the river system has changed. It is apparent where the glacier flowed. Sediment has moved.  Did the movement of the glacier occur quickly or slowly compared to other models? The glacier moved the slowest. Conclusions:  Based on your observations, does wind move sediment from one place to another? The wind moves sediment.  Based on your observations, does flowing water move sediment from one place to another? The water moves sediment.  Based on your observations, does flowing lava move sediment from one place to another? The lava moves sediment.  From this experience, what evidence can you give that supports your conclusions? Based on the observations of the models, each time wind, water, lava, or glaciers were added to the top of the river system, sediment flowed to the base.  Based on your observations, does a glacier have an impact on the land? The glacier has impact on the land.  How much time did it take for the glacier to flow versus the water? The wind? The lava? Was it faster or slower? The glacier was slower than the water and the wind.  Which method of flow was the fastest? The slowest? Fastest – wind, Slowest - glacier
  39. 39. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 39 of 59 Sediment on the Move KEY  Does the speed of flow, velocity, affect the amount of sediment that moves? Support your conclusion with lab evidence. The speed at which the agents of erosion flow affect the amount of sediment carried. The more force the agent of erosion applies to the surface of the land the more sediment will move.  The river system model has been used to show four different types of erosion agents and how they affect the land. Based on the observations, how was the model useful? What were its limitations? The model was useful because it allowed us to demonstrate Earth events that would take lots of time and space in the natural world. The model’s limitations are numerous. The Earth is composed of different types of soil. Vegetation and urbanization that are present in the real world are not represented by this model.  Based on this investigation, what agents of erosion have we explored? Wind, Water, Lava, and glaciers  What is another agent of erosion that we did not discuss but is present in every model? (Hint: the wood blocks are what cause this agent of erosion) Gravity moves sediment downward.  Remember to point out how each of these systems is a model of constructive and destructive processes. Destruction in the actual process of erosion and constructive in the process of deposition (the dropping of sediment in a different area).
  40. 40. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 40 of 59 Sediment on the Move Sediments move on the Earth’s surface. Erosion is the movement of sediment from one place to another. An agent of erosion is the force that causes the sediment to change positions. There are many agents of erosion. Draw a diagram of the river system in your interactive notebook. Flow # 1 1. Place a fan or hair dryer at the raised end of the model. If you have student volunteers, make sure their goggles are on! Turn the wind machine on low. What do you observe? 2. Change the setting to high, what do you observe? 3. Would you consider this fast or slow? Flow # 2 4. What does the watering can or holey cup represent in the model? ___________________________________
  41. 41. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 41 of 59 Sediment on the Move 5. Observe the flow of water over the river system. How does the water affect the sediment? Where does the sediment ultimately end up? 6. What would happen if you doubled the amount of water flowing into your system? Flow # 3: 7. What does the ketchup represent? 8. Does sediment move with the “lava”? 9. How does the movement of sediment compare with slow lava versus fast lava?
  42. 42. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 42 of 59 Sediment on the Move Flow # 4 10. Describe the glacier. 11. What time did you place the glacier on the river system? 12. How long did it take the glacier to move to the base of the river system? 13. What did the glacier look like after it flowed down the river system? 14. How did the river system appear after the glacier had flowed over it? 15. Has the glacier changed? 16. Has the river system changed? 17. Did the movement of the glacier occur quickly or slowly compared to other models? Conclusions: 18. Based on your observations, does wind move sediment from one place to another? 19. Based on your observations, does flowing water move sediment from one place to another? 20. Based on your observations, does flowing lava move sediment from one place to another? 21. What evidence can you give that you have experienced that supports your conclusions? 22. Based on your observations, does a glacier have an impact on the land? 23. How much time did it take for the glacier to flow versus the water? The wind? The lava? Was it faster or slower? 24. Which method of flow was the fastest? The slowest?
  43. 43. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 43 of 59 Sediment on the Move 25. Does the speed of flow, velocity, affect the amount of sediment that moves? Support your conclusion with lab evidence. 26. The river system model has been used to show four different types of erosion agents and how they affect the land. Based on the observations, how was the model useful? What were its limitations? ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 27. Based on this investigation, what agents of erosion have we explored? _________________________________ 28. What is another agent of erosion that we did not discuss but is present in every model? (Hint: the wood blocks are what cause this agent of erosion)___________________________________________________________________
  44. 44. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 44 of 59 The Ocean’s Motion Observation Sheet Directions: Describe and illustrate your observations of the waves hitting the sand. Write any questions you may have down at the bottom of the sheet. Questions:
  45. 45. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 45 of 59 Canyon Demo Teacher Only Materials Needed: Box of sugar cubes Nail Water (warmed is better) Catch basin or sink Pitcher Microwave (optional) Introduce Palo Duro Canyon: Today we are going to look at a famous canyon in our great state of Texas: Palo Duro Canyon. (Use pictures from websites in the resource section of this lesson to show students this geologic feature of Texas) Ask:  Based on what you have learned about weathering and erosion, how do you think Palo Duro Canyon was formed? (Water carved out the canyon but answers will vary) If students don’t have strong answers, lead them by letting them ask details about the canyon. For example students may ask:  Is there lots of wind in this region? Yes, this region the Panhandle Plains is known for its extreme winds – but they do not blow all the time.  Is there a river near by? Yes, the Prairie Dog Town Fork of the Red River is located there.  Are there glaciers? Currently, there are no glaciers in the canyon.  What type or rock makes up the canyon? Shale, limestone, and clay make up the canyon, which are all sedimentary rocks just like we simulated in lab. Place the students’ predictions on the board or overhead. To demonstrate how running water can carve out the land, perform the Canyon Demo.  Using a nail, punch several holes in one side of the sugar cube box.  Cut the top off of the box.  Elevate a box of sugar cubes slightly.  Keep the holes on the lower end.  Pour the (slightly warmed) water over the cubes and watch the water “erode” the cube land until a sugar cube canyon begins to form.  Have a basin or sink nearby for the sugar and water to flow into. Cut Sugar Sugar
  46. 46. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 46 of 59 Optional Evaluation Pictures and Terms Weathering Erosion Mechanical Weathering Chemical Weathering Constructive Destructive Gravity Grinding Abrasion Ice Wedging Acid Rain Dissolving Plant roots Animals Wind Fast Rivers Glaciers Oceans Lakes Slow
  47. 47. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 47 of 59 Evaluation Example (pp. 1 of 3) “Hi! My name is Samantha. I am so glad you came along. There are a lot of sandy friends here on the beach. We welcome you! What is your name?” “My name is Timmy.” “How did you get here?” “A wave washed me on shore.” “Wow” said Samantha. “Was it scary?” “Oh no” said Timmy, “but don’t take my word for it. Here comes another wave now.” Swoosh went the wave, and it pulled me back, back, back into a huge body of water. "Hey, Samantha!” said Timmy, “Where are you?” “Over here," Samantha cried. “Where are we?” “We are in the ocean. You will like it here. I have lots of friends here. Look there is Teddy the shark over there.” Timmy and I tried to stay together, but with the constant pull of the waves we got pulled apart. Next thing I knew I was thrown back on the beach. All this moving around – there has got to be a name for it. Oh, I remember, it is called erosion. Water sure is a powerful agent of erosion. It pulled me out to the ocean and then right back on shore. Whew, I need to rest.
  48. 48. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 48 of 59 Evaluation Example (pp. 2 of 3) Well, the Sun was warm and I fell quickly into sediment sleep. I should have NEVER shut my eyes! I was dreaming that I was flying through the air. Wheeee! I was flying up, up, up and then down, down, down. I was tumbling through the air free as a breeze. Then I awoke with a start. I was free as a breeze! I was flying through the air. I was blowing in the wind! I could see the land way below me. Wow, never in my wildest dreams did I believe that I would ever get to travel like that! There were a bunch of us on that flight. It was so fast. One minute we could see the beach and the next we were traveling high in the air. It sure was cold up there. Then, I couldn’t see the ground at all – much less the beach. Well, I guessed I should just hang on and enjoy the ride! Well, it did not take long before I starting going down, down, down. I was starting to slow down – slower, slower, slower. Bang! A bunch of us hit the side of a cliff. Man, did that hurt. When we hit the cliff, the wind pushed us along the surface of the cliff and lots of little scratches appeared in the rock. Wow, we had hit with such force that we caused the rock to weather through abrasion. We sure were destructive! Tiny rocks fell to the ground right along with me. We were all being pulled down by gravity. Spat! We hit the ground hard. It seemed I stayed at the base of the cliff for a long time. I took another nap and I was feeling much warmer. I felt like there was a blanket on top of me – and that blanket was heavy. Wait a minute! That was not a blanket but lots of other sediments and small rocks piled on top of me. No wonder it felt heavy! Pressure, pressure, pressure! The other sediments kept getting closer and closer. Finally, we were packed so closely together that we made a sedimentary rock. It was nice to be constructive for a change. It was like I was a part of a family again. I remembered a long time ago when I was a part of another rock family. I hoped this one would be as nice. I know you are not going to believe this…but my new family was being crushed. Something really heavy had just stepped on us. Well, now we had done it…we are all broken right back into sediments. I peeked out to see what it was, and I know you are not going to believe me but it
  49. 49. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 49 of 59 Evaluation Example (pp. 3 of 3) was a BEAR! It seems I was trapped in his fur. Who knows where I where I might travel next time? This certainly was a moving adventure. The Sandy Journey Record for this student would have looked like this:
  50. 50. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 50 of 59 Rubric for Evaluation Creative Story Description 5 pts 3 pts 1 pt No Credit Story matches Record Story matches record Most of the story matches the record Very little of the story matches the record Not enough story to grade Content Terms Most of the terms were used correctly Many terms were used and used correctly all or most of the time Some of the terms were used in the story but more than a few were used correctly. Not enough terms were used to reflect science behind the journey. Graphics More than 7 pictures were used correctly with graphics! Five to seven pictures were used in the story correctly. Less than five pictures were used in the story correctly. No pictures were correctly used in the story. Creative Element Story was creative and fun to read! It made me smile! Story was easy to read and easy to follow. Two thumbs up! Story could be followed but lacked that extra spark of creativity. Good job – but next time, ask for some help with ideas. Not enough creativity to measure. Wow, what happened? Grammar Story used appropriate writing techniques and grammar. Story has acceptable grammar and structure. Certain aspects of the story were lacking structure and correct use of grammar. No story to evaluate. Total Points: Total points possible = 25 points To get a grade based on a hundred-scale, take the points earned and multiply by 4. For example: 22 points were earned X 4 = 88 score for project.
  51. 51. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 51 of 59 Mississippi River Delta - Image from Landsat 1 – Jan 16, 1973 Images courtesy of U. S. Dept. of the Interior – U. S. Geological Survey Image from Landsat 5 – Mar 12, 1989 Images courtesy of U. S. Dept. of the Interior – U. S. Geological Survey Image from Landsat 7 – Jan 06, 2003 Images courtesy of U. S. Dept. of the Interior – U. S. Geological Survey
  52. 52. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 52 of 59 Urban Expansion - DFW Images are courtesy of U. S. Department of the Interior and the U. S. Geologic Survey. They were taken using satellite imagery. The Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas, area has grown significantly in the past 30 years. March 12, 1974 March 22, 1989 February 01, 2003
  53. 53. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 53 of 59 Black Hills Fire Images are courtesy of the U. S. Department of the Interior and the U. S. Geologic Survey. They were taken using satellite imagery. This is a four-year comparison of the vegetation lost to fire in the Black Hills of South Dakota. September 14, 2000 – Image after a fire had destroyed 83,508 acres. Burn area is in dark red August 07, 2001 – Fires started again on July 30th , 2001. They were started by lightning. In this fire, 26,800 acres were torched. Notice the recovery of the previous year’s fire. September 20, 2002 More fires torched the Black Hills. In this fire, 13,700 acres were lost. November 15, 1999
  54. 54. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 54 of 59 Destructive Frayer Model Student Definition Characteristics Examples Non-Examples Destructive
  55. 55. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 55 of 59 Constructive Frayer Model Student Definition Characteristics Examples Non-Examples Constructive
  56. 56. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 56 of 59 A Sample Sheet Manipulative Note: you cannot have the images on the outside of a 3 D sheet manipulative when represented with a 2 D illustration. To correct this, cut out the before and after images and place them on the front of a folded sheet of paper. To create the sheet manipulative: Take a sheet of paper and fold it in half horizontally. Then take the folded paper and cut the top portion of paper into two equal sections. The section on the left will represent the “Before” image, and the section on the right will represent the “After” image. Before After Mt St. Helens Composite Volcano Before its eruption, Mt. St. Helens was considered one of the most beautiful peaks in the Cascade Range. Eruption May 18, 1980 A newly formed crater is evident after the blast. Mt. St. Helens had been quiet for 123 years. The eruption was a fast change to the Earth’s surface, but the rebuilding of the mountain will take years.
  57. 57. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 57 of 59 Breaking Down Stations Venn Diagram Mechanical Weathering Chemical Weathering Both
  58. 58. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 58 of 59 Frayer Model Student Definition Characteristics Examples Non-ExamplesWeathering
  59. 59. 4th Grade Science Unit: 04 Lesson: 01 © 2009, TESCCC 08/01/09 page 59 of 59

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