Foreign Student To Worker Workshop


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Contrast between the Foreign-Educated Worker and International Student in US Experiences

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Foreign Student To Worker Workshop

  1. 1. Foreign Student-to-Worker Experience Clark Bonilla, Director Alumni and Career Services School of Public Policy 1st Annual Public Policy Career Week1 Foreign Worker
  2. 2. Learning Objectives  Identify broad labor market issues affecting hiring of foreign workers.  Recognize the differences between foreign work and international student experiences.  Identify the advantages of the international student- to-worker experience.  Identify the challenges to adapting to the workplace.2 Foreign Worker
  3. 3. Goal To aid the international student in deciding whether or not to pursue employment in the US, identifying how to compete effectively within the labor market, and adapting successfully to future workplaces.3 Foreign Worker
  4. 4. 1. Career Decision Making Model Rational and Market- Based4 Foreign Worker
  5. 5. PP Career Advisement: Market-Based Model Job Market Optimal Career Options Personal Education Preferences5 Foreign Worker
  6. 6. Career as Occupational Pathway Barley (1989): “a structural  Policy Research Assistant  Policy Analyst property of an occupation  Policy Survey Lab Manager or an organization.”  Policy Research Manager (Greenhaus & Callanan, 1994, p. 4),  Policy Director i.e., a sequence of positions  State Policy Director held within an occupation.  State Policy Adviser6 Foreign Worker
  7. 7. Career as Work Patterns over Life  Greenhaus & Callanan (1994): “the pattern of work- related experiences that span the course of a person’s life.” (p. 5) – Objective: positions, duties, decisions – Subjective: work aspirations, expectations, values – Career Decision: reasons for position selection, changes in type or level of occupation (lateral or vertical movement)7 Foreign Worker
  8. 8. “Career Pathways” Defined The various career choices realistically open to an individual with a given education, skill sets, experience, interests, and values, that open up alternative career paths, i.e., inter-occupational mobility, intra-occupational mobility (vertical to management, or horizontal to non- management positions). These pathways expand or contract over time as the individual has effectively managed her career, contingent also, in part, on whether she prefers to be a generalist or a specialist.8 Foreign Worker
  9. 9. Career Anchors  Managerial Competence  Technical Functional Competence  Security  Creativity  Autonomy/Independence – (Schein, 1977; Keen, 1977)9 Foreign Worker
  10. 10. “Boundaryless-Careers” View “in an increasingly dynamic and chaotic organizational world, career paths are nowadays evolving ‘backwards’’ … from logical design and efficient manufacture, to creative invention and individual trailblazing.” (Peiperl, Arthur, Anand, 2002: 27; Peiperl & Baruch, 1997)10 Foreign Worker
  11. 11. What Boundaries are Less?  Through innovation, create a  Professional-to-Management new occupation  Management-to-Professional  Move between public, private  Telecommuting (work from and nonprofit sectors home)  Intra-firm occupational mobility  Contractual employment  Inter-firm occupational mobility  Seasonal employment  Enter/exit/re-enter labor market  Post-65 employment  Dual career professionals  Mid-Career return to school11 Foreign Worker
  12. 12. Success Criteria in BC View  Adaptation  Career Self-Determination  Career Learning  Improvisation  Spontaneity  Self-Directed Thematic Development  Self-Customizing Career Construction – (P,A&A, 2002: 28-31)12 Foreign Worker
  13. 13. Chetkovich, Carol. (2003) “What’s in a sector? The shifting career plans of public policy students.” Public Administration Review, 63, 6; 660-674. Survey of PP Graduate Students  Ambivalence: “Most policy students do not enter their programs planning for private-sector careers, but neither do they have a strong orientation toward the public sector.”  Uncertainty: “many are uncertain at entry [into studies], and plans fluctuate over the two years of graduate training.”  Mobility: “students will move between sectors, or at least should be prepared to do so.”  Rewards: some students seek private sector careers for better financial security, professional development, intellectual challenge, advancement, etc.  Significance: students oriented toward public sector have higher need to “make a difference”13 Foreign Worker
  14. 14. Career Management (CM)  CM is “a process by which individuals develop, implement, and monitor career goals and strategies.” (Greenhaus & Callanan, 1994: 5)14 Foreign Worker
  15. 15. Steps in Career Management 1. Conduct self-assessment (GT Career Services). 2. Understand labor market opportunities. 3. Select sector(s), occupation(s), and work culture(s). 4. Set career objectives and milestones. 5. Identify knowledge, skills, recognition, and experience necessary for each objective. 6. Identify timeframe and resources for each milestone. 7. Appraise progress periodically.15 Foreign Worker
  16. 16. What is Your Career Goal?  “A career goal is a desired career-related outcome that a person intends to attain.” (G&C, 1994: 24)16 Foreign Worker
  17. 17. Types of Goals  Conceptual Goal: identifies work experiences to pursue in the short-term and long-term.  Operational Goal: identifies specific positions or jobs to secure in the short-term and long- term.17 Foreign Worker
  18. 18. Sample Career Goal Career Goal Short-Term Long-Term Matrix Goals Goals To gain experience in To master incentive pricing Conceptual incentive pricing for across all clean/green new green technologies technologies for homes and for homes. businesses. Enter as Energy Policy Advance to Energy Policy Operational Analyst for Power Utility Director within 10 years for Company. regional Power Utility Company.18 Foreign Worker
  19. 19. Exercise 1: Write Career Goal Career Short-Term Long-Term Goal Matrix Goals Goals Conceptual Operational19 Foreign Worker
  20. 20. 2. The Labor Market Opportunities and Obstacles20 Foreign Worker
  21. 21. 2.1 Country Origins of International Students in US21 Foreign Worker
  22. 22. Earned US Doctoral Degrees in S&E by Citizenship (1985-2005)  Total US Doctoral Degrees Earned by Foreign-Born Students: 189,346  China: 41,677 (22%)  Taiwan: 19,187 (10%)  India: 18,712 (10%)  Korea: 18,872 (10%)  EU-15: 16,343 ( 9%)22 Foreign Worker
  23. 23. Asian Graduates with US Social Sciences PhD (1987-2007)  Total Asia: 15,921  China: 2,609  India: 1,740  South Korea: 3,832  Taiwan: 1,620 Source: National Science Foundation, Div. of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Earned Doctorates, special tabulations (2009)23 Foreign Worker
  24. 24. (Source: Galama & Hosek, 2008) Foreign-Born S&E Workers in US  Median S&E Salaries for US Citizens and Foreign- Born Workers Reached Parity in 2005  Total Foreign-Born S&E with BS in US Workforce: 2.28 million in 2005.  Total Foreign-Born S&E with PhD in US Workforce: 246,000 in 2005.24 Foreign Worker
  25. 25. Work Visas to High-Skilled Workers  More issued than used  20,000 H-1B Visas for International Students studying MS/PhD annually (2010)  Over 2/3 of H-1B Visas issued for S&E occupations (85,000 annually, as of 2010)  5-Year PhD Stay Rate Declined 3% (2000-07)25 Foreign Worker
  26. 26. Foreign-Born S&E Workers in US Trend in Foreign-Born Share of S&E Employment in US 1990 2000 2004 Bachelors 11% 17% 17% Masters 19% 29% 32% All PhD 24% 38% 37% PhDs <45 27% 52% --- Post-Doc 49% 57% --- Sources: 1990 and 2000 bachelors, masters, PhD and PhDs less than 45 years of age, tabulated from Census of Population, IPUMS data; Post-Docs from NSF. 2004 figures tabulated from U.S. Bureau of Census, Current Population Survey, MORG Files. Post-Doc, NSF, http:/ /w where the figures refer to temporary residents rather than to foreign born.26 Foreign Worker
  27. 27. 2.2 The Labor Market for Social Sciences27 Foreign Worker
  28. 28. Foreign Share of US Earned S&E Degrees (2002): Social Sciences  Doctoral Degrees: ca. 19%  Master’s Degrees: ca. 11%  Bachelor’s Degrees: ca. 3%  Associate’s Degrees: ca. 2% Source: National Science Board (2006a; Tables 2-25, 2-27, 2-29, and 2-31)28 Foreign Worker
  29. 29. (Source: NSB, SEI, 2010) Social Science-Degreed Employment (US, 2006)  Total S&E Occupations: 5,023,635 100%  Social Sciences: 651,519 13% Source: National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT) (2006), http://sestat.nsf.gov29 Foreign Worker
  30. 30. (Source: NSB, SEI, 2010) Bad News for Social Sciences  Social Science-Degree Workers Least Likely to Work in S&E Occupations, 2007  Social Sciences PhD: Most Likely of S&E Workers to be Self-Employed (19%, 2007)  Social Sciences-Degreed Workers have Highest Average Unemployment Rate of S&E degrees (5.1%, 2007)30 Foreign Worker
  31. 31. (Source: NSB, SEI, 2010) Social Sciences Graduates: Obstacles Entering Job Market  Social Sciences PhD Graduates Among Highest Debt Level for S&E Occupations, 2007  Social Sciences PhD Graduates Among Longest to Graduate within S&E PhD Doctoral Programs, FY1992-93 to FY2003-04  BS Social Sciences Graduates: Most Likely to Work Out of Field at Graduation (15.7%) Among S&E Graduates31 Foreign Worker
  32. 32. (Source: NSB, SEI, 2010) Social Sciences Graduates, 2006* Unemployment Rate % Bachelor’s 5.1 Master’s 4.6 Doctorate 1.9 Involuntary Out-of-Field Employment Rate % Bachelor’s 15.7 Master’s 9.5 Doctorate 4.0 National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT) (2006), Foreign Worker
  33. 33. (Source: NSB, SEI, 2010) Social Sciences Graduates, 2006* Highest Degree Average Salary Bachelor’s $43,300 Master’s $67,300 Doctorate $75,000 National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT) (2006), Foreign Worker
  34. 34. (Source: NSB, SEI, 2010) New H-1B Visa Workers in Social Sciences Occupations, 2006* Highest Degree Average Salary All Degrees $60,900 Bachelor’s $54,100 Master’s $64,000 Doctorate $77,600 Source: Dept. of Homeland Security, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, special tabulations34 Foreign Worker
  35. 35. (Source: NSB, SEI, 2010) Social Sciences PhD: Median Annual Salaries, 1-5 yrs Sector, 2006 Salary All Sectors $53,000 Private $65,000 Tenure Track $52,000 Postdoctoral Appointment $39,000 Other Education $50,000 Nonprofit/Government $62,000 National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics, Survey of Doctorate Recipients (2006), Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), Foreign Worker
  36. 36. (Source: NSB, SEI, 2010) PhD Social Sciences Graduates: Obstacles Entering Job Market  Workers with Social Sciences PhD Least Likely Involved in R&D Among S&E PhD Holders, 2010  Increased Likelihood of Postdoc (2002: 18%; 2005: 30%)  Social Sciences Postdocs Least Likely to Have Medical Benefits  1-5 Yrs Since Graduation, 2006 Salaries: – 25th Percentile: $40,000 – 50th Percentile: $51,300 – 75th Percentile: $65,00036 Foreign Worker
  37. 37. (Source: NSB, SEI, 2010) PhD Social Sciences Graduates: Good News Entering Job Market  2006: PhD Pol Sci in Tenure Track, 1-3 yrs after Graduation: 45%; 4-6 yrs, 51.3%  2006: PhD Sociology/Anthropology in Tenure Track, 1-3 yrs after Graduation: 62.1%; 4-6 yrs, 65%  Highest Rates of Tenure Track among S&E Disciplines  Smallest Pay Gap (25%) between Postdoc and Tenure Track Positions among S&E Fields, 200637 Foreign Worker
  38. 38. (Source: NSB, SEI, 2010) Social Science Occupations and Wages (2007)  Mean Engineering Wages: $81,050  Mean Social Sciences Wages: $66,370  Mean Technology Wages: $53,165  2004-07: Social Sciences Occupations had Lowest (3.1%) Average Annual Growth Rate.38 Foreign Worker
  39. 39. (Source: NSB, SEI, 2010) Foreign-Born Social Science Workers % of Total US Workforce, 2003 Sociology/Anthropology Degrees % All Degrees 7.2 Bachelor’s 6.7 Master’s 10.2 Doctorate 13.639 Foreign Worker
  40. 40. (Source: NSB, SEI, 2010) Foreign-Born Social Science Workers % of Total US Workforce, 2003 Other Social Sciences Degrees % All Degrees 13.0 Bachelor’s 10.6 Master’s 18.2 Doctorate 31.340 Foreign Worker
  41. 41. (Source: NSB, SEI, 2010) Foreign-Born Social Science Workers % of Total US Workforce, 2003 Political Science Degrees % All Degrees 11.0 Bachelor’s 9.5 Master’s 17.1 Doctorate 24.241 Foreign Worker
  42. 42. 2.3 Foreign Worker Trends, Myths and Misconceptions42 Foreign Worker
  43. 43. (Source: Zweig, 2006) Why Chinese Scientists Return to China  China’s Rapid Economic Development: 58%  Good Government Policy 47%  Good Opportunity to Develop New Technology in China 42%  Hard to Find Good Opportunities Overseas 32%  Glass Ceiling Overseas for Chinese 31%  Political Stability in China 19%43 Foreign Worker
  44. 44. (Source: Zweig, 2006; Gwynne and Flannery, 1992) Policies to Reverse Brain Drain  China (government)  Singapore (government)  South Korea (government)  Hong Kong (private sector only)44 Foreign Worker
  45. 45. Common Myths  US government will not hire foreign-born workers or students.  US firms will not pay a living wage to foreign-born workers or students. (Rand, NDRI, 2008)  US firms do not value overseas experience and education of foreign-born workers or students.  US firms will not support a foreign-born workers need for language training.  US firms do not believe foreign-born workers or students will fit into their organizational cultures.45 Foreign Worker
  46. 46. Some Employer Concerns and Misconceptions  Lack of English Proficiency  Weak Interpersonal Skills  Weak Communications Skills  Lack of Leadership Aptitude  Delay in Adapting to Organizational Culture  Social Isolation  Lack of Assertiveness46 Foreign Worker
  47. 47. 3. Foreign Worker v. International Student Experiences Emphasize the Advantages!47 Foreign Worker
  48. 48. Advantages of International Student Experiences Employer’s Criteria in Foreign International Evaluating Job Candidates Worker Student Language Skills Low Very High Cultural Adaptation Unknown/Low Known/Very High Quality of Education Unknown/Inferior Known/Superior Employee’s Expectations Unknown/Unrealistic More Realistic Relocation Costs High Low Visa Costs High Deferred by OPT R&D Contacts Low Modest-to-High48 Foreign Worker
  49. 49. Advantages of International Public Policy Student Experiences Employer’s Criteria in Foreign International Evaluating Job Candidates Worker Student Knowledge of Federal Laws Unknown/Low High Analysis of US Organizations Unknown-to-Low High Knowledge of US Economy Unknown-to-Modest Modest-to-High Knowledge of US Government Unknown-to-Low High Knowledge of US Policies Unknown-to-Modest High Technical/Quantitative Skills Unknown-to-High High/Proven Recommendations Foreign US49 Foreign Worker
  50. 50. Advantages of Overseas Educational Experiences  Bilingual/Multilingual Proficiency  Understanding of Foreign Cultures  Achievements in Multiple Cultures  First-Hand View of Globalization  Overseas Professional and Research Contacts  Understanding of Foreign Business Practices  Technical/Quantitative Undergraduate Degrees  Represent “best and brightest” of Country of Origin  Capable of Framing/Solving Problems Outside of US Culture50 Foreign Worker
  51. 51. 4. To Stay or Return? Not the Same Old Dilemma51 Foreign Worker
  52. 52. Your Options  Return Immediately after Graduation  Work One Year, Then Return  Work Till End of H-1B Visa, Then Return  Stay Permanently  Stay Permanently But Periodically Work Abroad  Stay Years Until You Can Return at Highest Level52 Foreign Worker
  53. 53. Linking Work and Home Country  Represent US Firm in Your Home Country  Represent Your Home Country Firm in US  Serve as Visiting Professor in Your Home Country  Serve as Visiting Professor in US  Become Consultant or Independent Contractor  Engage in International Research Collaborations  Help US University Recruit from Your Home Country  Help US Firm Recruit from Your Home Country53 Foreign Worker
  54. 54. Variables in Career Decisions  Age  US and Home Country Economy  Career and Personal Life-Cycles  Potentiality of Academic/Work Relationships  Personal Satisfaction/Quality of Life  Easier to Stay Than Return  Risk Aversion  Occupational Options and Offers54 Foreign Worker
  55. 55. 5. Adapting to US Workplaces Institutions Policies Organizational Cultures55 Foreign Worker
  56. 56. 5.1 What the International Student Can Do Now to Prepare56 Foreign Worker
  57. 57. Work-Related Recommendations for International Students, 1  Study regularly with English-speaking students.  Study US laws, organizations, policies and cultures.  Develop advanced quantitative and computer skills.  Serve as TA, not just GRA (if seeking faculty career).  Utilize advantages of overseas education and experience.  Join academic associations (APPAM, ASA).  Present papers at academic conferences and network.  Emphasize your interdisciplinary skills and knowledge.57 Foreign Worker
  58. 58. Work-Related Recommendations for International Students, 2  Obtain off-campus summer employment (OPT).  Seek public speaking opportunities.  Demonstrate leadership skills and aptitude.  Establish friendships with US residents.  Secure a US-based mentor.  Build relationships for US-based references.  Participate in team-based projects.  Participate in professional associations.  Attend industry association conferences or trade shows.58 Foreign Worker
  59. 59. 5.2 What the Foreign Worker Can Do On the Job59 Foreign Worker
  60. 60. Recommendations for Foreign Workers, 1  Learn organizational policies & procedures.  Recognize how practice acceptably deviates from organizational policies & procedures.  Learn when to email, call, and talk face-to-face.  Build a positive relationship with your supervisor.  Volunteer for special projects or tasks.  Regularly praise and thank others.  Socialize with colleagues inside and outside of work.60 Foreign Worker
  61. 61. Recommendations for Foreign Workers, 2  Maintain professional awareness of events and advances in home country.  Build professional relationships within home country.  Maintain academic relationships from home country.  Analyze how your home country knowledge might benefit your work organization.  Publish in your home country also.  Consider how you may be viewed as a representative of your home country within your workplace.61 Foreign Worker
  62. 62. 5.3 The Faculty Career Becoming A Professor62 Foreign Worker
  63. 63. Professorial Career  Do you wish research to be your focus?  Would you work in federal or industry labs?  Do you prefer a balance of research and teaching?  Do you want to teach primarily?  Would you consider federal agency work?  Would you consider academic and industry employment alternating over your career?63 Foreign Worker
  64. 64. (Source: J.C. Hermanowicz, 1998; Merton, 1957; Dannefer, 1984a) Types of Faculty Careers Elites Pluralists Locals High ambition Moderate ambition Less ambition “uniform moral career”: Career “nebulously Teaching career identity strong career identity conceived,” flexible Strong hierarchy of ascent No hierarchy of ascent Horizontal mobility Strongly R&D oriented Somewhat R&D oriented Little to no R&D Community of scholars Mixed communities Local community Low institutional Mixed institutional Strong institutional commitment commitments commitments Strong social stratification Moderate social stratification Low social stratification Academic only career Mixed sector career Highly mixed career64 Foreign Worker
  65. 65. (Source: J.C. Hermanowicz, 1998) National Research Universities Labs Mostly Elites, Some Pluralists Career Graduates Trajectories State Universities Industry Mostly Pluralists, Some Elites Career Graduates Trajectories Government Comprehensive Universities Mostly Communitarians, Some Pluralists65 Foreign Worker
  66. 66. If Academic Career in US, then…  Stay in US  Prior to Graduation Pursue Academic Appointments  Accept a Postdoctoral Appointment, if Needed  Avoid Non-Academic Positions  Pursue Fellowships prior to PhD Graduation  Publish, Publish, Publish!  Have a GRA and TA Before Graduation  Select Dissertation Topic That Makes You More Marketable66 Foreign Worker
  67. 67. Q&A Time Unclear? Missing Topic? Conclusions?67 Foreign Worker
  68. 68. References Galama, Titus and James Hosek. (2008) U.S. Competitiveness in Science and Technology. RAND: National Defense Research Institute. Lin, Lin. (2002) “The learning experiences of Chinese graduate students in American Social Sciences programs.” Paper presented at Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society (Orlando, FL, March 6-9, 2002). National Science Board. (2010) Science and Engineering Indicators, 2010. National Science Foundation. Zweig, David. (2006) “Competing for talent: China’s strategies to reverse the brain drain.” International Labour Review, 145, 1-2; 65-89.68 Foreign Worker
  69. 69. Contact Information Clark R. Bonilla, Director Alumni and Career Services School of Public Policy Office: 404-385-7220 Email: clark.bonilla@pubpolicy.gatech.edu69 Foreign Worker