Children & Youth With Asd May 2009

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From the Conference for Children in Care and Children and Youth with Special Needs, May 2009

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  • Children & Youth With Asd May 2009

    1. 1. Supporting Children & Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder May 2009 Kootenay Boundary Regional Consortium Children in Care/Children with Special Needs Teri Ferworn
    2. 2. AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER Retts Syndrome Childhood Disintegrative Disorder PDD NOS Asperger’s Disorder Autism Low Functioning High Functioning
    3. 4. Main Deficits in Autism <ul><li>Social Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reciprocity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non verbal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Restricted Range of Behaviors </li></ul>
    4. 5. Statistics in Saskatchewan
    5. 6. REMEMBER!!! <ul><li>Autism Spectrum Disorder is diagnosed by the observation of behaviors. </li></ul>
    6. 7. Addressing the Challenges of Autism Spectrum Disorder <ul><li>Challenges for children/youth with ASD: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social / Play </li></ul></ul>
    7. 8. Challenges for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder <ul><li>ACADEMICS </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing the “Big Picture” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding abstract concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing themselves and their environment </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Academic/Behavior Strategies <ul><li>Provide a predictable and safe environment </li></ul><ul><li>Offer consistent daily routine </li></ul><ul><li>Expose student to new activity beforehand </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid surprises </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for changes; teach flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Provide picture or written schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Teach calendar skills and choice boards </li></ul>
    9. 10. Academic/Behavior Strategies <ul><li>Have firm expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Break assignments down into small units </li></ul><ul><li>Provide frequent teacher feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Give redirection as needed </li></ul><ul><li>Use timed work sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Visually show beginning and end </li></ul><ul><li>Provide environmental supports such as room dividers and individual carrels </li></ul><ul><li>Use curriculum that addresses individual student needs </li></ul>
    10. 11. Academic/Behavior Strategies <ul><li>Benjamin Franklin said, “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” </li></ul><ul><li>The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, Third Edition, defines this as: </li></ul><ul><li>A little precaution before a crisis occurs is preferable to a lot of fixing up afterward </li></ul>
    11. 12. Academic/Behavior Strategies <ul><ul><li>Make language visible! </li></ul></ul>
    12. 13. Sensory Issues
    13. 14. Challenges for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder <ul><li>May be: </li></ul><ul><li>Hyper/Hyposensitive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste/Smells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul></ul>Sensory
    14. 15. Sensory Strategies for students who are: <ul><li>Sensitive to sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Muffle sound of PA system </li></ul><ul><li>Put tennis balls on bottom of chair legs </li></ul><ul><li>Keep noise levels down in classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive to visual distractions </li></ul><ul><li>Check for flickering fluorescent lights </li></ul><ul><li>Limit number of visuals displayed </li></ul><ul><li>in the classroom </li></ul>
    15. 16. Sensory Strategies for students who are: <ul><li>Sensitive to smells </li></ul><ul><li>Mask smells with lip balm </li></ul><ul><li>Do not wear strong perfumes </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive to touch </li></ul><ul><li>May prefer to wear clothing inside out </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t get into student’s personal space </li></ul>
    16. 17. Communication Issues
    17. 18. Challenges for Children/Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impaired reciprocal social interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiating and sustaining conversation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor auditory comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty expressing needs/wants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Echolalia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservative speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incessant (repetitive) questioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited receptive and expressive repertoires </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Communication Strategies <ul><li>For Classroom Staff: </li></ul><ul><li>Give students time to respond </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid excessive use of questions </li></ul><ul><li>Use as few words as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Respond naturally </li></ul><ul><li>Always have communication tools available </li></ul>
    19. 20. Communication Strategies <ul><li>Attempt to get student’s attention before speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust complexity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How you talk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What you talk about </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not demand constant eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>Support verbal language with visuals </li></ul><ul><li>Limit adult conversations </li></ul>SIT
    20. 21. Communication Strategies <ul><li>If necessary, use gestures to supplement speech. </li></ul><ul><li>Use clear, concise language to help structure a student’s world. </li></ul>
    21. 22. Communication Strategies <ul><li>Use Communicative Temptations to encourage students to communicate: </li></ul><ul><li>Interesting/favorite toys and materials </li></ul><ul><li>Objects in clear containers </li></ul><ul><li>placed out of reach </li></ul><ul><li>Give small portions of food </li></ul><ul><li>so student has to request more </li></ul>
    22. 23. Communication Strategies <ul><li>Fill in the blanks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>familiar songs and stories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide choices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Couple a preferred item with a nonpreferred item </li></ul></ul>Snack pretzels apple raisins
    23. 24. All Students Have a Need to Say <ul><li>What they want </li></ul><ul><li>What they are having trouble doing </li></ul><ul><li>When they need timeout </li></ul><ul><li>When they are giving up </li></ul><ul><li>When they are happy and successful </li></ul>Adapted from Ann Heler
    24. 25. Social/Play Issues
    25. 26. Challenges for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder <ul><li>Difficulties: </li></ul><ul><li>Relating to others </li></ul><ul><li>Prefers being alone </li></ul><ul><li>Joint attention </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreting nonverbal social cues </li></ul><ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Ritualistic – repeating a particular behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Use toys in uncharacteristic ways </li></ul><ul><li>Limited play themes </li></ul><ul><li>Solitary or parallel play </li></ul>Social Play
    26. 27. Social Strategies <ul><li>Protect the student from bullying and teasing </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize skills the student is good at </li></ul><ul><li>Teach how to react to social cues </li></ul><ul><li>Give scripted responses to use in social situations </li></ul><ul><li>Model and role play two-way interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Use social stories </li></ul>
    27. 28. Social Stories <ul><li>Describe social situations in terms of relevant social cues </li></ul><ul><li>Often define appropriate responses </li></ul><ul><li>Teach routines, academics, and address a variety of behaviors </li></ul>
    28. 29. A Sample Social Story <ul><li>Sometimes a person says “I changed my mind.” Descriptive </li></ul><ul><li>This means they had one idea, but now they have a new idea. Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>I will work on staying calm when someone changes their mind. Directive </li></ul><ul><li>When someone says, “I changed my mind,”I can think of someone writing something down, scratching it out, and writing something new. Control </li></ul>
    29. 30. Play Strategies <ul><li>Teach play skills </li></ul><ul><li>Teach interaction with others </li></ul><ul><li>Limit time spent alone </li></ul><ul><li>Structure play time (Plan, plan, plan for recess, free play, lunch, Phys.Ed.) </li></ul>
    30. 31. Challenges Summary <ul><li>Challenges for students with ASD: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social / Play </li></ul></ul>
    31. 32. Positive Behavior Supports <ul><li>Structure is a key component of a classroom for students who have Autism Spectrum Disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Behavior Supports includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing the physical environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing work systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using visual materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing clear and explicit expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating an independent learner </li></ul></ul>
    32. 33. Positive Behavior Supports <ul><li>Physical organization of the classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consistent, visually clear boundaries for activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transition area (check schedule) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Schedules (help anticipate and predict events) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduces problems with time and organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minimize strain on attention and memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>compensate for language impairment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>foster independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase motivation to complete work before play </li></ul></ul>
    33. 34. Positive Behavior Supports <ul><li>Individual Work Stations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>informs student about what to do while in independent work time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>informs student of amount of work to be done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>helps student see when almost finished </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning Task Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individualized ‘jigs’ or templates to demonstrate how task is to be completed </li></ul></ul>
    34. 35. Positive Behavior Supports <ul><li>Reasons for using structure </li></ul><ul><li>Helps the person with autism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>understand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be calm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure is a form of behavior management </li></ul><ul><li>A means to increase independence through visual structure </li></ul>
    35. 36. All Students Need to Know <ul><li>What is expected of them </li></ul><ul><li>What is the routine </li></ul><ul><li>What is socially relevant so they can respond appropriately </li></ul>
    36. 37. Make Language Visible
    37. 38. <ul><li>“ Visual Strategy” </li></ul><ul><li>▪ Refers to a variety of visual input (receptive) and output (expressive) systems that can help a child manage behavior and improve social and communication skills. </li></ul>
    38. 39. Visual Strategies <ul><li>Visual supports help students gain information through their sense of sight. </li></ul><ul><li>ALL students can benefit from the use of visual cues! </li></ul>
    39. 40. Why is visual communication so important? <ul><li>Individuals with autism and other disabilities have difficulty attending and understanding auditory input. </li></ul>
    40. 41. We all use visuals to enhance communication! <ul><li>body language </li></ul><ul><li>natural environmental cues </li></ul><ul><li>traditional cues for organization and information sharing </li></ul><ul><li>EXAMPLES: facial expressions, directions on packages, shopping lists </li></ul>
    41. 42. Visual Strategies <ul><li>Some examples of Visual Strategies are: </li></ul><ul><li>Schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Transitions </li></ul><ul><li>Calendars </li></ul><ul><li>Task Organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Management Tools </li></ul>
    42. 43. Visual Strategies Schedules <ul><li>In a typical school or home: </li></ul><ul><li>Most information is given verbally. </li></ul><ul><li>It is frequently assumed that children already know routines and information which may result in no information being given at all. </li></ul>
    43. 44. Visual Strategies Schedules <ul><li>Give information such as: </li></ul><ul><li>regular tasks that need to be done </li></ul><ul><li>new activities that may be occurring </li></ul><ul><li>changes in regular activities </li></ul><ul><li>what happens next </li></ul><ul><li>when it’s time to move to another activity </li></ul>
    44. 45. Visual Strategies Schedules <ul><li>To create a schedule: </li></ul><ul><li>Map out the main activities in a child’s day </li></ul><ul><li>Select a representation system </li></ul><ul><li>Label each activity with the exact name </li></ul><ul><li>Select a format </li></ul>
    45. 46. Visual Strategies Schedules <ul><li>To use a schedule, you may: </li></ul><ul><li>Color code the schedule for easier recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Give the student a means to check it </li></ul><ul><li>Allow the child to manipulate it (e.g., take item off, cross off, turn over, point to item) </li></ul><ul><li>Have child carry schedule item to activity location </li></ul>
    46. 51. Visual Strategies Transition Helpers <ul><li>Prepare child for change in activity </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tell how many more (turns, puzzle pieces, songs, etc.) before the end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>visually illustrate how long by using a clock or timer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>warn them as transition time approaches </li></ul></ul>
    47. 52. Visual Strategies Transition Helpers <ul><li>Change may be difficult for some children and could result in: </li></ul><ul><li>protesting </li></ul><ul><li>refusal </li></ul><ul><li>disruptive behavior </li></ul>
    48. 53. Visual Strategies Transition Helpers <ul><li>Strategies for successful transitions: </li></ul><ul><li>- have child carry something with them to next activity </li></ul><ul><li>- let the child know when they can go back to a favored activity </li></ul><ul><li>- tell the child what will be happening when an undesired activity is finished </li></ul>
    49. 54. Visual Strategies Calendars <ul><li>Help student organize their day and understand sequence and time concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Useful as a tool to discuss events that are meaningful to the child </li></ul>
    50. 55. Visual Strategies Calendars <ul><li>Strategies for calendar use: </li></ul><ul><li>Teach students to use the calendar to get information </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a calendar for home use </li></ul><ul><li>Have the child use a personal calendar </li></ul>
    51. 60. Visual Strategies Task Organizers <ul><li>Give detailed information about the task at hand--the child doesn’t need to recall lengthy sequences </li></ul><ul><li>Step-by-step prompts to enable students to successfully accomplish a task </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a systematic and consistent way for staff to teach the steps to complete a task </li></ul>
    52. 61. Visual Strategies Task Organizers <ul><li>Help children who may: </li></ul><ul><li>forget the order of the steps </li></ul><ul><li>eliminate steps of a given task </li></ul><ul><li>forget what comes next </li></ul>
    53. 62. Visual Strategies Management Tools <ul><li>Designed for the teacher to communicate more effectively to the students </li></ul><ul><li>Support communication that the teacher uses to direct student movement and basic instruction </li></ul>
    54. 63. Visual Strategies Management Tools <ul><li>Allow children to function more independently </li></ul><ul><li>Are constantly available throughout the activity </li></ul><ul><li>Are visual representations of instructions or rules </li></ul>My Turn
    55. 68. Visual Strategies Effective Implementation Tips <ul><li>Students need to be taught to use the tools </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce the tool systematically </li></ul><ul><li>Gain the students’ attention before using the tool </li></ul><ul><li>Place the tool in a place convenient for the student to access </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hodgdon, 2001 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    56. 69. Visual Strategies Effective Implementation Tips <ul><li>Give students time to learn what the tools mean and how to use them </li></ul><ul><li>Modify tools as needed </li></ul><ul><li>Strive for the most concrete symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Use tools consistently </li></ul><ul><li>Hodgdon, 2001 </li></ul>
    57. 70. SHOW ME AND I REMEMBER… Tell me and I forget! Bring what to school?
    58. 71. “ Good teachers helped me to achieve success. Children with autism need to have a structured day, and teachers who know how to be firm but gentle.” Temple Grandin, Ph.D.
    59. 72. Resources <ul><ul><li>Hodgdon, Linda A. M.Ed., CCC-SLP, Visual Strategies for Improving Communication, Volume 1: Practical Supports for School and Home , Quirk Roberts Publishing, Troy, MI, 1999. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Janzen, Janice E., M.S., Understanding the Nature of Autism: A Practical Guide . Therapy Skill Builders, The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, TX, 1996. </li></ul></ul>
    60. 73. Resources (con’t) <ul><ul><li>Mayer-Johnson Co., Boardmaker (software), Solana, CA, 1999. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quill, Kathleen Ann, Ed.D., Teaching Children with Autism: Strategies to Enhance Communication and Socialization, Delmar Publishers, New York, NY, 1995 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Garcia-Winner, Michelle, SLP, Thinking About You Thinking About Me, San Jose, CA 2007 </li></ul></ul>
    61. 74. Questions <ul><li>behaviorsupport.kfp </li></ul><ul><li>@telus.net </li></ul><ul><li>Powerpoint available at: </li></ul><ul><li>  www.slideshare.net/billreid </li></ul>

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