But How Will You Get There


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But How Will You Get There

  1. 1. BUT HOW WILL YOU GET THERE? Adam Vlcek Life Skills Support Teacher Mt. Lebanon School District Michelle Holsapple Travel Instructor Allegheny Intermediate Unit
  2. 2. <ul><li>Language in educational law that supports the introduction of concepts and development of skills related to travel </li></ul><ul><li>The wide range of skills associated with travel and the ability to safely negotiate travel situations </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies that can be used by teachers and parents before, during, and after community-based instruction </li></ul><ul><li>How planned activities and instructional goals can be introduced into the curriculum to practice travel-related skills in school </li></ul>Objectives of Today’s Presentation Participants will Have a Better Understanding of…
  3. 3. Travel Instruction as Part of the Education Process <ul><li>In 1997, language related to travel training for students with significant cognitive disabilities was included in IDEA </li></ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania Academic Standards support curriculum that is applicable to the world in which we live. </li></ul><ul><li>Transition planning includes provisions for community participation, of which transportation considerations are a part. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Travel Instruction in the IDEA 2006 <ul><li>Sec. 300.39 Special Education. </li></ul><ul><li>(a) General. (1) Special Education means specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability, including— </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Instruction conducted in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals and institutions, and in other settings… </li></ul>
  5. 5. Travel Instruction in IDEA 2006 (cont’d) <ul><li>Travel training means providing instruction, as appropriate, to children with significant cognitive disabilities, and any other children with disabilities who require this instruction, to enable them to: </li></ul><ul><li>develop an awareness of the environment in which they live; and </li></ul><ul><li>learn the skills necessary to move effectively and safely from place to place within that environment (e.g., in school, in the home, at work, and in the community) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>[300.39(b)(4)] </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Allegheny Intermediate Unit’s Perspective on Best Practice in Travel Instruction <ul><li>Safety of the student is the most important aspect of the program therefore we: </li></ul><ul><li>Use an assessment process to determine the student’s skills and needs </li></ul><ul><li>Provide instruction that goes beyond basic route travel and includes pedestrian safety, personal safety, and problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Document whether a student has demonstrated proficiency before traveling independently </li></ul><ul><li>Use certified Special Education Teachers who have completed competency based training as Travel Instructors to provide instruction. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Where did the perspective come from? <ul><li>The Allegheny Intermediate Unit aligns their training for Travel Instructors with the Competencies for the Practice of Travel Instruction and Travel Training developed by Western Michigan University </li></ul><ul><li>There are parallels to the development of the field of Orientation and Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Special Education foundation provides a base of knowledge for working with persons with cognitive, physical and other disabilities in order to effectively address the impact of disability on travel </li></ul>
  8. 8. Travel is Not Simply About Movement From ‘HERE’ to ‘THERE’ We need to view the ability to travel as more than just going from ‘point a’ to ‘ point b’, but rather systematically making use of the range of skills necessary to move purposefully through the world.
  9. 9. How Travel Instructors Work with Educators and other Professionals <ul><li>Design travel instruction goals to be integrated in the IEP [Indicator 13] </li></ul><ul><li>Consult with classroom teachers to ensure that travel related skills are integrated across the curriculum [Travel Skills in the Curriculum] </li></ul><ul><li>Consult with other professionals (cognitive neurologists, speech and language professionals, etc) to assist us in developing the most appropriate plan for the student </li></ul>
  10. 10. How Travel Instructors Work with Educators and other Professionals <ul><li>Design travel instruction goals to be integrated in an individual student’s IEP </li></ul><ul><li>Consult with classroom teachers to ensure that travel related skills are integrated across the curriculum for all students </li></ul><ul><li>Assist school districts to develop guidelines for safe travel practices on field trips and community based instruction. </li></ul>
  11. 11. A Formal Travel Instruction Program Provides Support to Students Making This Transition through <ul><li>Functional Assessment of the student’s strengths and needs for instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Travel Awareness Lessons that introduce beginning concepts related to pedestrian and public transit travel in the community. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Travel Instruction that results in the student’s traveling independently to/from a work or training related destination. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Ability to Travel Encompasses a Wide Range of Skills <ul><li>Awareness of the Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Directional Signage, Landmarks, Way-Finding Clues </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to Recognize and Avoid Dangerous Situations </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Skills To: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Request Assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow Directions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ability to Make Decisions and Problem-Solve </li></ul>
  13. 13. Strategies regarding CBI <ul><li>It’s important to remember that no one strategy (or combination of strategies) can guarantee a student’s independence when it comes to travel </li></ul><ul><li>However, use of these strategies will allow students the opportunity to practice important travel skills both in and out of the classroom </li></ul>
  14. 14. Awareness of the Environment <ul><li>When traveling in the community, a student may not be totally aware of everything happening in his/her environment </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompts/cues from staff during community-based instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviewing pictures/video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google Maps </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Prompts/cues to address awareness in the community <ul><li>Review what items student needs to bring </li></ul><ul><li>Review correct body posture </li></ul><ul><li>Show the student where to look </li></ul><ul><li>Stop saying “Look both ways” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow the time to deal with every situation individually </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Reviewing pictures and video <ul><li>Use of a digital camera is instrumental in teaching appropriate travel skills in the community </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures/video allow students to revisit situations they experienced first-hand </li></ul><ul><li>Having one chaperone dedicated to taking pictures is a great way to ensure that all events during community-based instruction are documented </li></ul>
  17. 17. VIDEO - Prompts given during street crossing
  18. 18. VIDEO – Prompts given during street crossing #2
  19. 19. VIDEO - POV of crossing the street
  20. 20. Pictures provide concrete visual clues as a basis for further discussion regarding visual obstacles…
  21. 21. … unexpected events,
  22. 22. … and other natural obstacles.
  23. 23. Previewing trips using mapping websites <ul><li>Google Maps and Mapquest offer street view mapping of many roads, as well as many city and suburban roads. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers and parents can utilize these websites to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get turn-by-turn directions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preview appropriate street crossing and pedestrian behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine with drawing software to aid in understanding of concepts (Annotate!Pro, ZoomIt, ActivStudio) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Google Map example <ul><li>http://maps.google.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>706 Lebanon Ave., Pittsburgh, PA </li></ul><ul><li>Click on “Street View” and use mouse to view intersection </li></ul>
  25. 25. VIDEO - Using ActivStudio
  26. 26. Signs, Landmarks, & Wayfinding Clues <ul><li>When travelling in the surrounding community, an understanding of signs and landmarks is a crucial component of developing independence in school and vocational settings </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal training in school, “scavenger hunts” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviewing pictures </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Signs in school <ul><li>Travelling within a school can allow for understanding of a variety of signs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School Signs can include: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exit Restroom Signs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency Exit Fire Alarm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Room/Floor numbers Elevator </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School Announcements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. School “scavenger hunts” <ul><li>A student is given a series of way-finding tasks to measure a his/her level of functional independence within a school </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should seek out a number of tasks ranging in difficulty </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no guidance should be given to the student regarding each task to get an accurate gauge of how the student “thinks through” the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Easier tasks can involve simple wayfinding (finding a certain room/office); More difficult tasks could be sabotaged so that there is no answer </li></ul>
  29. 29. Scavenger Hunt given to L.S. (Mt. Lebanon Student) <ul><li>1) Go to the Activities Office and get a flyer for the volunteer opportunities for high school students </li></ul><ul><li>(on the 6 th floor in building C) </li></ul><ul><li>2) Walk to the nurse’s office </li></ul><ul><li>(on the 4 th floor in building B) </li></ul><ul><li>3) Find the name of the closest exit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(B-8 exit) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4) Walk to room 543 </li></ul><ul><li>(there is no room 543) </li></ul><ul><li>5) Walk to Mr. Vlcek’s classroom </li></ul><ul><li>(on the 3 rd floor, room 341) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Signs in the community – Street crossing
  31. 31. Signs in the community – traffic signs
  32. 32. Signs in the community – Public Transit
  33. 33. Signs in the community – other information
  34. 34. Recognizing & Avoiding Dangerous Situations <ul><li>Many students often require direct instruction and repetition of skills to recognize and avoid possibly dangerous, especially as a pedestrian or when using public transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preview appropriate behavior before trip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompts/cues during community-based instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review pictures/video after trip </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Reviewing pictures of possibly dangerous situations <ul><li>Why is the yellow line there? </li></ul><ul><li>You should stay behind the yellow line so when the train passes, you are a safe distance from it. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Reviewing pictures of possibly dangerous situations <ul><li>What is R. doing wrong in this picture? </li></ul><ul><li>He’s looking over the wrong shoulder. He needs to check traffic over his right shoulder just in case. </li></ul>
  37. 37. VIDEO - Waiting for car to turn after walk signal
  38. 38. VIDEO - Watching for multiple cars turning
  39. 39. Communication Skills <ul><li>Ideally, students should have a reliable and effective method of communicating during community-based instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reviewing possible “helpers” in community settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work with parents to ensure student has appropriate identification, phone numbers to call in case of emergency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have student practice appropriate communication during community-based instruction </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Community Helpers <ul><li>During community-based instruction, ask students who they would talk to to solve a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how best to approach the person, possible conversation starters, etc. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Mt. Lebanon examples regarding communication skills during CBI <ul><li>Shopping Trip at local mall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have student ask for store employee to find a particular item </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Making Change for T </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If student doesn’t have exact change for the trolley, have student walk into a local bank and ask for desired change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Restaurants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have each student place their own order </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Making Decisions and Solving Problems <ul><li>Students can be aware of their environment and possibly dangerous situations, but they must use this information to solve problems and make decisions in real-world situations </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to use: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preview & review possible scenarios through question/answer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elapsed time problems using public transit schedules and websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review pictures/video of pedestrian experiences </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Elapsed Time <ul><li>Ensure student has access to a clock (cell phone, watch) and a bus/train schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Write down the time trip began AND the time at which they reached their destination </li></ul><ul><li>Example Questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How long until the next bus/train? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How long will the bus/train trip last? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What bus/train do we have to catch in order to get back to school by _____a.m/p.m? </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. VIDEO - Too many cars!
  45. 45. VIDEO – watching busy intersection to understand the timing of the lights
  46. 46. Travel Skills in the Curriculum <ul><li>When young children and students see safe travel habits modeled, it builds an important foundation for them. </li></ul><ul><li>Age-appropriate concepts and skills related to travel can be introduced at various age and ability levels. </li></ul><ul><li>These skills can be introduced in early childhood programs, as well as in the classroom and school environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Travel-related skills often mirror other academic and functional goals. </li></ul>
  47. 47. In Incorporating Travel-Related Skills in Current Curriculum <ul><li>IDENTIFY the connections between travel-related skills and the current curriculum and educational standards. </li></ul><ul><li>USE natural opportunities and planned activities to encourage application of concepts and skills within the school, as part of the school day. </li></ul><ul><li>OBTAIN and develop resources which support instruction and enhance learning. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Language Arts/Literacy <ul><li>Instructional Area </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary Development </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Travel-Related Skill </li></ul><ul><li>Requesting Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Obtaining Information </li></ul><ul><li>Using the Telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Travel Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Information from Signs </li></ul>
  49. 49. Mathematics/Numeracy <ul><li>Instructional Area </li></ul><ul><li>Number Recognition and Sequences </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Travel-Related Skill </li></ul><ul><li>Way-Finding </li></ul><ul><li>Use of a Map </li></ul><ul><li>Time Management </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of Fare Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Obtaining Information from a Bus Schedule </li></ul>
  50. 50. Social Studies <ul><li>Instructional Area </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of Self </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship to Others </li></ul><ul><li>Rights and Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen Action </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-Making </li></ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Travel-Related Skill </li></ul><ul><li>Self Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Advocate for Accessibility </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Map Skills </li></ul>
  51. 51. Planned Activities Help Build Skills <ul><li>In the school building, have the student: </li></ul><ul><li>Be responsible for their own possessions (hang jackets, carry books, hold money) </li></ul><ul><li>Make decisions when given two or more tasks to perform. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solve a mock situation (for example: use caution tape to block a hallway, lock a door that’s usually open). </li></ul>
  52. 52. In the School Building, Have the Student: <ul><li>Locate and identify functional signage (restroom, exit, phone) </li></ul><ul><li>Move in hallways keeping head raised, staying to the right-hand side, and avoiding obstacles in path. </li></ul><ul><li>Find locations by floor and room number, rather than by function. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a floor plan or internal map of school, including details such as room numbers. </li></ul>
  53. 53. In the School Building, Have the Student: <ul><li>Follow directional language (left, right, upstairs, downstairs) to reach a designated location. </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate action with other staff (for example: take a note to the office, request specific item at lunch). </li></ul><ul><li>Find and use the pay phone to call home </li></ul><ul><li>Locate their school bus by number and board independently </li></ul>
  54. 54. In the School Building, Have the Student: <ul><li>Wait in the lunch line, carry their own lunch tray to table. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a digital or analog timepiece to associate daily routine with time and following a schedule. </li></ul>
  55. 55. In closing… <ul><li>Learning is Not a Spectator Sport </li></ul><ul><li>-Donald Blocher </li></ul>
  56. 56. Thanks so much! <ul><li>Adam Vlcek </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Skills Support Teacher, Mt. Lebanon HS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(412) 344-2000 x13341 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Michelle Holsapple </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel Instructor, AIU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(412) 394-5743 </li></ul></ul>