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Action research working copy

  1. 1. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028 Promoting and Maintaining Mobile Technology in the Primary ClassroomAbstract After completing a needs assessment on the accessibility of the mobile laptop labs in thebuilding, it was discovered that there was a need for a revised reservation system, and atechnology education program in the primary grades. The reservation system was easilycorrected by instituting a set of guidelines and adopting a web-based reservation system that waseasy to use and easily accessible to all teachers, at home and at work. By making the systemeasily accessible, it encouraged the teachers to use the equipment more often. The technology education program involved input from all the stakeholders. What wasconceived to be the problem preventing technology usage in the primary grades was not actuallythe problem. The administrators and I believed the problem to be a lack of skill and confidenceon the part of the teachers. This was not the case. The issue was a matter of behavior. Theteachers were worried about losing control of the class while working with students who neededhigh amounts of attention due to little skills, and low attention spans. By working with a strongteam, we were able to create a program that worked with the teachers’ small reading groups,rather than the class as a whole. This allowed the teacher to work on the laptops with groups of 5or less and still have control of her classroom by following normal class routines. The programhad many positive outcomes, but required many hours of training and support.Introduction Fairmeadows Elementary School is located in Duncanville, Texas. It houses kindergartenthrough 4th grade and has a population of approximately 630 students. The school ethnicity is Page 1
  2. 2. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028primarily Hispanic at 78.4% with an economically disadvantaged percentage of 85.9%. TheAfrican American population is at 13.1%. Many of the students here have limited access to theinternet and other technology. The younger the student, the less access is available to them. Theprimary source of access is the school computer lab once a week for an hour per class. Theteachers in the building are fairly fluent in accessing technology on a personal and professionallevel. The goal was to expand this technological fluency to all of our students and maketechnology a tool for learning in our classrooms. The need for an equitable system to promote and maintain the usage of our mobile, laptoplabs became apparent after several complaints were presented to our building administrator.Several teachers reported that the labs were not available because 2-3 teachers were signing upfor the lab on a permanent basis. The principal began to review who was using the laptop labs,and, consequently, who was not. The school technology specialist was keeping a simple sign-upsheet that consisted of a first-come, first-serve reservation system. After reviewing the data, ourprincipal determined that indeed 3 teachers were using the lab over 80% of the time. Two ofthese teachers were part of the Fourth grade team, and the third was the school librarian. She alsodetermined that none of the Pre-Kindergarten, Kindergarten, or First Grade teachers had used thelab at all in the past school year, and only 2 of the second grade teachers had used the lab. Ofthose two teachers, one had only accessed the lab once. The data showed a need to restructureour school wide policy on the mobile laptop labs, as well as a plan of action to promote the usageof the labs in the younger, primary grades. After completing the needs assessment, we decided that we needed a course of action thatwould make the labs readily available for everyone in such a way that was not time consumingor labor intensive, as well as promote the usage of the laptop labs in the younger grades in a Page 2
  3. 3. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028relevant and maintainable approach. A new laptop usage policy and a technology-basedreservation system that required less than thirty minutes per six weeks of monitoring andmaintenance after implementation would be used to provide usage for all teachers in a fair andequitable manner. Data would be collected and reviewed on a regular six weeks schedule toverify usage by all faculty. A committee would be formed consisting of at least one teacher fromKindergarten, First, and Second Grade, myself, and the 2 school-wide Design Coaches. Thiscommittee would create and implement a plan that would train and mentor the teachers ontechnology usage with younger students. The goal is to have the primary grade teachers use themobile laptop labs a minimum of two times after training. A mentor would be available to offerassistance as needed to help facilitate this process. The benefits of providing a technology program for younger students would be wide spread.This would help students gain more access and fluency in technology to help them gain skillscomparable to their peers who have more home access. By learning the basics of access andethical use at a young age, technology becomes a tool to help students learn, rather than a lessonto be learned. The teachers would benefit by gaining the ability to work with young children in arelevant and workable approach. By determining the limitations, and working with the team toovercome those limitations, new technology and tools become accessible to the teacher and tothe student. As a special education teacher, the ability to implement an interactive, internet basedprogram for young students will directly influence my classroom. My students have many of thesame limitations of limited reading ability, low attention spans, and other behavior issues, as wellas limited knowledge of technology usage. As a teacher, this program is useful in my classroom,as a leader, this program has helped me to learn how to assess needs and the limitations thatmake that need difficult to attain. Developing a program to address those needs instilled upon me Page 3
  4. 4. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028the importance of building a strong team, and using their strengths and knowledge to help build astrong program. Mobile technology is defined as the use of a variety of devices that allow students or teachersto access data and information from where ever they are. In the setting of the school this allowsstudents to access data and information from their desk, their classroom, the library, or in a smallreading group on the floor. Primary grades are defined as the younger grades in an elementary school. This includesKindergarten, First, and Second Grade. Low-income is defined in the terms of the state educational definition. This is determined byapplication for free and reduced lunch. Students qualifying for free or reduced lunch determinethe school’s low socio-economic percentage and standing. Reservation system is defined as a system used to schedule and reserve a room or piece ofequipment for usage on a particular day or time. First come, first serve is not always the mostequitable form of a reservation system. Reservation systems can be utilized through a paper andpencil approach, or through a digital approach. Either way can be effective. Mobile Laptop Labs are defined as a cart containing a class set of lap top or net bookcomputers and a printer linked to all the computers that can be transported throughout thebuilding to any classroom. This allows the teacher to put a laptop on every students desk fortech-enabled lessons or testing. Professional learning communities are defined as teams of educators systematically workingtogether to improve teaching practice and student learning. The learning community will include Page 4
  5. 5. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028all the stakeholders and will work to fulfill needs and overcome obstacles. “The powerfulcollaboration that characterizes professional learning communities is a systematic process inwhich teachers work together to analyze and improve their classroom practice. Teachers work inteams, engaging in an ongoing cycle of questions that promote deep team learning. This process,in turn, leads to higher levels of student achievement.” (DuFour, 2004)Literature Review “For an ESTE (Elementary School Technology Education) program to be successful, itmust begin with the teacher. A variety of models have been presented in the literature over thepast 20 years to implement successful ESTE. Each of these models requires well-trained,energetic, and creative classroom teachers who desire to learn and deliver a new curriculum andprocesses and an administration that is willing to take some risks (Kirkwood, 2000).” (Engstrom,no date) We knew that if we wanted our new program to be successful, then we needed forteachers to be fully vested in the process. This became a key point of my project. The reason forimplementing this program becomes evident when reviewing Kulik’s 2003 article.Major implications for educators/decision makers:Findings from Kulik’s review of studies show that: • Professional development for teachers and easy access to Internet connected computers for teachers and students enhance the learning effectiveness of instructional technology. Page 5
  6. 6. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028 • Computer enrichment programs have positive effects on students’ writing, mathematics, and performance in the natural and social sciences. In fact, “simply giving students greater access to computers and Internet resources often results in gains in writing skill” (p.x). • The effects of using Integrated Learning Systems can be increased by providing more time for students to spend on the ILS instruction and by enabling students to work in pairs on the ILS instruction, rather than individually. • Student familiarity with and knowledge of computers influences effectiveness of technology-based instruction. • The effectiveness of simulation programs for helping students to acquire higher order thinking skills can be increased with additional hands-on activities, and when the simulations are used as preparation for further instruction. • Writing skills programs that provide prompts independent of student requests are most effective. Michael D. Wright discusses the importance of technology education in the elementaryschools in his article, Technology Education in the American Elementary School. He states, “In today’s technology-based society it is imperative for all students to be technologicallyliterate (Dyrenfurth & Kozak, 1991; Technology for All Americans Project [TAAP], 1996;Raizen, Sellwood, Todd, & Vickers, 1995). Many national reports on the status of science andtechnology education (TE) in the United States have called upon schools to provide increasedexperiences with technology and to focus on technological literacy (see, for example, AmericanAssociation for the Advancement of Science [AAAS], 1989; Johnson, 1989; TechnologyEducation Advisory Committee [TEAC], 1988; TAAP, 1996). In fact, Strand #8 in the National Page 6
  7. 7. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028Council for the Social Studies Standards (1994) specifically calls for an understanding oftechnology, not just computers.” (1999, p.56)He further expands on this information with the following statement, “Indeed, understanding technology and its social and environmental impacts andconsequences should start as soon as students begin attending school. All students, regardless ofsocioeconomic level, race, ethnic background, community, disability,or career aspiration, need to be able to cope with change, identify and solve problems,make appropriate decisions, and employ technology in their daily lives.” (Wright, M.D., 1999,p.56)Wright remarks on how technology integrates easily into the elementary curriculum by stating,“The current push for content integration is evident throughout educational literature in general.At the elementary-school level, this is happening largely through a thematic approach.Integration can and should involve all subjects, including technology. ESTE has the uniqueability to help integrate and provide relevance to the elementary-school curriculum.” (1999,p.57).Wright documented research data on student achievement. He found Definite strengths in usingtechnology education, but also reported that at this time not all areas report positive gains. “Student Achievement Page 7
  8. 8. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028The results of the research that focused on student achievement are summarized as follows: (a)Children’s interest and motivation in other subject areas may be increased when TE is combinedwith or used as a method for teaching other school subjects and (b) students may become moreindependent learners through the inclusion of TE. However,there is no conclusive evidence to suggest that students learn the information better, or retain itlonger, as a result of studying technology, with the possible exception of improvements inreading comprehension. While the relationship among science,mathematics, and technology seems obvious to practitioners in the field, the evidence from thesestudies does not indicate that there is a significant gain in either science or mathematicsachievement as a result of TE. However, preliminary research indicates that career education,language use, and reading comprehension may be significantly improved through TE. Butsubstantial research to support irrefutable conclusions at this time is lacking.” (Wright, 1999, p.59 – 60). Teachers have found several effects on students when using technology in the classroom. Afew of these are, • “Students, even at the elementary school level, are able to acquire an impressive level of skill with a broad range of computer software. Although the specific software tools in use will likely change before these students enter the world of work, the students acquire a basic understanding of how various classes of computer tools behave and a confidence about being able to learn to use new tools that will support their learning of new software applications. Page 8
  9. 9. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028 • The most common--and in fact, nearly universal--teacher-reported effect on students was an increase in motivation. Teachers and students are sometimes surprised at the level of technology-based accomplishment displayed by students who have shown much less initiative or facility with more conventional academic tasks. • When students are using technology as a tool or a support for communicating with others, they are in an active role rather than the passive role of recipient of information transmitted by a teacher, textbook, or broadcast. The student is actively making choices about how to generate, obtain, manipulate, or display information. Technology use allows many more students to be actively thinking about information, making choices, and executing skills than is typical in teacher-led lessons. Moreover, when technology is used as a tool to support students in performing authentic tasks, the students are in the position of defining their goals, making design decisions, and evaluating their progress.” (Effects of technology on classrooms and students). Noeth and Volkov provide a final study focuses on the effectiveness of technology in ourschools. “However, technology and equity are not inevitable partners. Simply providing accessdoes not ensure that technology will effectively enhance teaching and learning and result inimproved achievement. Nor does providing access imply that all teachers and students will makeoptimal use of the technology. Technology may mean little without appropriate objectives andgoals for its use, structures for its application, trained and skillful deliverers, and clearlyenvisioned plans for evaluating its effectiveness.” (Noeth & Volkov, 2004, p. vi) They Page 9
  10. 10. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028addressed this by the following two measures. “Two yardsticks we can use to measure the stridestechnology has made are accessibility by students (and teachers) to technology resources andhow technology is actually utilized by schools and teachers in different settings and for differentstudents.” (p.vii).Noeth and Volkov have found that, In terms of utilization, technology has expanded from use primarily as an instructionaldelivery medium to an integral part of the learning environment. Technology is serving at leastfour distinct purposes in the schools:_ To teach, drill, and practice using increasingly sophisticated digital content._ To provide simulations and real world experiences to develop cognitive thinking and to extend learning._ To provide access to a wealth of information and enhanced communications through the Internet and other related information technologies._ As a productivity tool employing application software such as spreadsheets, databases, and word processors to manage information, solve problems, and produce sophisticated products. Research reviews have generally concurred that:_ When combined with traditional instruction, the use of computers can increase student learning in the traditional curriculum and basic skills area._ The integration of computers with traditional instruction produces higher academic achievement in a variety of subject areas than does traditional Page 10
  11. 11. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028 instruction alone._ Students learn more quickly and with greater retention when learning with the aid of computers._ Students like learning with computers and their attitudes toward learning and school are positively affected by computer use._ The use of computers appears most promising for low achieving and at-risk students._ Effective and adequate teacher training is an integral element of successful learning programs based or assisted by technology6 (p.vii-viii) Wright gives a base on which to build the idea of an elementary classroom that is usingtechnology in educationally significant ways. Rubenstein gives us approaches on how toeffectively implement technology in an elementary classroom. In her article, TechnologyIntegration for Elementary Classroom, Grace Rubenstein provided good, workable approachesfor using technology with your elementary students. She states, “Start with the standards. Use technology only when it enhances your content -- not theother way around. Its less effective if you use technology for technologys sake.Put the tools in kids hands. ( White boards, Remote clickers , Digital and video cameras: ,Mobile devices)Maintain the same rigor as in pen-and-paper projects. Students still have to do the same levelof planning and research, whether theyre producing an old-fashioned poster or a podcast. Give Page 11
  12. 12. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028them your rubric up front, so they know whats expected of them. If possible, show examples ofmodel work.Connect with peers far awayGradually give kids more independence.Curate students online destinationsGive kids a real audience.Relax. Young and rambunctious as the students may be, Forest Lake has not had one laptopdropped or broken beyond repair. Williams suggests you teach them basic care: Wear the camerastrap around your wrist; tuck the computer cables under the table; use protective cases whenpossible. Beyond that, make the kids feel like these valuable tools are theirs, and chances aretheyll want to take care of them.Have a backup plan. Dont get caught lesson-less in the event of a technological meltdown.(Theres nothing wrong with an occasional nostalgic trip back to the world of the printed page.)As Williams says, "Technology is still a fickle little thing." Oh, and keep some spare batteries onhand.” (Rubenstein, G., 2010)Rubenstein expands on these tips in her article, I think one of the hardest tips for teachers is torelax, and it is also one of the most important. If they are able to relax, they are often able toapply the others, also. The research and data has shown that a clear need for adequate teacher training is needed toimplement a strong technology education program in the elementary classroom as well as clearstandards and good lesson structure. The results of this type of technology program will help ourstudents to be more effective in their learning as well as more motivated. Page 12
  13. 13. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028 Engstrom states “At the elementary school, there has not been the plethora of curriculum,resource availability, and especially research about elementary technology educationexperience.” (p. 1). This statement emphasizes the difficulty I have had in finding research basedapproaches to the needs of our young students. By accessing data from several sources, andusing the experience of several experienced professional sources, we were able to create a planand implement it. A professional learning community brings in all the stake holders, improvesteacher knowledge and student learning. Professional Learning communities focus on four bigideas. DuFour defines these ideas and helps give a direction to improving technology educationin our primary grades. Dufour expresses this by putting forth these questions. “What are the “big ideas” thatrepresent the core principles of professional learning communities? How do these principlesguide schools efforts to sustain the professional learning community model until it becomesdeeply embedded in the culture of the school?” The big ideas are: • Ensuring that students learn • A culture of collaboration • A focus on results On top of these ideas is an emphasis on hard work and commitment.“Even the grandest design eventually translates into hard work. The professional learningcommunity model is a grand design—a powerful new way of working together that profoundlyaffects the practices of schooling. But initiating and sustaining the concept requires hard work. Itrequires the school staff to focus on learning rather than teaching, work collaboratively on Page 13
  14. 14. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028matters related to learning, and hold itself accountable for the kind of results that fuel continualimprovement.When educators do the hard work necessary to implement these principles, their collective abilityto help all students learn will rise. If they fail to demonstrate the discipline to initiate and sustainthis work, then their school is unlikely to become more effective, even if those within it claim tobe a professional learning community. The rise or fall of the professional learning communityconcept depends not on the merits of the concept itself, but on the most important element in theimprovement of any school—the commitment and persistence of the educators within it.”(DuFour, 2004)Action Research DesignSubjects This project involves an elementary school in a low-income, predominantly Hispanicneighborhood. The parents and community are actively involved in school activities, but theylack knowledge and skills to help students with their educational needs. Many of the students(over 65%) do not have home internet access, and many of those who do have access, have dialup access. Most of the students’ access to technology and internet skills comes through theschool environment. In order to promote and maintain mobile technology in the classrooms, I needed to addresstwo different populations. The first population consisted of elementary school teachers teaching Page 14
  15. 15. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028in grades Kindergarten through 4th grade, in regards to the reservation system, and the secondgroup consisted of teachers teaching in grades Kindergarten through 2nd grade as well as theirstudents in regards to promoting technology education in the primary classroom. The studentpopulation is primarily Hispanic at 78.4%, and consists of students who are economicallydisadvantaged (85.9%). The teacher population is primarily white (53.1%) with a strongHispanic mix (31.3%) and all female. The teachers are experienced with 40.6% having over 11years experience, and another 9.4% having over 20 years experience. There is only one first yearteacher in the building. The teachers are experienced in working in professional learningcommunities, and have a good working relationship in the building. All of the teachers in thebuilding were involved in this project. Third and Fourth grade teachers were limited to thereservation system. Based on the research we collected, and knowing that this was a districtmandate, we felt that implementing a plan that fully involved the teachers would aid our studentsin becoming more successful in their educational and lifetime learning.Procedures The principal introduced the idea that everyone would be required to use the mobile labs atthe faculty meeting at the beginning of the year. She also made it clear that new policies werebeing implemented and that there would be plenty support for all teachers. The staff wasintroduced to the new mobile laptop lab policy and technology-based calendar at grade levelmeetings at the beginning of the year. This was accomplished before they were able to reservethe labs for use. The consequences for violating the policy were also outlined to the entirefaculty. A committee was formed to address the needs of the younger grade levels. The Page 15
  16. 16. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028representatives were chosen by their level of interest in the project, and their level of influenceon the grade level. The grade level meetings were used to give information, to gather data, and totrain teachers. This worked well because it focused information in a direct, relevant way thataddressed the specific needs of each teacher and each grade level. I addressed the lab reservation issue by discussing with the principal what she wanted out ofthe system. After getting her requirements, I enlisted the aid of the two technology specialists inthe building to help create a set of policies to guide the usage of the labs. I decided to create awiki with an embedded calendar to help make the registration system a self-serve process. Thecalendar did not require any passwords or wiki memberships to be able to use it. The teachersonly needed to click on the date and complete the form to sign up for the lab. They could notdelete or edit any entries though. This must be done by the wiki administrator. This preventedany abuse of the system. It was also possible for the administrator to delete, edit, or change anyentry that did not meet policy guidelines. The technology integration into the primary classrooms was a much more intensive process.The preliminary data gathered through the survey process helped to guide the committee increating a relevant, useful program that was implemented on a teacher by teacher basis. Theinformation was given in the grade level meetings, but the training was implemented in a hands-on approach that was facilitated by the use of a mentor who provided the original lessons to becompleted by the students using the labs, as well as the small group structuring that is vital to thesuccess of this approach. The small group approach addresses the behavior issues that theteachers were concerned with as well as allowing the teachers to provide the direct assistanceand support that the student needs to be successful at this beginning skill level. This process had Page 16
  17. 17. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028an initial time commitment of about 20 hours from the committee. These hours were completedduring regular school hours. I provided the survey and gathered the results. The design coacheswere committed to providing training and mentoring in 2 hour blocks until the teachers weretrained and comfortable in the usage of the laptop labs. There was no additional cost or materialsfor this program beyond the time commitment by the design coaches and the individual teachers.The time commitment on the part of the design coaches was significant. They trained 15 teacherswith a minimum of 2 sessions for each teacher. A few of the teachers (less than 5) requested athird session of assistance to gain confidence in their ability. The process to involve the primary grade teachers in using technology was much moreinvolved than the reservation system. We knew that we were being mandated to incorporatetechnology usage at all grade levels in the classroom. We knew that the teachers in those gradelevels were seasoned veteran teaches. We thought they were resisting the use of technologybecause of their lack of knowledge and comfort in that area. After completing an involved surveyof the teachers in Kindergarten, First, and Second grade, we found that most of the teachers wereknowledgeable in the area of technology. They also knew about the lack of technology in theirstudents’ homes. This meant that the students needed to learn the most basic skills before theycould be successful. This meant that the teacher needed to provide a lot of one-to-one support.Monitoring a classroom of students and preventing those students from getting off tasks whileproviding that level of extensive support was preventing the teachers from using the labs. Byforming a committee of those who would be implementing the strategies, and using the dataprovided by the participants, we gained a lot of initial support. By providing a strategy toapproach the issues that concerned them, as well as being actively involved in the classroom Page 17
  18. 18. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028during implementation, we were able to gain the support of all the teachers involved. Wecontinued to meet in grade level meetings about once every six weeks to discuss concerns,strengths, and new ideas. This made the whole process a community (grade-level) effort, and theteachers in each grade level were helping each other to be successful. All primary grade teachersaccessed the mobile laptop labs at least twice after training. It was a very positive experience. One of the concerns that prompted this project was the lack of technology in our students’homes. Most students have access to cell phones and computer games, but very little actualcomputer and internet experience. The younger students do not have many of the prerequisiteskills that we expect students to have. We felt that our students needed to gain these skills asearly as possible to help facilitate their learning. By incorporating these lessons into the smallreading groups, we were able to make this a productive learning experience for all students. Thiswas an effective approach for students with special needs and language issues, as well as yourgifted and bright students. This allowed the teachers to give a high level of specialized support toeach student. By incorporating the use of the mobile laptop labs into the classrooms of theseyounger students, we hope to facilitate their growth in technology and in the use of technology inall of their learning. We promoted the use of the laptop labs by including communication withthe parents. We provided mini-lessons that parents were able to complete at home with theirstudents to support the skills they learned at school on the laptops. These lessons did not requireaccess to technology to complete, but several parents made a point to include more technology intheir home environments to aid their students’ educational process. The public library may alsobe given access to the mini-lessons that the teachers used in the classroom to be used forfacilitating basic technology skills by others in the community.Data Collection Page 18
  19. 19. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028 Data collection on the reservation system was easily completed due to the digital nature of thesystem. The calendar system automatically kept records of who had accesses the system and onwhat dates and times they had reserved the mobile laptop labs for. A survey consisting of thecomplete teaching staff was also completed to collect data on the satisfaction of the teachers onthe system. Data collection of the implementation of the technology education plan in the primary gradeswas more intensive, but consisted of many of the same elements. The reservation system wasused to document the participation of the primary teachers, and surveys of all the primary gradeteachers were completed on the teachers’ satisfaction and thoughts on the effectiveness of theprogram. The design committee also completed surveys on the effectiveness of the program.Findings The registration process is a self-running process that required a set of guidelines and anefficient tool to make it effective. Once the faculty was introduced to the new process, theyeasily accepted and implemented the self-service system because it was simple to use andreduced the steps needed to reserve the labs. It made their job easier, so they accepted the newprocess with little resistance. The upper levels used the labs on a more consistent basis, but thelower grades made a point to access the labs on a scheduled basis and promote technology usagewith their students. All teachers in the lower grades accessed the labs at least twice in the SpringSemester. Previous usage was zero the year before for all teachers in grades PK-1Conclusions and Recommendations Page 19
  20. 20. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028 . The technology education program In the primary grades was effective and received goodsupport from the teachers involved. They did suggest that the program would need maintenanceto be successful on a long term basis. After collecting information from the implementation ofthe training and usage policy, as well as surveying the teachers involved in the training it isrecommended that the professional learning communities continue in the grade level meetings.This peer support as well as the hands-on support from the design coaches needs to be on-goingto promote technology usage in the classrooms of young students. All new teachers need to beassigned a mentor from their grade level to train them in the use of the labs in small groupsettings and to provide on-going support to increase usage. The reservation system was well accepted due to how easy it was to use and maintain. Theteachers were encouraged to use the mobile laptop labs because the reservation system waseasily accessible from home or work and required less effort than the previous system. Arefresher course will be needed each year to remind teachers of the guidelines and accessibility. Overall, the data collected from the action research plan was positive and created positivelearning for teachers and students. The project was effective, and relatively inexpensive in cost.The costs were due to the labor intensive format of the educational training, beyond that, costswere minimal.ReferencesDuFour, R. (2004, May). What is a professional learning community. Educational leadership: Schools as learning communities, vol. 61, number 8. p. 6-11. Retrieved on April 19, 2012 from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/may04/vol61/numo8/What-Is- Page 20
  21. 21. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028 a-Professional-Learning-Community%C2%A2.aspxEffects of technology on classrooms and students. (no date) Retrieved on April 19, 2012 from http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/EdReformStudies/EdTech/effectsstudents.html.Engstrom, D.E. (no date). Change and progress in elementary technology education. iteaconnect.org. page 1. Retrieved on 09/13/2011 from http://www.iteaconnect.org/ Conference/PATT/PATT15/Engstrom.pdfKulik, J. (2003). Effects of using instructional technology in elementary and secondary schools: What controlled evaluation studies say. Arlington, Virginia: SRI International. Retrieved 09/13/2011 from http://www.sri.com/policy/csted/reports/sandt/it/Kulik_ITinK-12_Main _Report.pdfNoeth, R.J. & Volkov, B.B. (2004). Evaluating the effectiveness of technology in our schools: ACT policy report. ACT Inc. Retrieved on April 19, 2012 from http://www.act.org/research/policymakers/pdf/school_tech.pdf Page 21
  22. 22. Rebecca Pruneda EDLD5398 – ET 8028Rubenstein, G. (2010, April). Technology integration for elementary classrooms. Edutopia, The George Lucas Educational Foundation. Retrieved on April 19, 2012 from http://www.edutopia.org/stw-differentiated-instruction-technology-integrationWright, M.D. ( 1999, Spring). Technology education in the American elementary school. Retrieved 04/ 19/2012 from http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JOTS/Winter-Spring- 1999/PDF/wright.pdf Page 22

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