D.I.S.C. Decompressive Intervertebral Spine Chair  Sponsored by Entrepreneur: Sheel Gardner  Advised by Dr. James Iatridis...
The Objective: Proof of Concept <ul><li>Find a method and create a non-invasive device that will effectively mitigate low ...
The Need  Immediate  :  A) Sponsor presented with ruptured disc Broad Implications :  1) Total direct and indirect costs f...
General Approach <ul><li>1)  Preliminary Research :  anatomy, pathologies, routes to health,  working with Cadavers </li><...
Understanding the Spine: Basic Anatomy Healthy Spinal Unit Side View http://sobrien2000-ivil.tripod.com/sitebuildercontent...
<ul><li>- Because they are avascular, discs rely on pressure gradients to obtain nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>- When under ...
Various Pathologies <ul><li>Healthy </li></ul><ul><li>Small tears in annulus </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus begins bulging out ...
Why Do Discs Degenerate? <ul><li>Natural Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Aging  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural process of wear and...
<ul><li>Decompress the disc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows diffusion to occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients can reple...
Challenges Inducing ID <ul><li>How to grab vertebrae in a non-invasive way? </li></ul><ul><li>While being comfortable? </l...
DISC Solutions <ul><li>Work with gravity instead of against it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower user instead of raising them </...
Demonstration: Final Design Concept
How it Works Weight compressing discs Reactant forces from chair
How it Works Friction Applied Force Applied Force Normal Force
After Deflation Friction and Normal Force Resultant Weight
Design Evolution <ul><li>Decided on an office chair as the platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to obtain controlled leve...
Design Constraints <ul><li>Based on structural anatomy: best contact point was determined </li></ul><ul><li>Contact Area 1...
Lumbar Saddles <ul><li>Contoured </li></ul><ul><li>ThermoPlast </li></ul><ul><li>Traction is obtained at desired location ...
Saddle Iterations
Connection to Lumbar Saddles <ul><li>Steel leveling feet bolted to saddles </li></ul><ul><li>Ball joint to allow degrees o...
Lead Screw, Frame, Forcepath <ul><li>Lead screw connected through threaded bolt support </li></ul><ul><li>Welded to steel ...
Seat Cushion Assembly <ul><li>Pneumatic cushion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed for immobile users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Testing and Analysis Partial Deflation (5 second intervals) Load Reduction (lbs) Quantitative: Load Reduction on Lumbar Sp...
Testing and Analysis Partial Deflation (5 second intervals) Comfort Level  Qualitative: Comfort Levels Throughout Cycle
Results  <ul><li>Average maximum unloading of lumbar spine: 44.7% of body weight </li></ul><ul><li>Average comfort @44.7% ...
Conclusions <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unloading does take place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolating ...
Future of DISC <ul><li>More comprehensive testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More diverse subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>L...
Acknowledgments <ul><li>Dr. Sharon Henry  PhD, Physical Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Robert Monsey MD, Orthopaedics and R...
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Presentation of Lumbar Spine Decompression Chair

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  • Lifetime prevalence means that in some point of your life, you will experience LBP
  • understanding the problem holistically, muscles, bones, nutrition, genetics, postures What’s out there? (patent searches)
  • Point out the lumbar area Explain the side view of the spinal unit, which consists of a vertebra and a disc along with all of the associated muscles, tendons, nerves, etc. Nucleus is the shock-absorbing, gelatinous/spongy center of the disc that is enclosed by the annulus fibrosus, the outer membrane. The annulus consists of fibrous tissue that is oriented circumferentially and serves to contain the fluid like contents which is the nucleus. Degeneration causes low back pain whereas herniation causes sciatic pain, shooting pain into the legs.
  • Lifestyle: if your lifestyle causes your discs to be under constant compression for most of the day, its difficult to create a negative pressure gradient that will nourish the disc. Therefore, this makes self-repair and health difficult if you are constantly making it difficult for the disc to be healthy. Discs are in compression while we’re awake They are avascular (no blood supply) At birth, 80% of disc is H 2 O, it must be well hydrated.
  • Gaining traction: difficult in being effective while isolating No one will use a device that isn’t comfortable Cadaver lab illustrated to us the multiple layers of musculature that support the spine and keep it upright and protected. Any attempt to apply forces to the spine is typically compensated for by the muscles as they tighten. Thus we considered electrostimulation to deactivate the muscles, either that or heat to relax muscles. However, if muscles are conciously relaxed, they allow natural forces such as gravity to act on the spine.
  • Describe the overall principle: horizontal forces hold subject while the seat cushion deflates in a progressive manner, isolating the lumbar spine, utilizing gravity to supply the force necessary for distraction. Stabilization, Muscle Strengthening, Electro-stimulation, Distraction, Axial unloading, Applied horizontal force
  • The 1.5” is basically the distance between the iliac crest of the pelvis to the lowest floating rib. This distance was measured independently and then verified by anthropomorphic tables. Calculated the deflection on the lead screw and it’s essential negligible, more deflection would occur due to the play between the threads in the lead screw.
  • Here it’s important to note how important the shape was: it has to be comfortable yet functional, properties of the thermoplast such that its remoldable, the thermoplast affords a certain flexibility, yet is quite stiff, basically creating orthotic splints, Stiffness design : designed so that the outer edges are more liable to deflection to account for a variety of body types, yet the central axis (that actually does the distraction) remains stiff and steady as if it were just a lead screw with a contour.
  • Mention cushion came from wheelchair
  • Describe the tests, also how qualitative tests were quantified, note that the results are by no means conclusive yet because the sample size our of subjects has been limited 40% unloading is 40% unloading overall, not 40% of the chair’s capability
  • Describe the tests, also how qualitative tests were quantified, note that the results are by no means conclusive yet because the sample size our of subjects has been limited 40% unloading is 40% unloading overall, not 40% of the chair’s capability
  • Updated Design Night Presentation

    1. 1. D.I.S.C. Decompressive Intervertebral Spine Chair Sponsored by Entrepreneur: Sheel Gardner Advised by Dr. James Iatridis, PhD
    2. 2. The Objective: Proof of Concept <ul><li>Find a method and create a non-invasive device that will effectively mitigate low back pain </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A) Do No Harm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B) Relieve short-term pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C) Contribute to long-term health </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. The Need Immediate : A) Sponsor presented with ruptured disc Broad Implications : 1) Total direct and indirect costs for treatments of LBP are estimated to be $100 billion annually in the U.S. 1 2) The lifetime prevalence of LBP in the United States is 60-80% 2 1 - Bigos SJ, Boyer OR, Braen GR. Acute Low Back Problems in Adults. Clinical Practice Guideline, Quick Reference Guide Number 14. Public Health Agency, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.  Rockville, Md: . Department of Health and Human Services;1994. 2 - http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/backpain/detail_backpain.htm
    4. 4. General Approach <ul><li>1) Preliminary Research : anatomy, pathologies, routes to health, working with Cadavers </li></ul><ul><li>2) Consulting Experts : Orthopaedic Spine Surgeon, Spine Researcher, Physical Therapist, Chiropractors </li></ul><ul><li>3) Evaluate successful treatments </li></ul><ul><li>4) Existing products and technologies? </li></ul><ul><li>5) Brainstorm, Evaluate, Calculate, Design </li></ul><ul><li>6) Repeat #4-5 </li></ul><ul><li>7) Fabricate </li></ul><ul><li>8) Test and Analyze </li></ul>
    5. 5. Understanding the Spine: Basic Anatomy Healthy Spinal Unit Side View http://sobrien2000-ivil.tripod.com/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/hs2fig1.gif
    6. 6. <ul><li>- Because they are avascular, discs rely on pressure gradients to obtain nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>- When under compression, a negative pressure gradient cannot be established </li></ul>Preliminary Research: Spine Pathology http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/310353-overview
    7. 7. Various Pathologies <ul><li>Healthy </li></ul><ul><li>Small tears in annulus </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus begins bulging out annulus, impinging on nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus escapes via tear or burst through annulus </li></ul>
    8. 8. Why Do Discs Degenerate? <ul><li>Natural Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Aging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural process of wear and tear over time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predispositions to degeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sitting all day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Posture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Musculature </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Decompress the disc </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows diffusion to occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients can replenish the disc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates self-repair over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approaches the fundamental problem </li></ul></ul>Intervertebral Decompression (ID)
    10. 10. Challenges Inducing ID <ul><li>How to grab vertebrae in a non-invasive way? </li></ul><ul><li>While being comfortable? </li></ul><ul><li>What about muscle resistance (cadaver lab)? </li></ul><ul><li>What already exists? </li></ul><ul><li>What target user? </li></ul><ul><li>Options: Mechanical Manipulation, Electrostimulation, Posture Aid </li></ul>Initial Concept
    11. 11. DISC Solutions <ul><li>Work with gravity instead of against it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower user instead of raising them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comfort provided by uniquely molded orthotic splint pads </li></ul><ul><li>Seating is a naturally relaxed position, solving the tightening musculature issue </li></ul><ul><li>Many massage chairs exist, but none focus on effective decompression </li></ul>
    12. 12. Demonstration: Final Design Concept
    13. 13. How it Works Weight compressing discs Reactant forces from chair
    14. 14. How it Works Friction Applied Force Applied Force Normal Force
    15. 15. After Deflation Friction and Normal Force Resultant Weight
    16. 16. Design Evolution <ul><li>Decided on an office chair as the platform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to obtain controlled leverage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large market </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This particular chair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly adjustable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modifiable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid Steel Frame </li></ul></ul>Staples® Acadia™ Multi-Function Mesh Task Chair
    17. 17. Design Constraints <ul><li>Based on structural anatomy: best contact point was determined </li></ul><ul><li>Contact Area 1.5” governed lead screw choice </li></ul><ul><li>Lead Screw design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strength was overdesigned for safety and conformance to contact area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negligible deflection </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Lumbar Saddles <ul><li>Contoured </li></ul><ul><li>ThermoPlast </li></ul><ul><li>Traction is obtained at desired location </li></ul><ul><li>Lumbar back support </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 90 degree coverage, allowing fit for range of users </li></ul><ul><li>Through 5 iterations </li></ul><ul><li>Stiffness design </li></ul>
    19. 19. Saddle Iterations
    20. 20. Connection to Lumbar Saddles <ul><li>Steel leveling feet bolted to saddles </li></ul><ul><li>Ball joint to allow degrees of freedom for comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Countersunk bolts into saddle construction </li></ul><ul><li>5cm into lead screw, other connection </li></ul>
    21. 21. Lead Screw, Frame, Forcepath <ul><li>Lead screw connected through threaded bolt support </li></ul><ul><li>Welded to steel base plate </li></ul><ul><li>Bolted to original chair frame </li></ul><ul><li>Transfers force from human through all elements to ground </li></ul>
    22. 22. Seat Cushion Assembly <ul><li>Pneumatic cushion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed for immobile users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3” deflation capability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foam layers for comfort at full deflation </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting wood for enclosed seat cushion assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Connected to Steel base plate </li></ul>
    23. 23. Testing and Analysis Partial Deflation (5 second intervals) Load Reduction (lbs) Quantitative: Load Reduction on Lumbar Spine
    24. 24. Testing and Analysis Partial Deflation (5 second intervals) Comfort Level Qualitative: Comfort Levels Throughout Cycle
    25. 25. Results <ul><li>Average maximum unloading of lumbar spine: 44.7% of body weight </li></ul><ul><li>Average comfort @44.7% unloading : 7.5/10 -> MAXIMUM UNLOADING </li></ul><ul><li>Average initial comfort (1-10(good)) : 8.25/10 </li></ul><ul><li>Average comfort @38.3% unloading : 9.25/10 -> OPTIMAL COMFORT </li></ul><ul><li>5 minute comfort level (@38.3%) : 8.5/10 </li></ul><ul><li>10 minute comfort level (@38.3%) : 8/10 </li></ul>
    26. 26. Conclusions <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unloading does take place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolating the lumbar area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proof of concept successful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved posture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher comfort level needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The main deterrent for devices is comfort </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Future of DISC <ul><li>More comprehensive testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More diverse subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long term results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invasive measurement of disc height </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Determine whether customization vs. sizes for saddles </li></ul><ul><li>Refine product now that there is proof that lumbar unloading occurs </li></ul>
    28. 28. Acknowledgments <ul><li>Dr. Sharon Henry PhD, Physical Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Robert Monsey MD, Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Erik Hemmit DC, Chiropractor </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Jean Szilva MD, Gross Anatomy and Neuroscience </li></ul><ul><li>Corey Berman Physical Plant </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Mike Rosen PhD, Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Floyd Vilmont Machine Shop </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. James Iatridis PhD, Spine Bionengineering </li></ul><ul><li>Sheel Gardner Sponsor, Entrepreneur </li></ul>

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