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The potential of different capture technologies
 

The potential of different capture technologies

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Presentasjon av professor Olav Bolland på ZEROs labutslippskonferanse 2008

Presentasjon av professor Olav Bolland på ZEROs labutslippskonferanse 2008

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    The potential of different capture technologies The potential of different capture technologies Presentation Transcript

    • The Potential of Different Capture Technologies Olav Bolland Professor Norwegian University of Science and Technology – NTNU Gas Technology Centre NTNU – SINTEF Trondheim, Norway Lavutslippskonferansen 2008 Oslo, October 13, 2008 Gas Technology Centre NTNU – SINTEF 1 Olav Bolland
    • Current status – post-combustion N₂/O₂ CO₂ CO₂ Power separation Post-combustion plant CO₂ Coal, Oil, Natural Gas, Biomass CO/H₂ Gasification H₂ H₂ Power N₂/O₂ CO₂ CO₂ compression Shift CO₂ separation plant & conditioning Reforming CO/H₂ CO₂ Power plant O₂ N₂ separation Air Air seperation Air/O₂ Process +CO₂ Sep. Product: Natural gas, ammonia, steel Raw materials Gas Technology Centre NTNU – SINTEF 2 Olav Bolland
    • Post-combustion Low-medium CO2 partial pressure High CO2 partial pressure Medium-high CO2 partial pressure CO2 partial pressure = concentration*flue gas pressure Gas Technology Centre NTNU – SINTEF 3 Olav Bolland
    • Absorption process Treated C.W. gas CO2 C.W. C.W. Stripper/desorber Absorber Fan Gas cooler C.W. steam Feed gas Reboiler Rich solvent Lean solvent Gas Technology Centre NTNU – SINTEF 4 Olav Bolland
    • Absorption CO2 Energy partial pressure consumption 0.6 GJ/t CO2 Physical solvents MDEA Selexol, Rectisol, Purisol,… Medium 1.5 GJ/t CO2 -high Benfield/K2CO3 2.4 GJ/t CO2 Ammonia 3.3 GJ/t CO2 Phase-change MEA+, KS-1 Low- Amine mix medium 4.2 GJ/t CO2 State-of-the-art MEA Power plant flue gas Gas Technology Centre NTNU – SINTEF 5 Olav Bolland
    • Absorption - challenges Energy consumption (heat and power) 8-12 %-points reduction in efficiency Coal: 43-45% 30-35% – 28-38% additional fuel consumption per kWhel Natural gas: 56-60 46-52% – 20-27% additional consumption fuel per kWhel Corrosion Amine degradation, oxidation (SOx, COS, C2S, NO2, O2, fly ash) Amine/ammonia emission to air Gas Technology Centre NTNU – SINTEF 6 Olav Bolland
    • Current status – pre-combustion N₂/O₂ CO₂ CO₂ Power separation plant CO₂ Coal, Oil, Natural Gas, Biomass CO/H₂ Gasification H₂ H₂ Power N₂/O₂ CO₂ CO₂ compression Shift CO₂ separation plant & conditioning Pre-combustion Reforming CO/H₂ CO₂ Power plant O₂ N₂ separation Air Air seperation Air/O₂ Process +CO₂ Sep. Product: Natural gas, ammonia, steel Raw materials Gas Technology Centre NTNU – SINTEF 7 Olav Bolland
    • IGCC without CO2 capture Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Quench water Particulate Sulfur Quench/ removal removal heat Recovered heat recovery H2 S Raw syngas Coal feed Gasifier O2 Hydrogen-rich gas N2 Air Recovered heat Separation Unit HRSG Compressed air GT ST Air Generator Gas Technology Centre NTNU – SINTEF 8 Olav Bolland
    • IGCC with CO2 capture Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Quench water Particulate Shift Sulfur CO2 capture Quench/ removal reaction removal heat Recovered heat recovery CO2 H2 S Raw syngas Steam Coal feed Gasifier CO2 storage O2 Hydrogen rich gas N2 Air Recovered heat Separation Unit HRSG Compressed air GT ST Air Generator Gas Technology Centre NTNU – SINTEF 9 Olav Bolland
    • Pre-combustion Coal: H2-rich fuel to GT – how to dilute? Cost reduction and efficiency improvement requires new technology – Sorption enhancement Reformer reactor Water-gas shift reactor – Membranes for transport H2, O2, CO2 Reforming reactor Oxygen separation from air in GT Water-gas shift reactor Gas Technology Centre NTNU – SINTEF 10 Olav Bolland
    • Pre-combustion – SEWGS Sorption Enhanced Water Gas Shift H2 H2 H2 CO CO2 Water Fuel H2O Gasifier CO2 gas-shift CO2 Reformer capture (WGS) H2 CO WGS + H2O Fuel Gasifier gas separation H2 Reformer CO + H 2O H 2 + CO2 CO2 + sorbent → sorbent × CO2 Sorbent sorbent × CO2 & Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) Q Regeneration Dolomite (CaCO3×MgCO3) CO2 Hydrotalcite (Mg6Al2(OH)16[CO3]×4H2O/K2CO3 of sorbent Lithium orthosilicate (Li4SiO4) Gas Technology Centre NTNU – SINTEF 11 Olav Bolland
    • Current status – oxy-combustion N₂/O₂ CO₂ CO₂ Power separation plant CO₂ Coal, Oil, Natural Gas, Biomass CO/H₂ Gasification H₂ H₂ Power N₂/O₂ CO₂ CO₂ compression Shift CO₂ separation plant & conditioning Reforming CO/H₂ CO₂ Power plant Oxy-combustion O₂ N₂ separation Air Air seperation Air/O₂ Process +CO₂ Sep. Product: Natural gas, ammonia, steel Raw materials Gas Technology Centre NTNU – SINTEF 12 Olav Bolland
    • Oxy-combustion - challenges Air separation – Cryogenic distillation dominating for the foreseeable future – Ceramic mixed ion/electron conducting membranes – progress? Natural gas: oxy-combustion gas turbines less likely Coal: seems promising Purification of CO2 before transport/storage – Depends on CO2 quality requirements Gas Technology Centre NTNU – SINTEF 13 Olav Bolland
    • Oxy-combustion coal 30 MWthermal Schwarze Pumpe Commissioning Sept 9, 2008 Vattenfall Germany Gas Technology Centre NTNU – SINTEF 14 Olav Bolland
    • High Technology status Medium CO2 capture in power plants -high Medium -low Low Commercial readiness Natural gas Improvement potential Post-combustion Pre-combustion Oxy-combustion Gas Technology Centre NTNU – SINTEF 15 Olav Bolland
    • High Technology status Medium CO2 capture in power plants -high Medium -low Low Commercial readiness Coal Improvement potential Commercial readiness Natural gas Improvement potential Post-combustion Pre-combustion Oxy-combustion Gas Technology Centre NTNU – SINTEF 16 Olav Bolland
    • Thank you! Gas Technology Centre NTNU – SINTEF 17 Olav Bolland