Population Structure How can we look at the structure of population?
Population structure <ul><li>The population structure for an area shows the number of males and females within different a...
Three Patterns of Population Change, 2000                                                                                 ...
Age-Sex Structures in Transition                                                                                  <ul><li>...
Problems with an ageing population (UK)   <ul><li>A growing number of the UK’s population is over 65 years old, so it has ...
Problems with a youthful population (India)   <ul><li>Much of India’s population is under 16 years old, so it has a high D...
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Population Structure

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Population Structure

  1. 1. Population Structure How can we look at the structure of population?
  2. 2. Population structure <ul><li>The population structure for an area shows the number of males and females within different age groups in the population. </li></ul><ul><li>This information is displayed as an age-sex or population pyramid. </li></ul><ul><li>Population pyramids of LEDCs (Less Economically Developed Countries) typically have a wide base and a narrow top. This represents a high birth rate and high death rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Population pyramids of MEDCs (More Economically Developed Countries) typically have a roughly equal distribution of population throughout the age groups. The top obviously gets narrower as a result of deaths </li></ul>
  3. 3. Three Patterns of Population Change, 2000                                                                               Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects, The 1998 Revision. A wide base = high birth rate. A narrow top= low life expectancy A ‘step’ between each age group = high death rate. Typical LEDC stage 2 of the DTM. A narrow base = low birth rate. A tall pyramid with a wide top= high life expectancy An MEDC stage 4 A very narrow base = low birth rate. A tall pyramid with a wide top= high life expectancy Fewer births than deaths. MEDC stage 5
  4. 4. Age-Sex Structures in Transition                                                                               <ul><li>The pyramid above has </li></ul><ul><li>A wide base showing that children form the largest population group. </li></ul><ul><li>A triangle shape with each successive age group making up a smaller proportion of the population. </li></ul><ul><li>A high number of young, but few elderly dependents. </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy is lower than in MEDCs </li></ul><ul><li>The pyramid above has </li></ul><ul><li>No real pyramid shape </li></ul><ul><li>The shape reflects a low death rate/low infant mortality rate/high life expectancy. </li></ul><ul><li>The widest group is 35-40yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>There are more elderly females. </li></ul><ul><li>There are a large number of elderly dependents (over 60s). </li></ul>Both graphs give useful information about each country- especially highlighting the numbers of economically active (those who are capable of working, earning and paying taxes) and those who are dependent on the economically active eg. The young and the elderly dependents.
  5. 5. Problems with an ageing population (UK) <ul><li>A growing number of the UK’s population is over 65 years old, so it has a high Dependency Ratio. This is because people are living longer (average life expectancy is 77 years) and because the UK’s Birth Rate is low. </li></ul><ul><li>The UK’s Dependency Ratio is 32, so every 100 economically active Britons supports 32 dependants. </li></ul><ul><li>This causes problems for the UK government: </li></ul><ul><li>• Some local councils have high numbers of elderly people, because many people move to England’s warm southerly coasts when they retire (e.g. Christchurch in Dorset) </li></ul><ul><li>• The high cost of providing long term, expensive healthcare for some elderly people . </li></ul><ul><li>The elderly are retired and unlikely to work again, so they will be a permanent and increasing financial strain on the economically active. </li></ul><ul><li>• There is an increasing demand for certain facilities such as public transport, geriatric health care and sheltered housing. </li></ul><ul><li>The UK’s population could stop growing or decline which makes the problem worse because there will be fewer and fewer economically active people. </li></ul><ul><li>• The burden of these extra costs will fall on the economically active population who will pay higher taxes and higher pension contributions. The retirement age is having to increase to cope with the problem. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Problems with a youthful population (India) <ul><li>Much of India’s population is under 16 years old, so it has a high Dependency Ratio. </li></ul><ul><li>This is because life expectancy is short (63 years) and India’s Birth Rate is high. </li></ul><ul><li>India’s Dependency Ratio is 63, so every 100 economically active people support 63 dependants. </li></ul><ul><li>This causes problems for the Indian government: </li></ul><ul><li>The high cost of providing basic healthcare and education for so many young people. </li></ul><ul><li>A population explosion will happen when this youthful population matures and have their own families . </li></ul><ul><li>There is an increasing demand for basics such as housing, food, energy. etc.. </li></ul><ul><li>The burden of these extra costs will fall on the economically active population. </li></ul>

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