Animal Extinctionand Endangerment

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Powerpoint on Animal Mass Extinction and Endangerment for school. (World Issues)

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Animal Extinctionand Endangerment

  1. 1. Mass Extinction
  2. 2. Discussion Questions <ul><li>How many species have already been discovered on Earth? </li></ul><ul><li>How many animal/plant species go extinct every year? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think, is the biggest cause of extinction? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Extinction <ul><li>An extinct species is one that is no longer living on Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The Dodo </li></ul><ul><li>Passenger Pigeon </li></ul><ul><li>Tasmanian Wolf </li></ul><ul><li>Carolina Parakeet </li></ul>
  4. 4. Terms To Know <ul><li>Vulnerable Species : A species at risk because of low or declining numbers, but not a threatened species. </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened Species : A species whose population is not yet low enough to be in danger of extinction, but they face serious problems. If problems aren’t resolved, they will become endangered. </li></ul><ul><li>Endangered Species : A plant or animal species that is in immediate danger of becoming extinct. </li></ul><ul><li>Extinct Species : One that no longer exists on Earth. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Previous Mass Extinctions <ul><li>5 great extinction events in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>Each one destroyed 50-95% of the life of the day. </li></ul><ul><li>The most recent, was the dinosaurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually driven by geological processes such as asteroids, volcanoes and sudden climate shifts. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually take millions of years to happen. </li></ul><ul><li>The 6 th great extinction is happening right now. </li></ul><ul><li>Called The Holocene Extinction Event. </li></ul><ul><li>It will take place in only a matter of decades. </li></ul><ul><li>The destroying of habitats, overexploitation and human induced climate change have increased during the 20 th century. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Previous Mass Extinctions <ul><li>Scientists believe the last mass extinction was the dinosaurs caused by a meteor collision. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Permian Extinction <ul><li>Happened at the end of the Permian period, 251 million years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic eruptions created a buildup of carbon dioxide, which was then called global warming. </li></ul><ul><li>6 degree Celsius increase in global temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Killed 95% of species on Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Called “The Great Dying”. </li></ul><ul><li>Took 100 million years for species diversity to return to normal levels. </li></ul>
  8. 8. How It Relates To Today? <ul><li>Today, carbon dioxide is coming from our industrial activities and lifestyle. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated at the end of this century there will be a 6 degree Celsius increase in global temp. if we don’t make changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming is already affecting timing of seasons and animals bearing young earlier than at beginning of 20 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>If 95% of species die out then, humans will be one of them. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Holocene Extinction <ul><li>1.5 million species have already been discovered on Earth to date. </li></ul><ul><li>Actual amount of species is estimated between 10 and 100 million, that we don’t know of. </li></ul><ul><li>Approx. 150-270 species are erased from existence everyday. Including today. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of life on Earth has never been and never will be known to us. </li></ul><ul><li>If we keep up what we’re doing now (pollution, deforestation), it will lead to the extinction of half of all plant and animal species by year 2100. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Holocene Extinction <ul><li>The dangers of mass extinction are underestimated by almost everyone! </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are currently causing the greatest mass extinction since dinosaurs. </li></ul><ul><li>7 in 10 biologists believe this mass extinction is a threat to human existence. It’s a more serious problem than global warming. </li></ul><ul><li>They believe we are in the middle of the fastest mass extinction in the world’s history. </li></ul><ul><li>The rate of loss is greater than any time in history, including when the dinosaurs died by a meteor collision. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Holocene Extinction <ul><li>The Earth is currently losing about 30,000 species of plants, animals and insects a year. </li></ul><ul><li>That is about 3 species every hour! Lost forever. </li></ul><ul><li>It will take millions of years to repair what we destroy in just a few decades. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Causes <ul><li>These factors lead to the endangerment and extinction of species. </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat Destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Fast paced changes= little or no time for species to react and adjust to new circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary cause of species endangerment. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are what cause this destruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical forests are highly susceptible to destruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of habitat destruction: Clear cutting, destroying by fire, logging, mining, expanding human settlements and building new towns and cities. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Causes <ul><li>Everyday about 100 species are lost due to deforestation. That’s about 27,000 species a year! </li></ul><ul><li>Over half of the Earth’s original forests have disappeared. </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical forests contain half of the Earth’s species. </li></ul><ul><li>17 million hectares are cleared/burned every year. </li></ul><ul><li>URBANIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>Increased habitat loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Bulldozing, paving, development, etc. for houses, malls, businesses and roads all destroy habitat. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Causes <ul><li>Illegal Wildlife Trade/Overexploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the trade in animal parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Body Parts Trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Demands for items like rhino horns, walrus tusks and tiger bones in SE Asian countries like China. </li></ul><ul><li>Live animals are taken for the pet trade or their parts exported for medicines or food. </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of species= part of the illegal international wildlife trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. African/Asian elephants, parrots, rhinos, antelopes. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes massive declines in the numbers of many species. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Causes <ul><li>Wildlife Trade Continued </li></ul><ul><li>Fur Trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Popular ins the 1950’s and 1960’s. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1960’s, pelts of 10,000 leopards, 15,000 jaguars and 3000 cheetahs were legally imported in the US and Europe every year! </li></ul><ul><li>Non existent now but it definitely contributed. </li></ul><ul><li>Bushmeat Trade. </li></ul><ul><li>The consumption of meat of wild animals for food in central Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Main source of income for residents. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Causes <ul><li>Bushmeat Trade Continued.. </li></ul><ul><li>Hunting for bushmeat may even outrank habitat loss of rainforest animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Most common bushmeat is primates. </li></ul><ul><li>Contributes to animal extinction and linked to many diseases. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Causes <ul><li>Global Warming and Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Humans releasing carbon dioxide, chemicals and greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere which causes climate change to take place. </li></ul><ul><li>The warming of the global climate then happens. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution affects mainly aquatic species. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals cause mutations and fertility problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Seen mostly in fish and polar bears. </li></ul><ul><li>A chemical commonly found in shampoos is responsible for causing many fish in the ocean to not reproduce. </li></ul><ul><li>Fish populations are decreasing. </li></ul><ul><li>As global temperature rise, many species will be forced into extinction. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Causes <ul><li>Sewage dumped in water affects fish, frogs, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>50% of freshwater species populations are declining from pollution and pesticides. </li></ul><ul><li>Global warming puts at least 20-40% of plant/animal species at risk of extinction. </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial Fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Overfishing affects fish populations and they begin to decrease. </li></ul><ul><li>About 1000 whales and dolphins drown everyday from getting tangled in fishing gear. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Causes <ul><li>Pesticide </li></ul><ul><li>Spraying pesticides affects the insect populations. </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Rabies is currently destroying carnivore populations in East Africa. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Charts
  21. 21. Charts
  22. 22. Charts
  23. 23. How You Can Help <ul><li>Visit a national park or wildlife reserve and appreciate the animals. Follow the guidelines, like fire regulations, don’t litter and leave flowers and plants where you find them. </li></ul><ul><li>Make space for wildlife. Build a birdhouse or have a birdbath, plant a tree, compost your wastes and don’t use harmful chemicals in your home or garden. </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle, Reduce and Reuse. Carpool, take public transportation, walk, ride bikes. </li></ul>
  24. 24. How You Can Help <ul><li>Turn lights and appliances off when not using them. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn off the tap while brushing teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Take your own bags to the grocery store. </li></ul><ul><li>Use energy efficient light bulbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Buy organic fruits and veggies. </li></ul><ul><li>Join an organization like WWF Canada or one in your community. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Facts and Stats <ul><li>There are more than 1000 endangered species worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>There are more than 3500 protected wildlife areas in the world. They cover 5 million sq. miles or 3% of our total land area. </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 rd of the United State's fish species are in trouble. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 16,000 of the world’s mammals, birds and plants are threatened with extinction. </li></ul><ul><li>Most species in the world, will become extinct before they are even known to man. </li></ul><ul><li>¼ of the known 5487 wild mammal species on the planet are threatened with extinction. That’s 1372 mammals, almost gone from the face of the Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans are responsible for all of these problems. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Facts and Stats <ul><li>12% of all birds, 33% of amphibians and 50% of palm trees are threatened with extinction. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change alone could lead to further extinction of 15-37% of all species by the end of the century. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 25 biodiversity hotspots– areas of the world that are rich in species found nowhere else. They cover 1% of the global land mass yet account for 44% of the plants and 35% of the world’s animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1960 and 2000, human population of the world has doubled but the animal populations have declined by 30%. </li></ul><ul><li>137 species are estimated to go extinct each day. </li></ul><ul><li>50,000 species are estimated to go extinct each year. </li></ul><ul><li>95% of known plant species have not yet been screened for their medicinal values. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Facts and Stats <ul><li>30 million species of plants and animals, more than half of all life forms on the plant, live in rainforests. </li></ul><ul><li>And rainforests are the most susceptible to destruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the year 1600, 83 mammal species are known to have become extinct. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Why Save Endangered Species? <ul><li>They must be protected and saved so that future generations can experience their value. </li></ul><ul><li>MEDICINAL VALUES </li></ul><ul><li>Plants and animals are responsible for many useful medicines. </li></ul><ul><li>40% of all prescriptions written today are made of natural compounds from different species. </li></ul><ul><li>These species help save lives and contribute to a pharmaceutical industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 5% of known plant species have been screened for their medicinal values and we lose up to 100 of these species daily. </li></ul><ul><li>Some species could have important compounds needed for medicine, but because they are disappearing so fast, we will never be able to find out. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Why Save Endangered Species? <ul><li>More than 3 million heart disease sufferers would die within 72 hours of a heart attack, without a drug from the purple fox grove. </li></ul><ul><li>AGRICULTURAL VALUES </li></ul><ul><li>80,000 edible plants in the world. Humans depend on 20 species of these, like corn and wheat to provide 90% of the world’s food. </li></ul><ul><li>ECOLOGICAL </li></ul><ul><li>Plant and animal species are the foundation of healthy ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans depend on ecosystems like prairie grasslands and ancient forests to supply us with food and purify the air. </li></ul><ul><li>When species become endangered it means the ecosystems are not healthy. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Why Save Endangered Species? <ul><li>Losing one plant species can trigger the loss of up to 30 other plant and animal species. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution is killing the coral reefs which cause hundreds of fish species to decline. </li></ul><ul><li>COMMERICAL VALUE </li></ul><ul><li>Many wild species are commercially raised which contributes to the economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial salmon fishing in the Pacific northwest provides 60,000 jobs and 1 billion dollars annually in income. </li></ul><ul><li>Salmon populations are declining due to habitat degradation from dams, clearcutting and overgrazing along streams. </li></ul><ul><li>RECREATIONAL VALUE </li></ul><ul><li>Plant and animal species form the basis of America’s tourism industry. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Why Save Endangered Species? <ul><li>Every year, over 108 million people in the US participate in wildlife related recreation like observing, feeding and photographing wildlife. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans spend over $59 billion annually on travel, food, lodging, etc. to engage in wildlife recreation. </li></ul><ul><li>We depend on plants and animals to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>They purify our air, provide us with food and materials for clothes, homes, medicines, books, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Goods that we may need someday, will come from species still unknown to us. (ex. The cure for cancer, AIDS) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Extinct Species
  33. 33. Extinct Species
  34. 34. Extinct Species
  35. 35. Extinct Species
  36. 36. Critically Endangered Animals
  37. 37. Endangered Animals
  38. 38. Endangered Animals
  39. 39. Vulnerable Animals
  40. 40. How To Change <ul><li>Helping farmers grow more food while conserving habitats. </li></ul><ul><li>Use less polluting farming methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing productivity on land already being farmed to reduce need for more land. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing protected areas near farmed land. </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting back on greenhouse gasses on a global scale could save many species. </li></ul>

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