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A random selection of book covers, page layouts, illustration, posters and xmas cards

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    • Hume cover 1.qxd 12/10/04 11:26 am Page 1 Early Responses to Hume 01 01 MORAL, LITERARY AND POLITICAL WRITINGS I EARLY RESPONSES TO HUME’S 'This ten-volume series is among the most important contributions to Hume scholarship since E.C. Mossner published The Life of David Hume several decades ago' Andrew Cunningham, Boston University Edited and introduced by James Fieser, University of Tennessee at Martin The moral theory of David Hume (1711–76) is of lasting importance in the history of philosophy both for its originality and for its influence on later moral theories. Hume introduced the term ‘utility’ into our moral vocabulary, and his theory is the immediate forerunner of the classical utilitarian views of Bentham and Mill. He is famous for the position that we cannot derive ‘ought’ from ‘is’. Some contemporary philosophers see Hume as an early proponent of the meta-ethical view that moral judgements principally express our feelings. In 1741 Hume published his Essays, Moral and Political in which he consciously followed the model of informal essay writing. He continually added to this collection, making a lasting impact in political, economic and aesthetic theory. This collection gathers together over seventy important early responses to Hume’s moral theory and Essays. Each selection is introduced by Hume EARLY RESPONSES specialist James Fieser, who has also written a substantial general introduction TO HUME’S MORAL, to the set. LITERARY AND POLITICAL WRITINGS I FIESER THOEMMES CONTINUUM Edited and introduced by 11 Great George Street ISBN 1-84371-117-6 Bristol BS1 5RR, UK JAMES FIESER Philosophy, Economics and Politics ISBN 1 84371 117 6 9 781843 711179
    • Hume cover 10.qxd 12/10/04 12:10 pm Page 1 Early Responses to Hume 10 10 LIFE AND REPUTATION II EARLY RESPONSES TO HUME’S 'This ten-volume series is among the most important contributions to Hume scholarship since E.C. Mossner published The Life of David Hume several decades ago' Andrew Cunningham, Boston University Edited and introduced by James Fieser, University of Tennessee at Martin During the latter half of his life, David Hume (1711–76) achieved international celebrity as a great philosopher and historian.The sceptical and anti-religious bent of his works generated hundreds of critical responses, many of which were scholarly commentaries. Other writers, though, focused less on Hume’s specific publications and more on his reputation as a famous public figure.Wittingly or unwittingly, Hume was involved in many controversies: the attempts to excommunicate him from the Church of Scotland; his paradoxically close association with several Scottish clergymen; his quarrel with Jean Jacques Rousseau; his approach to his own death. Hume’s enemies attacked his public character while his allies defended it. Friends and foes alike recorded anecdotes about him which appeared after his death in scattered periodicals and books. Hume’s biographers have drawn liberally on this material, but in most cases EARLY RESPONSES the original sources are only summarized or briefly quoted.This set presents TO HUME’S L I F E dozens of these biographically-related discussions of Hume in their most complete form, reset, annotated and introduced by James Fieser.The editor AND REPUTATION II also provides the most detailed bibliography yet compiled of eighteenth and nineteenth-century responses to Hume.These two volumes form the final part of the major Early Responses to Hume series, and they conclude with an Index to the complete ten-volume collection. FIESER THOEMMES CONTINUUM Edited and introduced by 11 Great George Street ISBN 1-84371-115-X Bristol BS1 5RR, UK JAMES FIESER Philosophy and Biography ISBN 1 84371 115 X 9 781843 711155
    • John Carter teaches sociology at the University Anti-Capitalist Britain is an account of the ANTI-CAPITALIST BRITAIN of Teesside. He has a longstanding involvement in state of left and radical politics in the UK, delivered radical politics and campaigning, including animal rights and the recent anti-capitalist mobilizations. ANTI-CAPITALIST through a study of recent anti-capitalist protests and movements.The book is a collaborative project involving writers from various universities in the Dave Morland teaches sociology and philosophy at the University of Teesside. He has campaigned on issues such as the poll tax, the miners’ strike, Anti-Capitalist Britain is a collection of accessible and BRITAIN UK and recent participants in anti-capitalist actions. The introduction examines the origins of the current nuclear arms and anti-capitalism. protest movement and its re-emergence from the informative essays on the emerging anti-capitalist movement in ‘Victory of the West’ and the free market. Caroline the UK.Through accounts of recent anti-capitalist protests and Lucas and Colin Hines then critique the dominant organizations, often by those involved, the book considers the neoliberal version of globalization from a green and current state of radical politics in the UK. Its underlying theme is localist perspective.This analysis is complemented by the emerging relationship between Marxist and other radical the work of Molly Scott Cato, who explores positive and sustainable alternatives to capitalism and the free organizations and the disparate anti-globalization, anti-capitalist market. Amir Saeed also takes the new geopolitics as and direct action groups fronting campaigns against institutions his starting point, examining the difficulties created such as the World Trade Organization and the G8.The study for Asian Britons after 9/11 and the subsequent argues that there has been a shift towards anarchism on the ‘War on Terror’. British left and elsewhere.While it has a primarily domestic focus, the book also considers British anti-capitalism in an international Other contributors consider the different forms context. It therefore includes contributions from authors whose of protest and activism in current anti-capitalist and green politics. John Carter and Dave Morland’s focus is beyond the domestic and who participate in wider overview of the UK anti-capitalist scene detects an campaigns. emerging shift towards a more libertarian mode of struggle. One source of this is set out in Derek Wall’s account of the Russian theorist Mikhail Bakhtin, whose theories loom large in the ongoing Carnival against Capitalism. Jon Purkis focuses on the role of anticonsumerist campaigns, finding EDITED BY JOHN CARTER echoes of radical movements from the English Civil Cover design: Alan Rutherford War period. Paul Taylor examines the creative ways AND DAVE MORLAND in which electronic ‘hacktivists’ have undermined New Clarion Press corporations and the powerful. How all this 5 Church Row diversity and seeming fragmentation produces a Gretton functioning ‘movement’ is the concern of Alex Plows, Cheltenham who explores the way in which groupings, GL54 5HG communities and individuals have supported each England other through fluid activist networks.The book EDITED BY concludes with a vibrant account of the Anti-G8 mobilization in Genoa, written by one of the participants. New Clarion Press JOHN CARTER AND ISBN 1-873797-44-3 DAVE MORLAND 9 781873 797440
    • ANTI-CAPITALIST BRITAIN ANTI-CAPITALIST Anti-Capitalist Britain is a collection of accessible and BRITAIN informative essays on the emerging anti-capitalist movement in the UK.Through accounts of recent anti-capitalist protests and organizations, often by those involved, the book considers the current state of radical politics in the UK. Its underlying theme is the emerging relationship between Marxist and other radical organizations and the disparate anti-globalization, anti-capitalist and direct action groups fronting campaigns against institutions such as the World Trade Organization and the G8.The study argues that there has been a shift towards anarchism on the British left and elsewhere.While it has a primarily domestic focus, the book also considers British anti-capitalism in an international context. It therefore includes contributions from authors whose focus is beyond the domestic and who participate in wider campaigns. John Carter teaches sociology at the University of Teesside. He has a longstanding involvement in radical politics and campaigning, including animal rights and the recent anti-capitalist mobilizations. Dave Morland teaches sociology and philosophy EDITED BY JOHN CARTER at the University of Teesside. He has campaigned on issues such AND DAVE MORLAND as the poll tax, the miners’ strike, nuclear arms and anti-capitalism. Cover design: Alan Rutherford EDITED BY New Clarion Press JOHN CARTER AND ISBN 1-873797-43-5 DAVE MORLAND 9 781873 797433
    • Darhbcover.1 15/3/03 4:57 PM Page 1 THE FIRST S O C IA L I S M A N D DA RW I N I S M 1 8 5 9 – 1 9 1 4 THE FIRST DARWINIAN LEFT DARWINIAN LEFT David Stack is a lecturer in Modern British Darwinism and socialism were the two most exciting ideas In this first study of the relationship History at the University of Reading. He has between Darwinism and the left in Britain, of the late nineteenth century. One tore down a model of previously taught at Queen Mary, University of London and Keele University, and has nature that was static and unchanging; the other sought to do SOCIALISM David Stack argues that Darwinism provided the ‘constitutive metaphor’ within which the same for society. Almost inevitably the ideas of Darwinism written widely on both the history of the left and popular science in the nineteenth century. His first book, Nature and Artifice: and socialism became intertwined in the period from 1859 to A N D DA RW I N I S M modern socialism was developed.The organic and evolutionary language of Darwinism, it is shown, provided the discursive space in 1914.The modern socialist movement was a product of the The life and thought of Thomas Hodgskin, 1787–1869, was published by the Royal Darwinian age and most leading socialists of the period had 1859–1914 which the new ideology of socialism was probed, explored and developed in the Historical Society in 1998 and he is currently studied and accepted Darwinism before reaching their political period from 1859 through to 1914. writing a biography of the nineteenth-century maturity.This was true of socialists both in Britain and Scottish phrenologist George Combe. The relationship between socialism and beyond – including Annie Besant, Ramsay MacDonald, Eduard Darwinism was not instrumental – with Bernstein, Karl Kautsky, Jack London and Prince Peter socialists simply picking and choosing Kropotkin. Each inevitably carried something of their convenient ideas to conform to their political Darwinism over into their understanding of socialism. In this prejudices – but isomorphic, involving a real cross-fertilization of ideas and concepts from study of the relationship between the two ideas, David Stack the biological to the sociological and back argues that the contribution of Darwinism to the thought of again.This process was especially evident in the British left has been underestimated. Darwinism played a writings of those socialists such as Alfred Russel Wallace, Emile Vandervelde and DAVID STACK crucially important role both in the shift from radicalism to Prince Peter Kropotkin who were also socialism that occurred in the late nineteenth century and in accomplished scientists, but also helps us enabling MacDonald and others to develop a distinctive better appreciate the stance of amateur socialist position, marked off from liberalism to the right enthusiasts such as Annie Besant, Jack London and Ramsay MacDonald. and Marxism to the left. The First Darwinian Left demonstrates how the discursive boundaries imposed by Darwinism profoundly influenced the construction of Cover design: Alan Rutherford socialist ideology in Britain: marking it off from the older radical tradition, as well as distinguishing it from liberalism on the right New Clarion Press and Marxism on the left. In particular, the 5 Church Row New Clarion Press crucial role of Ramsay MacDonald in Gretton Cheltenham ISBN 1-873797-38-9 DAVID developing and disseminating a distinctively Darwinian understanding of socialism among GL54 5HG the membership of the Independent England STACK Labour Party is analysed. 9 781873 797389
    • Darpapercover.1 15/3/03 4:56 PM Page 1 THE FIRST S O C IA L I S M A N D DA RW I N I S M 1 8 5 9 – 1 9 1 4 THE FIRST DARWINIAN LEFT DARWINIAN LEFT Darwinism and socialism were the two most exciting ideas of the late nineteenth century. One tore down a model of nature that was static and unchanging; the other sought to do the same for SOCIALISM society. Almost inevitably the ideas of Darwinism and socialism became intertwined in the period from 1859 to 1914.The modern socialist movement was a product of the Darwinian age and most A N D DA RW I N I S M leading socialists of the period had studied and accepted Darwinism before reaching their political maturity.This was true of 1859–1914 socialists both in Britain and beyond – including Annie Besant, Ramsay MacDonald, Eduard Bernstein, Karl Kautsky, Jack London and Prince Peter Kropotkin. Each inevitably carried something of their Darwinism over into their understanding of socialism. In this study of the relationship between the two ideas, David Stack argues that the contribution of Darwinism to the thought of the British left has been underestimated. Darwinism played a crucially important role both in the shift from radicalism to socialism that occurred in the late nineteenth century and in enabling MacDonald and others to develop a distinctive socialist position, DAVID STACK marked off from liberalism to the right and Marxism to the left. David Stack is a lecturer in Modern British History at the University of Reading. He has previously taught at both Queen Mary, University of London and Keele University. His first book, Nature and Artifice:The life and thought of Thomas Hodgskin, 1787–1869, was published by the Royal Historical Society in 1998. Cover design: Alan Rutherford New Clarion Press ISBN 1-873797-37-0 DAVID STACK 9 781873 797372
    • domestic violence ACTION FOR CHANGE ¢------- -- new edition Gill Hague and Ellen Malos
    • Eugenics HB cover 4/4/02 10:53 PM Page 1 genetic politics THE ISSUES IN SOCIAL POLICY SERIES genetic politics Anne Kerr is a lecturer in sociology ‘We are poised at a turning point of human history. Behind us lies from eugenics to genome Genetic Politics explores the history of at the University of York with a twentieth century marked by unprecedented technological eugenics and the rise of specialist interests in genetics and developments, but also the nightmares of human barbarism and contemporary genomics, identifying gender. She followed her degree in war. In front of us stretches “the century of the gene”, when we continuities and changes between applied physics from the University are promised that science will be harnessed for the human good: to the past and the present. Anne Kerr of Strathclyde, Glasgow, with reduce the impact of disease, to increase longevity, and to provide and Tom Shakespeare reject the two doctoral research on gender and solutions for social problems including famine and global poverty. extreme positions that human science at the University of It is a good moment to explore, in the field of genetics, what went genetics are either fatally corrupted Edinburgh, going on to conduct wrong in so many countries during the first part of the twentieth by, or utterly immune from, eugenic research into the social and century, and to ask whether we are currently repeating some of influence. They argue that today’s historical contexts of genetics. She the mistakes of the past, or growing problems for the future.’ forms of genetic screening are far has co-authored a number of articles from equivalent to the eugenics of on public and professional accounts From the Introduction the past, but eugenics cannot simply of genetic research and screening, be dismissed as bad science, or the Anne Kerr and Tom Shakespeare and their social implications. product of totalitarian regimes, for its values and practices continue to Tom Shakespeare received a shape genetics today. first-class honours degree in social and political science at the University Triumphalist accounts of scientific of Cambridge and completed an progress and the merits of individual M.Phil. in social and political theory choice mask how genetic and a Ph.D. on the sociology of technologies can undermine people’s disability. A former lecturer in freedom, by intensifying genetic sociology, he is currently Director determinism and discrimination, of Outreach at the Policy, Ethics individualizing responsibility for and Life Sciences Research Institute, health and welfare, and stoking Newcastle. He has served on the intolerance of diversity. Regulation editorial boards of Critical Social Policy is largely ineffectual at limiting and Disability and Society, and has these dangers because it is often written widely on disability and guided by the goals of perfect health genetics. and commercial profit. The authors argue that we need to listen to the people directly affected by the new genetics technologies, especially disabled people and women, and to challenge the values and practices Anne Kerr and that shape genetics. Cover design: Alan Rutherford Tom Shakespeare New Clarion Press ISBN 1-873797-26-5 5 Church Row New Clarion Press Gretton Cheltenham GL54 5HG England 9 781873 797266
    • Genetics pb cover 4/4/02 10:43 PM Page 1 genetic politics THE ISSUES IN SOCIAL POLICY SERIES genetic politics ‘We are poised at a turning point of human history. Behind us lies a twentieth century marked by unprecedented technological from eugenics to genome developments, but also the nightmares of human barbarism and war. In front of us stretches “the century of the gene”, when we are promised that science will be harnessed for the human good: to reduce the impact of disease, to increase longevity, and to provide solutions for social problems including famine and global poverty. It is a good moment to explore, in the field of genetics, what went wrong in so many countries during the first part of the twentieth century, and to ask whether we are currently repeating some of the mistakes of the past, or growing problems for the future.’ From the Introduction Genetic Politics explores the history of eugenics and the rise of Anne Kerr and Tom Shakespeare contemporary genomics, identifying continuities and changes between the past and the present. The authors reject the two extreme positions that human genetics are either fatally corrupted by, or utterly immune from, eugenic influence. They argue that today’s forms of genetic screening are far from equivalent to the eugenics of the past, but eugenics cannot simply be dismissed as bad science, or the product of totalitarian regimes, for its values and practices continue to shape genetics today. Triumphalist accounts of scientific progress and the merits of individual choice mask how genetic technologies can undermine people’s freedom, by intensifying genetic determinism and discrimination, individualizing responsibility for health and welfare, and stoking intolerance of diversity. Regulation is largely ineffectual at limiting these dangers because it is often guided by the goals of perfect health and commercial profit. The authors argue that we need to listen to the people directly affected by the new genetics technologies, especially disabled people and women, and to challenge the values and practices that shape genetics. Anne Kerr is a lecturer in sociology at the University of York with specialist interests in genetics and gender. Tom Shakespeare is Director of Outreach at the Policy, Ethics and Life Sciences Research Institute, Newcastle, and has written widely on disability and genetics. Anne Kerr and Tom Shakespeare Cover design: Alan Rutherford ISBN 1-873797-25-7 New Clarion Press 9 781873 797259
    • I n the years of famine following World War I in East KAPUTALA Africa two words were coined by the local people: mutunya and kaputala. Mutunya, meaning scramble, refers to the frenzy of the starving crowd whenever a KAPUTALA supply train passed through. Kaputala refers to the baggy shorts worn by the British troops. It was these soldiers, according to the local Gogo tribespeople, who were responsible for their plight. The first-hand account of war in East Africa in The Diary of Arthur Beagle brings out the absolute and THE DIARY OF tragic waste of life in a far-away war. Photographs taken ARTHUR BEAGLE by Arthur Beagle add authenticity to his tale. With an & extended introduction and a final skirmish-by-skirmish THE EAST AFRICA CAMPAIGN chapter covering the East Africa Campaign from 1916 THE DIARY OF ARTHUR BEAGLE THE DIARY OF ARTHUR BEAGLE 1916–1918 to 1918, it is indeed a fine introduction to this obscure military campaign, and the horrors of war. I hope all who read this account will be sickened by the institutionalised racism, find war abhorent and feel a great sympathy for those, black and white, forced, coerced or duped into the ranks, for whatever reason – be it straightforward intimidation or the sickly-sweet lure of drum-thumping jingoism. Cutting away all the bullshit, no matter how ‘gentlemanly’ the conduct of some officers, a lot of people died horrible deaths because the greed of competing capitalisms could not coexist on the same planet. ISBN 0-9540517-0-X 9 780954 051709 Introduced and Edited HAND OVER HO by FIST PRESS FP ALAN RUTHERFORD
    • FairPlay cover 4 26/9/05 10:30 am Page 1 FAIR PLAY AND FOUL? Fair play and foul? John Elder The Nordic countries remain unique in independently managing and operating their health care complaints mechanisms and medical regulatory bodies. They are also almost on their own in having established statutory no-fault patient compensation schemes as an alternative to the potentially expensive and risky civil litigation route. Moreover, these same nations (Sweden excepted) are among the few on the planet where sweeping patients’ rights set in stone are in place. Sadly, the enlightened example long set by lawmakers in Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Iceland on all these issues is still not being matched by their counterparts in the United Kingdom – or, for that matter, anywhere else in Europe. For instance, ‘more’ rather than total independence is the theme of the latest British reforms following the sustained public excoriation of the previous health care complaints and medical regulatory systems – in particular the routinely inequitable outcomes they produced for complainants. Self-regulation continues to be the predominant force in the operation of these new procedures. As before, only a comparatively small proportion of complaints lodged with the National Health Service in the UK will receive the attention of the recently established independent review bodies – where these have been set up. Furthermore, regulation of doctors and nurses remains in the hands of their existing, albeit extensively reformed, regulatory bodies under FAIR whose patronage the consideration of allegations about these professionals is also being maintained. A book of The position about patients’ rights in the United Kingdom is nowhere near so contrasting. Nonetheless, instead of a specific set of comprehensive legal entitlements revelations about PLAY the interests of patients and those who attend to their clinical needs are provided for, collectively, via legislation, case law, set ethical criteria and health service policy rules. However, the proposals for a patient compensation and redress scheme as an alternative patients’ rights, to the existing system of civil damages is a big step in the right direction – even if, initially, it turns out to be a comparatively limited arrangement and then not of the complaints AND handling and all-encompassing, no-fault variety. Fair play and foul? examines all these issues in some detail and also focuses on an area that had not been in the limelight before or during the reforms that began to take effect compensation JOHN ELDER in Britain since the turn of the century. It seems to have always been assumed that the FOUL? Health Service Ombudsman is above reproach. But is this really justified? The book explores vital aspects of the organization that this key independent complaints arbiter in the United fronts in a way that has not been done before and raises matters that question the body’s seemingly high standing. Kingdom and In the process of examining the subject at hand, the book accepts that healthcare is not elsewhere in the only part of public life in Britain where self-regulation still prevails, and provides examples of the practice elsewhere in society. Perhaps, foremost among these cases of Europe institutional self-regulation is that relating to the British parliament itself, the body that holds the key to enlightened public reform in all its guises. Fair play and foul? may not be a good read in the accepted sense, but if it succeeds in helping to bring forward the day when British citizens are conferred with the same level JOHN of entitlements in their relationship with health care that their counterparts in certain other European societies take for granted, it will have achieved its end. ELDER £12.95 ISBN 0-95346-041-X BOOKS 9 780953 460410
    • Rachel's Cover 8/9/05 3:14 pm Page 1 L THE ANTIQUARIAN LIBRARY JI THE ANTIQUARIAN LIBRARY OF EMERITUS PROFESSOR DAVID A. PAILIN OF EMERITUS PROFESSOR DAVID A. PAILIN E I p JF
    • MOLLY SCOTT CATO MARKET SCHMARKET BUILDING THE POST-CAPITALIST ECONOMY
    • NEW 05 Prologue of the Fourth Gospel.qxd 18/08/2005 13:09 Page 115 The Logos 115 and more radical: Scott and Witherington have discussed the importance of the Sapiential tradition;170 Borgen has argued that the Prologue is a rabbinic reflection on the Genesis creation myth;171 McNamara ecplored the links with the Palestinian Targumim;172 other scholars have argued for specific parallels for specific verses. As a common leceme in Koiné, it is not surprising that lo&goj appears over twelve hundred times in the Septuagint. However, it is clear that lo&goj does not always translate the Hebrew phrase hwhy rbd. This mismatch is quite important because it suggests that at least for the translators of the Septuagint, there was no definite correlation between the concept of ‘word of God’ in the Hebrew Bible and the leceme lo&goj per se. An ecample of this mismatch can be found in a list of the occurrences of hwhy rbd and rbd in Genesis: Hebrew Text Septuagint Genesis 4.23 K7mele y#'n&; yliw&q N(ama#;$ hl,fciw a)kou&sate& mou th=j fwnh=j ytirfm)i hn%fz');h ; gunai=kej Lamex e)nwti&sasqe& mou touj lo&gouj Genesis 15.1 hyfhf hl%e)'hf Myribfd@:ha rxa)a meta de ta r(h&mata tau=ta hzexjm%aba% Mrfb;)a-l)e hwfhy;-rbad e)genh&qh r(h=ma kuri&ou proj Abram e)n o(ra&mati Genesis 15.4 wylf)e hwfhy;-rbad; hn%"hw; i kai eu)quj fwnh kuri&ou e)ge&neto proj au)ton Genesis 29.13 t) Nbflfl; rp%say;wa kai dihgh&sato tw|~ Laban hl%e)”h Myribfd;ha-lk%f pa&ntaj touj lo&gouj tou&touj Genesis 34.18 rwomxj yn"y("b%; Mheyr"b;di w%b+;y;y%iw kai h1resan oi( lo&goi e)nanti&on Emmwr kai e)nanti&on rwomxj-Nb%e Mke#$; yn"y("bw% Suxem tou= ui(ou= Emmwr The table provides a good ecample of the problems associated with attempting to analyse the intertext for lo&goj in the Hebrew Bible and Septuagint. Firstly, we can see that rbd is variously translated as r(h&ma (kuri&ou, fwnh& (kuri&ou and lo&goj and, conversely, that lo&goj is also used to translate hrm) (‘word’, utterance’). This is important, since it shows that while lo&goj was one way in which (hwhy-)rbd could be translated, it was not the only way. The alternative translations are also significantly common in the Septuagint as a whole. The phrase r(h&ma kuri&ou occurs 48 times, not only as a reference to the command of the Lord (for ecample, Ecodus 9.20, Numbers 14.41) but also in references suggesting a dynamic word, which meets with people and is the basis of their 170. Scott, Sophia; Witherington, John’s Wisdom 171. P. Borgen, ‘Observations on the Targumic Character of the Prologue of John’ NTS 16 (1970), pp. 288–295 and ‘Logos was the True Light’ in Borgen, Logos was the true light and other essays on the Gospel of John (Trondheim: Tapir Publications, 1983) 172. M. McNamara, ‘Logos of the Fourth Gospel and Memra of the Palestinian Targum (Ex 12:42)’, ExpTim 79 (1968), pp. 115–17
    • NEW 05 Prologue of the Fourth Gospel.qxd 18/08/2005 13:53 Page 80 80 The Prologue of the Fourth Gospel of what is communicated rather than any particular ‘word’ itself.20 Normally, a reader would look to a polysemic lexeme’s context in order to disambiguate its meaning. However, in the Prologue, there is little context since the text has only just begun. In this instance, perhaps the wider context of New Testament liter- ature and the use of that literature within the Johannine community may provide some background. 5.5 Christian Intertexts 5.5.1 In the Gospels in General lo&goj occurs, in its various forms, frequently in the Gospels. For the most part, it refers to the message about Jesus, the ‘preached word’, rather than the ‘incarnate word’.21 So, Dunn offers many examples of the use of the lexeme to mean the ‘preached word’ and shows how broadly this term was used and accepted across the Christian traditions from the earliest Pauline material, through the Gospels and on into the later writings. For now, we will focus on the use of the lexeme in the Gospels, before looking at Johannine material and then at the rest of the New Testament. Within the range of meanings for lo&goj in the Synoptics, the central concept seems to reflect normal Koiné usage as ‘a message communicated’. So, in Matthew 7.28–29 and its parallels: Matthew 7.28–29 Mark 1.21–22 Luke 7.1; 4.32 kai e0ge&neto o3te e0te&lesen kai ei0sporeu&ontai ei0j e0peidh e0plh&rwsen o( I)hsou=j touj lo&gouj Kafarnaou&m: kai eu0quj pa&nta ta_ r9h&mata tou&touj, toi=j sa&bbasin ei0selqwn au0tou= ei0j ta_ a)koa_j ei0j thn sunagwghn laou=, ei0sh=lqen e0di&dasken. ei0j Kafarnaou&m. e0ceplh&ssonto oi9 o2xloi kai e0ceplh&ssonto e0pi th|= kai e0ceplh&ssonto e0pi th=| didaxh=| au0tou=: didaxh|= au0tou=: e0pi th|= didaxh|= au0tou=, o4ti e0n e0cousi/a| h]n o( lo&goj au0tou=. 20. Dodd, Interpretation, pp. 263–67; Davies, Rhetoric and Reference, p. 121: ‘In English Bibles lo&goj is usually translated ‘Word’, but this is the translation of the Latin Vulgate verbum. It is inappropriate as a rendering of the Greek lo&goj. The Greek for ‘word’ is r(h=ma or o!noma'. Mark Edwards gives a brief reception history, including a reference to the same point, John (Blackwell Bible Commentary; Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), pp. 16–17; Davies quotes from Goodenough’s introduction to Philo in which he makes a similar argument based upon a lexical taxonomy drawn from LSJ. Such arguments do not stop the vast majority of commentators and translators from using ‘Word’ as the translation: for example, Malina and Rohrbaugh, Social Science Commentary, pp. 35–37; Kruse, John, pp. 58–65 21. Brown, John, p. 519; J.D.G. Dunn, Christology in the Making: An Inquiry into the Origins of the Doctrine of the Incarnation (London: SCM Press, 2nd edn, 1989), pp. 230–39
    • NEW 06 Prologue of the Fourth Gospel.qxd 18/08/2005 13:16 Page 184 184 The Prologue of the Fourth Gospel So, as the gospel progresses, and especially when ko&smoj responds, the use of the lexeme becomes more and more pejorative. It is interesting to note that a similar deterioration happens in the use of the lexeme in the Prologue: Use 1: o4 fwti&zei pa&nta a!nqrwpon e)rxo&menon ei)j ton ko&smon (v.9) In this use there is a positive association with the coming of light into the world. We have already seen the opposition of darkness to light (v.5) and the subsequent association of negativity with darkness. Here ko&smoj is associated with the light and so disassociated from darkness. ko&smoj is therefore positive in this context. Use 2: e0n tw|~ ko&smw|~ h]n (v.10a) There is another positive association here in that the Logos/Life/Light has chosen to be in the ko&smoj. Once again such association means that the world is characterized in a positive way. Use 3: kai o( ko&smoj di’ au)tou= e)ge&neto (v.10b) There is yet another positive association in that the Logos is said to have had a role in creating/ordering the world. Use 4: kai o( ko&smoj au)ton ou)k e1gnw (v.10c) There is a negative association here in that the ko&smoj is negligent in recog- nising its creator. Here, the first time that the world is the subject of an action, it is depicted as failing to achieve the desired result. The idea that the ko&smoj can react, even negatively, suggests that at least in this phrase reference is being made to humanity, and thus an inherently incompetent humanity.181 The first three uses of the term, which all focus on the activity of lo&goj in relation to ko&smoj, have positive overtones whereas the final use, the only time in which the Prologue talks of the specific activity of ko&smoj, is negative. This analysis seems to reflect Cassem’s findings for the whole gospel.182 We see that ko&smoj is a neutral term when it is the object of activity: the place where light comes to illuminate; the place where lo&goj dwells; that which was created by lo&goj. It refers to the world, especially the world of humanity, but does not hint that this is a negative reference. In fact, the world is seen to be the object of the Logos’ attention and is therefore given privileged association with light and life.183 Ultimately, however, the world’s activity shows that this attention seems to be unwarranted. The Logos is associated with this world, is present within it and created it despite its ignorance. Boismard sums up the ambiguity well: ‘De soi, le monde n’est pas mauvais, puisque Dieu l’aime, et qu’il a envoyé sons Fils pour le sauveur. Mais en fait, le monde à refusé de recevoir le message du Verbe, et c’est pourquoi il prend si souvent une nuance péjorative chez saint Jean’.184 Indeed, this ambiguity about whether the world is good or bad may well reflect an antisociety trait. ‘The world’ represents those who do not receive o( lo&goj and so cannot be part of the Johannine community; they become the 181. Hendricksen, John, p. 80. 182. Compare Brown, St John, p. 509; Morris, John, p. 97 183. Witherington, John’s Wisdom, p. 52; Beasley-Murray, John, p. 12 184. Boismard, Prologue de Saint Jean, p. 50 : ‘In itself, the world is not evil, since God loves it, and has sent his Son to save it. But in fact, the world has refused to receive the Word’s message, and that is why it so often takes on a pejorative sense in the Johannine material.’
    • NEW 05 Prologue of the Fourth Gospel.qxd 18/08/2005 13:53 Page 87 The Logos 87 subject in his book on the development of Christology in the first centuries of the Church, in which he outlines a number of key stages.42 Firstly, very early in the NT tradition ‘the word/message’ refers to the proclamation of the gospel.43 We have already seen that this tradition is dominant within the Synoptic Gospels, the Fourth Gospel outside the Prologue, and the rest of the Johannine literature. However, Dunn then traces a development in the tradition by which ‘vigorous metaphors or near personifications’ are associated with lo&goj. The final stage according to Dunn is that the ‘message’, so clearly centred upon Jesus, is actually identified with Jesus.44 As Dunn points out: It is not that he identifies Christ with the divine Logos of Hellenistic Judaism or Stoicism and goes on from that to identify Christ (the Logos) with the word (logos) of preaching; it is rather that Christ is the heart and substance of the kerygma, not so much the Word as the word preached. Dunn draws attention to two key passages, which on the surface seem to be very close to the understanding of the Logos in the Prologue, Luke 1.2 and Acts 10.36–37a:45 Luke 1.2: kaqwj pare&dosan h(mi=n oi( a)p' a)rxh=j au)to&ptai kai u(phre&tai geno&menoi tou= lo&gou… Acts 10.36–37a: ton lo&gon [o3n] a)pe&steilen toi=j ui(oi=j I)srahl eu)aggelizo&menoj ei)rh&nhn dia I)hsou= Xristou=, ou[to&j e)stin pa&ntwn ku&rioj, u(mei=j oi1date to geno&menon r(h=ma kaq' o3lhj th=j I)oudai&aj It would be possible to see in these texts a reference to a personified ‘Word’, incarnated in Jesus. However, it would be wrong to do so. Both references simply show the degree to which Jesus is central to the message preached. Indeed, the verse from Luke’s preface is a red herring since Luke strives throughout his preface to use secular language rather than specifically Christian terminology.46 Luke could have written in such a way as to make an overt identification between Jesus and ‘the message which God sent out’. However, he does not do this. Nor does he need to, since, as Dunn has shown, there is a good tradition 42. Dunn, Christology, pp. 230–50 43. Barrett, St John, cites Luke 8.11, 2 Timothy 2.9, Revelation 1.9 44. Dunn, Christology, p. 231 gives the following examples: 1 Corinthians 1.23, 15.12; 2 Corinthians 1.19, 4.5; Philippians 1.15; Ephesians 1.9, 3.3f., 6.19; Colossians 1.27, 2.2, 3.16, 4.3. 45. Dunn, Christology, p. 232 46. Alexander, Preface, p. 123 where she understands the term to be a reference to those in charge of passing on the Christian tradition of which they are first hand witnesses (au)to&ptai). Since the focus is on the passing on of a tradition and not on Christology, the reference to ‘ministers of the word’ is not a reference to ‘servants of Jesus’ but rather to any in charge of handing down a message through a tradition. So, later, p. 201: ‘Unlike the openings of Matthew, Mark and John, [Luke’s preface] contains no promise of revelation, no mention of Jesus, no overtly religious language at all: such possibly “Christian” terms as there are (peplhroforhme&nwn, u(phre&tai tou= lo&gou) would be opaque to the outsider unfamiliar with the argot of the Christian tradition, delib- erately muffled by the predominantly neutral, secular terminology’.
    • NEW 06 Prologue of the Fourth Gospel.qxd 18/08/2005 13:15 Page 206 206 The Prologue of the Fourth Gospel particular phrase often used in association with God, tme)vwe dsexe bra.281 Is this phrase a translation of the Hebrew? If so, does the reader need to know this to understand this text? We need to make a more detailed exploration of the terms involved. xarij & Xa&rij refers to a kindness shown. Hence, LSJ suggest that the semantic domain covers the following areas: ‘beauty’, ‘glory’, ‘grace, kindness, goodwill’, ‘partiality, favour’, ‘gratitude for a gift received’, ‘favour’, ‘grant’, ‘delight’ or ‘gratification’. The sense is clear – the offering or reception of favour and the resulting feeling in the recipient282. BAGD, bearing their accustomed theological burden, mention the possibility that the word can refer to a number of aspects of God’s relationship with his creation: b. on the part of God and Christ: the context will show whether the emphasis is upon the possession of divine grace as a source of blessings for the believer, or upon a store of grace that is dispensed, or a state of grace (i.e. standing in God’s favor) that is brought about, or a deed of grace wrought by God in Christ, or a work of grace which grows fr. more to more. In fact, xa&rij is a rare term in John, used only these four times in vv. 14–17.283 Barrett, along with most commentators, links the use of the lexeme to the Hebrew phrase tme)vwe dsexe bra and suggests that since dsexe is usually translated in the LXX as e1leoj, it has the meaning ‘grace’, ‘undeserved favour’. However, Feuillet and Kuyper have shown that dsexe could be translated with xa&rij and that the Hebrew word’s semantic overlap is in fact closer to xa&rij than to e1leoj.284 Indeed, Kuyper has shown that e1leoj reflects the meaning of the 281. Kuyper, ‘Grace and Truth: An Old Testament Description of God, and Its Use in the Johannine Gospel’, Int 18,1 (1964), pp. 3–19, p. 3; Brown, John, p. 14. Note, however, Bultmann’s comment, John, p. 74 fn.1, where he denies the possibility of linking this phrase with John 1.14 and Mowvley’s insistence that since dsexe is only translated with xa&rij once (Esther 2.9), then this phrase is not being echoed. Mowvley prefers to see a link with Exodus 33.16 which includes both a)lhqw~j and xa&rij. However, the words here are not used together and the arguments for the echo of 34.6 seem much more convincing. 282. Compare Louw-Nida’s selection: 88.66 kindness; 57.103 gift; 33.350 thanks; 25.89 good will. BAGD, pp. 877–78, suggest: ‘attractiveness’, ‘favor’, ‘goodwill’, ‘gift’, ‘thanks’, ‘gratitude’ 283. Edwards, ‘Grace and Law’, p. 3; Kuyper, ‘Grace and Truth’, p. 14. Boismard argues that the term is a sign of the Lukan redaction of the Gospel; Feuillet, Prologue, p. 114. However, if this were the case, then we would find xa&rij much more frequently in the Gospel. 284. On the translation from Hebrew to Greek, see Brown, John, p. 14 and Kuyper, ‘Grace and Truth’, p. 8 and Dodd, Interpretation, p. 175 ‘tme)vwe dsexe is variously translated, but most characteristically as e1leoj kai a)lh&qeia. There is, however, evidence to suggest that in the later stages of the LXX, and in Hellenistic Judaism, xa&rij came to be preferred to e1leoj as a rendering of dsexe. So, Feuillet, Prologue, p. 115; Bultmann, p. 74 fn.1; Schnackenburg, John, p. 272, fn.193; Barrett, St John, p. 167, Beasley-Murray, John, p. 14; Carson, John, p. 129
    • Leviathan vol1 23/9/03 12:33 pm Page 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS VOLUME ONE: INTRODUCTION Preface 3 List of Illustrations 6 List of Abbreviations 7 I. The Genesis of Leviathan 9 II. Hobbesian Sources of Leviathan 18 III. The Different Versions of Leviathan 47 III.1. The Egerton Manuscript 48 III.2. The ‘Head’ Edition 71 III.3. Twentieth-Century Reprints of the ‘Head’ Edition 97 III.3.A. The Waller Edition 99 III.3.B. The Pogson Smith Edition 101 III.3.C. The Lindsay Edition 104 III.3.D. The Macpherson Edition 105 III.3.E. The Scolar Press Facsimile 110 III.3.F. The Tuck Edition 111 III.3.G. Excursus: Hobbesian Variants in the ‘Head’ Edition? 123 III.3.H. The Tricaud Translation 129 III.4. The ‘Bear’ Edition 130 III.5. The ‘Ornaments’ Edition 155 III.6. A Re-edition in 1680? 182 III.7. The 1750 Edition 184 III.8. The Molesworth Edition 201 III.9. Twentieth-Century Pseudo-Editions 213 III.9.A. The Oakeshott Edition 213 III.9.B. The Curley Edition 217 III.9.C. The Gaskin Edition 222 III.9.D. The Flathman/Johnston Edition 226 1
    • Leviathan vol1 23/9/03 12:33 pm Page 2 2 INTRODUCTION TO LEVIATHAN IV. The Latin Leviathan 229 IV.1. A Latin Proto-Leviathan? 230 IV.2. The Latin Edition of 1668 241 IV.3. The Later Latin Editions 250 V. The Present Edition 259 VOLUME TWO: LEVIATHAN List of Abbreviations vii LEVIATHAN 1 The Contents of the Chapters 5 The first Part, Of MAN 9 The second Part, Of COMMON-WEALTH 133 The third Part, Of A CHRISTIAN COMMON-WEALTH 291 The fourth Part, Of THE KINGDOME OF DARKNESSE 481
    • Leviathan vol1 23/9/03 12:33 pm Page 3 PREFACE It will be no secret that the editors of this critical edition of Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan work from different agendas: the edition of the works of John Locke on the one hand, the edition of Hobbes’s Latin works on the other. Neither of us ever had the intention to focus on Hobbes’s English works as such, let alone on his Leviathan. Only when we happened to be in need of an edition of this work that would scrupulously note the major variant readings contained in its various versions, and could find none, did we reluctantly decide to take this task upon ourselves. However, only as we went along did we become aware that, instead of walking on firm ground, we were imprudently sailing ofer hronrade in an old tub, and about to get lost in the infinities of the Elder Pliny’s mare Cronium. The late François Tricaud, who had struggled more intensely with Leviathan than anyone before, definitely knew what he was talking about when he told us: ‘Le Léviathan, c’est un monstre’. The only way to escape from being swallowed by draco iste (Ps. 104:26), this serpens tortuosus (Is. 27:1), was to limit our enterprise. Fortunately it turned out just in time that the widespread rumour of Hobbesian corrections in the so-called ‘Head’ edition was, in Descartes’s words, only one of many fabulas de Leviathan, so that chasing after that mythical, supposedly best corrected copy (if it were still there) would be as hopeless as had been the quest for that other whale, Moby-Dick. On the contrary, we would proceed on the firm rule: one copy, one vote. This applied also to the so-called ‘Bear’ and ‘Ornaments’ editions of Leviathan so reprehen- sibly neglected in Hobbes research up until now. And we were in the lucky position of being able to divide the work. While Karl Schuhmann collated all the text versions used in this edition (the quantitative part of the work), John Rogers took all the decisions as to which variants should go into the main text and which ones were to be relegated to the critical apparatus (the qualitative aspect of the work). While Karl Schuhmann drafted the Introduction, John Rogers controlled and shaped it in the way it appears here. If our edition does not fall too far short of its goal, we may put an end to this cetacean undertaking of ours with Petrarch’s comforting words so dear to Schopenhauer: satis est. We can only hope that, as in the case of that shanty celebrity, the whaler Reuben Ranzo, so also with this adventure of ours – all’s well that ends well. But even though other interludes tend to be shorter than this one has been, we look back with great satisfaction at a period of very pleasing and fruitful collaboration on this shared project. For us it was a time of exciting and most unexpected discov- 3
    • Leviathan vol1 23/9/03 12:33 pm Page 4 4 INTRODUCTION TO LEVIATHAN eries about the textual history of that great work of political philosophy which goes under so sinister a name: Leviathan. We most gratefully acknowledge the help and support we have received from many people and institutions, without which it would have been impossible to bring this enterprise to a happy end. This concerns in particular the British Library, the Bodleian Library and Cambridge University Library, but also the British Council and the Leverhulme Trust which gave important financial support for John Rogers’s visits to Utrecht. We also want to thank the late François Tricaud for discussing in all minute detail a draft of this edition with Karl Schuhmann only a few months before his death. Thanks also go to Paul Schuurman through whose most welcome services it was easy for us to acquire copies from the Bodleain Library in Oxford; to Matthijs van Otegem for his suggestions concerning the riddle of the Ornaments edition; to Cees Leijenhorst who critically read a draft of the Introduction; and especially to Quentin Skinner for his unwavering friendship and his most generous support of this undertaking of ours, as well as for his critical reading of a draft of the Introduction G.A.J. Rogers, Keele University, Karl Schuhmann, University of Utrecht January 2003
    • vol 1 A-J.qxd 12/9/03 11:05 am Page 194 BURMAN time for study. He studied at the universities of history and Latin eloquence in Franeker and Leiden (matriculated on 24 September 1685) Amsterdam, was his nephew. and Utrecht (1687). He was appointed professor extraordinarius of history at Utrecht BIBLIOGRAPHY University in 1696 and full professor in 1698; Disputatio juridica inauguralis de from 1703 he also taught politics. In 1715 he transactionibus (Utrecht, 1688). was appointed Professor of History at LEIDEN; Oratio de eloquentia et poëtice (Utrecht, in 1724 he became librarian too. In 1691 he 1696). married Eva Clotterbooke, daughter of the Oratio pro pigritia (n.p., 1702; 2nd edn, mayor of Den Briel. Burman died in Leiden on Leiden, 1740). 31 March 1741. Orato pro comoedia, publice in auspiciis During his years in Utrecht, he published new academicarum recitationum, quibus editions of classical authors like Petronius and Terentii fabulae explicantur (Utrecht, Horace; and he promoted the comedies of 1711); Dutch trans. by Redenvoering voor Terence. The ministry in the city, mostly very de comedie, in ’t openbaer opgezegt by orthodox and suspicious of such frivolous den aanvang zijner academische leszen, authors and profane amusement, brought over den toneeldichter Terentius (Utrecht, charges against Burman with the magistrates. 1711). He reacted touchily and became the centre of Oratio de publici humanioris disciplinae many assaults. Because of his libertine views professoris proprio officio et munere Burman was also accused of Spinozism, but (Leiden, 1715). actually he had hardly any interest in philoso- Oratio in humanitatis studia (Leiden, 1720). phy. When he left for Leiden these quarrels Oratio de bibliothecis publicis, earumque ended, though Burman, self-assertive as he was, praefectis (Leiden, 1725). met some minor conflicts there as well. Pro literatis et grammaticis oratio (Leiden, Burman was well-known for his many text 1735). editions of Latin authors from classical Poëmatum libri quatuor, nunc primum in antiquity, e.g. Phaedrus (1698), Horace (1699), lucem editi, ed. Petrus Burmannus Jr. Petronius (1709), Quintilian (1720), Justin (Amsterdam, 1746). (1722), Valerius Flaccus (1724), Suetonius (1736), Lucan (1740) and Virgil (posthumously Further Reading published by Petrus Burmannus II, 1746). He Kernkamp, G.W., Acta et decreta senatus, was an old-fashioned humanist, and he pleaded vroedschapsresolutiën en andere for a contemporary but correct use of Latin. bescheiden betreffende de Utrechtsche Accordingly he delivered eloquent orations and academie, vol. 2 (Utrecht, 1938). wrote Neo-Latin poems for many solemnities. ———, De Utrechtsche universiteit In his linguistic method he was opposed to the 1636–1936. Eerste deel, de Utrechtsche more historical and empirical use of linguistics academie 1636–1815 (Utrecht, 1936). by Tiberius HEMSTERHUIS and his pupils, the Lunsingh Scheurleer, T.H. and G.H.M. so-called schola Hemsterhusiana. In 1716 Posthumus Meyjes (eds), Leiden Burman successfully averted the appointment of University in the Seventeenth Century: An Hemsterhuis at Leiden University, and it was exchange of learning (Leiden, 1975). only after the retirement of Burman in 1740 Meijer, Theodorus Josephus, Kritiek als that Hemsterhuis could be appointed in Leiden. herwaardering: Het levenswerk van Jacob Frans BURMAN II (1671–1719), professor of Perizonius (1651–1715) (Leiden, 1971). theology in Utrecht, was his brother; Petrus Molhuysen, P.C., Bronnen tot de Secundus or Junior (1713–78), professor for geschiedenis der Leidsche universiteit, vols 194
    • vol 1 A-J.qxd 12/9/03 11:05 am Page 196 C CAMPER, Petrus (1722–89) cal dissertation, De visu, based on literature; and for a medical dissertation, De quibusdam Petrus Camper was born in Leiden on 11 May oculi partibus, including original anatomical 1722. He was Professor of Medicine at research. FRANEKER in 1750–55, AMSTERDAM 1755–61 Camper became a physician in Leiden, but and GRONINGEN in 1763–73; he lived by his after the death of his parents in 1748 he made own means after 1773 in the countryside near a trip to England – London, Cambridge and Franeker, sometimes becoming involved in Oxford; and in June 1749 he left for Paris, public affairs. He became well known in where he attended the lessons of the famous Europe as an anatomist and a physician. He surgeon Louis and met Buffon. Just before he had practical skill in many fields of research, left Paris to return to his native town, he was but he was not a theorist. Although he appointed at Franeker University to the chairs published a great deal, he did not write of philosophy and of anatomy and surgery. important textbooks or systematic studies. He Camper arrived in Franeker in April 1750 and died on 7 April 1789 in The Hague. delivered an inaugural address Oratio de His parents, Florentius Camper and Sara mundo optimo in April 1751. In it he discusses Geertruida Ketting, were rather wealthy. His the Leibnizian theme of living in the best father had been a Reformed minister in Batavia possible world created by an omnipotent and and in 1713 returned to Leiden, where he lived benevolent God; but from a Newtonian point as a gentleman of independent means. The of view, Camper contended, it is metaphysical famous physician Herman BOERHAAVE was a and theological recklessness to argue about the friend of the family. Young Camper went to perfection of this world. However, because of grammar school in 1731. Outside school hours, his empiricism Camper had a profound confi- he mastered the arts of designing and painting dence in the order of the world as God has from Carel de Moor and his son, Carel Isaac. created it, and in the possibility of genuine He matriculated at Leiden University in 1734. knowledge about it. He points to the fact of the His physics professors, W.J. ’s GRAVESANDE and enormous variety, both in living and non-living P. van M USSCHENBROEK , were among the nature, which demonstrates the ordering power leading continental proponents of Newtonian of the Supreme Being. The coherence given by empiricism. Camper learned medicine from H. God in this variety – a theme which returned OOSTERDIJK SCHACHT, H.D. GAUBIUS and A. many times in Camper’s orations – is a solid van Rooculiyen; and with the anatomist B.S. ground to base analogy upon. In his Franeker Albinus he shared a passion for anatomy. lectures, Prolegomena in philosophiam, Camper concluded his university studies in Camper offers an empirical epistemology based 1746 with a double degree: for a philosophi- on three pillars: the senses, the testimony (i.e. 196
    • vol 1 A-J.qxd 12/9/03 11:05 am Page 197 CAMPER the experience) of others, and analogy. Bourboom (1722–76). She had inherited from Provided that these three are used carefully her first husband an estate near Franeker, and in mutual balance, genuine certainty is called Klein Lankum: here Camper settled and possible. This moral certainty, as Camper calls could live independently. He considered him- it, should be distinguished from the evident self to be an aristocrat and in this capacity he certainty of, for example, mathematics. This accepted public offices, such as dike-reeve, inductive empiricism, with admiration for the mayor of the town of Workum, and president Newtonian philosophy, is distinguished of the Council of State. During the patriot- sharply from the deductive metaphysics of riots at the end of his life he showed himself to DESCARTES and the Cartesians. be a natural conservative. Frans HEMSTERHUIS and Camper had been During his lifetime Camper became famous friends since their youth. It was probably by for his skills as an anatomist. He was a keen the influence of Frans’s father, Tiberius observer, both as a medical practitioner and as HEMSTERHUIS, professor of Greek in Leiden, a zoologist. Cadavers and skeletons of exotic that Camper was strengthened in his convic- animals, like an elephant, a rhinoceros, and tion that analogy was a universal and reliable anthropoid apes such as the orang-utan were method for all sciences, though he never had sent to him; and Camper wrote treatises about any ambition for philological research himself. the dissections of these animals, illustrated by Only as a professor in Franeker did Camper drawings of his own. Camper held the combi- have to teach philosophy: later on, in nation of the skills of anatomy and drawing in Amsterdam and Groningen, he only held chairs high esteem. Combining practice and theory, he of medicine. However, he always proclaimed a was very successful in comparative anatomy, Newtonian empiricism, based on the senses, again by applying the method of observation testimony and analogy. He marvelled at the and analogy. The investigation of new, hitherto variety of Creation and saw God as the Supreme unknown animals could be applied to internal Craftsman. But his orthodoxy was restricted: medicine for people; and insight into the body’s God is the necessary warrant of the universal functions could be obtained with the help of order, and the proclaimed religion is the warrant mechanical principles. Camper also applied of the order in society. When his Groningen comparative anatomy to anthropology. colleague F.A. van der MARCK, professor of According to Camper the varieties of the law, was dismissed on account of having far too human species could be distinguished by a liberal opinions, Camper supported this precisely measurable characteristic, the so- discharge, because Van der Marck had offended called facial angle. The pluriformity rested in the oath he had made on the occasion of his the extension of the jaw and had nothing to do appointment as a professor. Camper’s own the- with superiority or inferiority. All races have ological views bear testimony to deism; but he their relative beauty and are all descendants of was prudent and he never wrote about theo- Adam and Eve. He combated the myths of his logical subjects. days concerning the supposed close relationship As a medical practitioner Camper was of apes to the black race (Redevoering over de consulted by many, and when necessary he oorsprong en de kleur der zwarten, 1764, helped the poor free of charge. He experi- published 1772; translation in Meijer, 1999). mented with obstetric instruments, which he Through comparative anatomy he also designed himself. He preferred practical skill disproved then current theories regarding the above theory, and probably for that reason he abilities of apes to speak and to walk upright. withdrew voluntarily from his academic Camper’s belief in the Supreme Creator profession. He was wealthy himself, and in restrained him from developing any idea of 1756 he had married a rich widow, Johanna evolutionary thought. 197
    • vol 1 A-J.qxd 12/9/03 11:05 am Page 198 CAMPER Camper applied comparative anatomy as a cations covered such widely divergent subjects zoologist also and so he could raise methodo- as cattle-plague, veterinary science, education, logical objections to the system of Linnaeus. megalithic tombs, and dike maintenance. An He had some renown as a discoverer of factual up-to-date biography of this colourful per- errors in Linnaeus’s zoology. He was sonality is urgently needed. convinced that the animals were interrelated through a uniform plan, but that the anatom- BIBLIOGRAPHY ical similarities between the vertebrates were De visu: Optical Dissertation on Vision, far from having been investigated exhaustively. 1746 (Nieuwkoop, 1962; facsimile of the During his lifetime Camper collected a huge original Latin text, with a complete trans- range of fossils. He contributed to the identi- lation and an introduction by G. Ten fication of vertebrate fossils, and he also noted Doesschate). the morphological dissimilarity between some Sämmtliche kleinere Schriften die Arzney-, fossil animals and living animals. Like many Wundarzneykunst und Naturgeschichte contemporary naturalists, he had theological betreffend, 3 vols (Leipzig, 1784–8). objections to the explanation that fossils Dissertationes decem, quibus ab inlustribus represent extinct animals. Here too, as a Europeae, praecipue Galliae, academiis palaeontologist, Camper’s all-pervading palma adjudicata, 2 vols (Lingen, empiricism prevented him from synthesizing 1798–1800). the data and formulating general conclusions. Vermischte Schriften, die Arzney-, Camper was convinced that the fossils origi- Wundarzney- und Entbindungskunst betr- nated from still unknown animals, which were effend (Lingen, 1801). being discovered in hitherto hardly explored Oeuvres, qui ont pour objet l’histoire regions. At the end of his life, however, he naturelle, la physiologie et l’anatomie advocated the extinction theory in unpublished comparée, 3 vols (Paris, 1803). manuscripts. He gathered evidence for an ‘Oratio de mundo optimo’ and extension of the geological time-scale, without ‘Prolegomena in philosophiam’ (Ljouwert, completely rejecting the Bible as a source of 1988; with an introduction and transla- scientific information. tion by J. van Sluis). Wholly in line with his empiricism, Camper devoted his energies also to the teaching of Further Reading drawing. In Groningen he tried to found a Meijer, Miriam Claude, Race and Aesthetics drawing-school, but he failed to get financial in the Anthropology of Petrus Camper support from the citizens. In his rectoral (1722–89) (Amsterdam and Atlanta, GA, address Oratio de pulchro (1766), he praised 1999); with a bibliography, pp. 217–41. the beauty of the variety in creation. Unlike his Visser, R.P.W., The Zoological Work of friend Frans Hemsterhuis, he did not reflect Petrus Camper 1722–89 (Amsterdam, theoretically on the essence of beauty. 1985); with a bibliography, pp. 178–99. Camper was highly esteemed during his Daniëls, C.E., Het leven en de verdiensten lifetime: he visited the courts of stadholder van Petrus Camper (Utrecht, 1880). William V, George III and Frederick the Great. Koops, W.R.H. and J. Schuller tot As a personality he could be very witty: he Peursum-Meijer (eds), Petrus Camper sometimes anonymously wrote satirical (1722–89), onderzoeker van nature comments on social and current affairs. But (Groningen, 1989). Camper, the aristocrat, could also be very idle, Sluis, J. van and S. Sybrandy, ‘Petrus which made him not very fit for political Camper over schoonheid: Het leerzame functions in those troubled times. His publi- van de analogie’, in A.H. Huussen (ed.), 198
    • vol 1 A-J.qxd 12/9/03 11:05 am Page 199 CAPELLEN TOT DEN POL De universiteit Groningen in de 17de en accused of using indelicate language in his battle 18de eeuw (Hilversum, 2003); with the against the so-called drostendiensten (a form of text of Camper’s previously unpublished serf labour). In September 1781, after the Oratio de pulchro. outbreak of the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War in the previous year, his anonymous and controversial JvS pamphlet To the People of the Netherlands did much to create a revolutionary atmosphere in the Dutch Republic. He played a leading role in the movement for recognition of the American colonies. He died of an intestinal disease on 6 June 1784, when his political fame had reached CAPELLEN TOT DEN POL, Johan Derk its zenith. van der (1741–84) Evaluations of Van der Capellen’s political role have always been influenced by political Johan Derk van der Capellen was born on 2 bias. Contemporary opponents liked to November 1741 in Tiel (Gelderland). He was compare him to the British populist leader John the only surviving child of Frederik Jacob Derk Wilkes whom they detested, whereas those van der Capellen, an army officer and member favouring political reform praised Van der of the lower gentry, and Anna Elisabeth van Capellen as a national hero, even when his Bassenn. Between 1758 and 1763 he was a authorship of To the People of the Netherlands student of law at UTRECHT UNIVERSITY. During was one of the best kept secrets at the time. This the 1760s he unsuccessfully attempted to was only definitively revealed at the end of the become a member of the nobility in the States nineteenth century, when an autobiography of of Gelderland. After endless bickering and with Van der Capellen’s close friend F.A. van der the help of Stadholder William V, he was even- Kemp turned up in the United States. The tually accepted as a member in the States of problem of evaluating Van der Capellen Overijssel in 1772. After purchase of the manor remained, however. De Pol in 1774, he became known as Van der Van der Capellen’s private correspondence Capellen tot den Pol. and his publications (both anonymous and At this time a decade of anti-establishment official) give testimony to his troublesome health politics had already started. Van der Capellen and changing moods. Through selective inter- gained a reputation as the Republic’s most pretation, he could be portrayed as the cautious notorious politician, combining cautious politician who showed a deep awareness of the political manoeuvres with insulting publica- dangers of radical change, especially in a small tions. He rejected the Stadholder’s political ori- republic surrounded by great powers. At the entation toward England and spoke both same time, however, in his anonymous writings openly and in private – for example in his letters Van der Capellen vehemently attacked the to Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and the Dutch Stadholder and his political clients. He English dissenter Richard Price – of his total once wrote to a close friend that it was his support for the American cause. He translated intention ‘to undress his Tenderness [Stadholder into Dutch Andrew Fletcher’s Discourse of William V] and let him sit naked with the knife Government relating to Militias, Price’s in his belly before the whole of Europe’ Observations on the Nature of Civil Liberty, the (Brieven, p. 322). His ideas were equally difficult Additional Obervations and a part of Priestley’s to label for those wishing to place his political Essay on the First Principles of Government. views in either a conservative-aristocratic or Eventually, in 1778, he was suspended from liberal-democratic tradition. Van der Capellen the States of Overijssel after having been claimed to be a born regent, but was at the 199
    • vol 1 A-J.qxd 12/9/03 11:05 am Page 200 CAPELLEN TOT DEN POL same time a passionate defender of the doctrine Fatherland, almost damaged beyond repair, will of popular sovereignty and of the idea of a be of no avail if you, oh people of the permanent intervention of the ‘people’ in Netherlands, remain idle bystanders’ (Zwitzer, politics. p. 91). Van der Capellen thought of the Dutch Clearly, it was the democratic element of the Republic as an example of the much praised mixed constitution that Van der Capellen mixed constitution, or rather of seven mixed wanted to invoke in order to uphold liberty. In constitutions. All seven United Provinces the best of republican traditions, this was sold contained elements of monarchy (stadholder), not as the creation of something new, but as a aristocracy (nobility) and democracy (cities). restoration of the ancient constitution to its Van der Capellen was not in principle against original foundation, i.e. to the assumed spirit the stadholderate; in fact, he thought its role in and democratic customs of the Batavian people. government essential. The ideological struggle Van der Capellen admitted that his plans for that Van der Capellen initiated centered on the reform were still rather sketchy, but his thoughts issue of balance between the three elements. went in two directions. Firstly, he embraced a His Anglo-American orientation stands at the radical Lockean doctrine of popular sovereignty heart of a new Dutch republicanism that (or power to the people), containing the emerged during the 1780s. permanent right of resistance to representatives In his address To the People of the failing to uphold the social contract, and Netherlands, Van der Capellen pointed out that including procedures for regular democratic even those with the best intentions were vul- elections of regents in the cities. This would nerable to corruptive powers when holding counter the danger of what Van der Capellen in office: ‘To rule is sweet! Guard yourself, a pejorative way called the spirit of ‘aristoc- Countrymen, and you will be free!’ (Zwitzer, racy’. Secondly, and most importantly, the Joan Derk van der Capellen, p. 26). Corruption citizens of every province had to be armed, in the Dutch Republic was rampant, according forming a citizen militia with officers chosen by to Van der Capellen. The court of Stadholder the rank and file. This would counterbalance William V was the centre of a powerful system William’s standing army and the danger of of political clients in every province and tyranny. therefore political decisions could be influenced In 1787, Prussian forces crushed the patriot at will. The stadholder also had the highest movement of which Van der Capellen had been military command. His control of a standing a founding father; and the Orange party was in army that consisted for a considerable part of control again. His adversaries, however, had foreign regiments who were loyal to him rather not forgotten his role. The family grave, from than to the Provincial States, was presumed to which his body had already been removed, was be a great threat to liberty. Furthermore, Van blown up by supporters of the Orange party on der Capellen was deeply suspicious about the 7 August 1788. ties of the Orange family with the English court, especially during the war of 1780–84. Finally, BIBLIOGRAPHY there was the problem of moral decay. Van der Advis over het verzoek van … den koning van Capellen’s exposure of William’s human weak- Groot Brittannië, raakende het leenen der nesses, i.e. his drinking habits, his infatuation Schotse Brigade (n.p., [1775]). with a younger girl, and his dependence on Vertoog over de onwettigheid der court advisers, created the image of a powerful drostendiensten in Overyssel (Leiden, but corrupt monarch who had to be halted 1778). immediately: ‘Everything that is being under- Aan het volk van Nederland (n.p., 1781); taken at this very moment to save our English trans. An Adress to the People of 200
    • GeoActive 323 Online TOURISM CASE STUDY: by Kris Robbetts THE EDEN PROJECT T HE EDEN PROJECT in Cornwall (Figure 1) has become one of the most A30 Bristol distinctive and successful tourist Channel attractions of recent times. Since Launceston opening in 2001 Eden has attracted visitors from all over A30 the world. At the same time it Padstow has helped to rejuvenate the Newquay Bodmin A38 Saltash economy of one of the poorest A38 regions in Europe. By being more Par than simply an ‘environmental A30 St Austell theme park’ Eden manages to Mevagissey St Ives Truro combine a serious message about sustainability with an entertaining experience that Falmouth Penzance N appeals to people of all ages. Land’s End However, as this unit shows, its success has brought both 0 50 km negative and positive consequences for the local Figure 1: Cornwall environment and population. Only through a better county after the Isle of Wight. quarry at Bodelva near St understanding of these issues can Employment is highly seasonal Austell. The Project was the long-term viability of Eden because most jobs are tourism- constructed as a vast sheltered be ensured. related and over 40% of garden, aimed originally at Cornwall’s visitors arrive in July educating visitors about the Context: Cornwall and August. At the same time the dependence of people upon The county of Cornwall is a 100- two other industries and plants (Figure 2). Eden is partly a mile (160 km) long peninsula principal sources of work in the playground and partly an making up much of the region – agriculture and mining educational and research facility. southern-most part of the British – are dwindling. Farm sizes are It is unlike more conventional Isles. No location is more than well below the national average tourist attractions but has still 15 miles (24 km) from a and the once prosperous metal managed to capture the public picturesque coastline, and the and china clay mines are either imagination to become massively warming effect of the Gulf closed or becoming increasingly popular. Stream allows sub-tropical uncompetitive. The result is a vegetation to flourish. It is not scarred and under-utilised Although Cornwall is strongly surprising, therefore, that landscape that is more associated with tourism it might Cornwall has been popular as a dependent than ever on its coast not at first seem the most likely holiday destination for many and climate for economic place to create a ‘living theatre’ years. But more recently the survival. of plants. But it is no accident seasonal benefits of tourism have that Eden was located in not been enough to support a The huge success of the Eden Cornwall, for it was here that thriving economy. The region Project is, therefore, as welcome the British first began, in the has been in decline for a long as it is remarkable. Located 1850s, to cultivate foreign plants time, consistently producing the around 30 miles (48 km) from and fruits for popular second-lowest gross domestic Plymouth, Eden is sited within consumption. It was in Cornwall product (GDP) of any British and around a disused china clay too that the key founder of Series 16 Spring issue Unit 323 Tourism Case Study: The Eden Project © 2005 Nelson Thornes GeoActive Online This page may be photocopied for use within the purchasing institution only. Page 1 of 4
    • Activities Question: Which of these attractions are you certain or very likely to visit in the next 12 months? 1 Look up and provide definitions Alton Towers 17% of the following geographical terms: Eden Project 17% • diversification • gross domestic product Blackpool Pleasure • Gulf Stream • recreation Beach 14% • sustainability • tourism. Science Museum 11% 2 Explain why Cornwall has suffered economic decline in Tate Modern 11% recent decades. 3 Discuss as a class why the Eden Figure 5: Attractions that people are likely to visit Project has been such a success. (a) How many people in the class Where they are Humid Tropical Warm Temperate Outside landscape have already visited the Eden growing: Biome Biome Project? Regions represented Oceanic islands The Mediterranean Prairies (b) How did they get there? Malaysia West Africa Steppes (c) What aspects of the Project do West Africa California Wild Cornwall Tropical South Chilean temperate you think work well? America forest (d) What would you change to Plants grown in the ‘Outside landscape’: improve Eden? Particular plants: hemp, tea, sunflowers, apples, indigo, liquorice 4 Look at Figure 5. Grown for special purposes: to make rope and fibre, for fuel, for (a) Suggest reasons for Eden’s reclaiming land, for health, for tomorrow’s success given the more traditional industries, for papermaking, for beer and appeal of attractions such as Alton brewing, as fodder crops Towers and Blackpool. Other areas: • Plants and their pollinators (b) Do the responses shown by the • Plants in myth and folklore graph reflect the opinion of your • Berried plants • The flowerless garden class? (c) Can the popularity of Eden be Figure 6: Plants at Eden sustained? • what sort of events have been 10 You have been invited to be organised for the coming months. part of the design team who will 5 (a) Define the term multiplier effect. (b) Have a go at the plants quiz create the next biome at Eden. (b) Make a list of the positive and located at Prepare to make a presentation to negative multiplier effects created www.edenproject.com/3772.htm the Eden Project management by the Eden Project. team, using the internet to obtain (c) How could the negative effects 8 Take a look at the range of images of this biome and other you have identified be reduced in products sold at the Eden Store: environmental details, eg climate: the future? www.edenstore.co.uk rainfall, average temperature, Do you think selling such products temperature range etc. Assemble 6 Study Figure 6. conflicts with or supports images and data into a (a) Select two of the plants grown environmental conservation? Do presentation format (you may like in the ‘Outside landscape’ area. you think the store carries the to use a software package such as Find out where in the world these correct message to Eden’s visitors? PowerPoint). Include tables plants are grown as crops. highlighting the main vegetation (b) Why do you think at Eden 9 Split into groups. Design a types, as well as graphs and tables these plants are growing outside, poster expressing the views of the of the climate information. and not in one of the biomes? following groups towards the construction of the Eden Project 7 (a) Go to the official Eden near St Austell and its success. Project website at • The Project owners www.edenproject.com. Find out: • A local hotel or B & B • A St Austell resident • how much it costs to visit Eden • A local bus company • how it is suggested visitors get there • Cornwall County Council GeoActive Online Series 16 Spring issue Unit 323 Tourism Case Study: The Eden Project © 2005 Nelson Thornes Page 4 of 4 This page may be photocopied for use within the purchasing institution only.
    • JANUARY 2005 Online Geo file 487 Richard Hobson Separatist Issues: Case Study – The Kurds website which provides an Figure 1: Kurdistan Introduction opportunity to build a collective RUSSIA In February 1999, 33-year-old Akwar memory for people who have no 2 GEORGIA Serhan Aziz set himself on fire. national archive. The images and Ankara recollections serve as testimony to ARMENIA ‘You don’t see a man burning in the long and suppressed history of TURKEY AZERBAIJAN front of you every day. Maybe the Kurds. 4 Diyarbakir that was the reason I shot every 5 3 movement of the human flame Aziz poured petrol over himself and 1 IRAN which unexpectedly appeared in set himself alight when police tried SYRIA Tehran front of my eyes. to clear members of the PKK IRAQ Aziz sacrificed himself – a man (Kurdistan Workers Party) in 0 120 Km Baghdad without a native land – a man Athens who had gathered to with ideals.’ demonstrate about the capture of Key their leader at the Greek Embassy in 1 = Mediterranean sea National boundary Yannis Kontos, a photographer Kenya and his extradition to Turkey 2 = Black sea 3 = Caspian sea Kurdistan living in Athens submitted these for trial. They were demanding that 4 = Lake Van lines and a series of photographs to a Greece offer political asylum to 5 = Lake Usmia Abdullah Ocalan, a man who had led Key Word Box an armed struggle against the the peoples of the region. The Turkish military in an attempt to website ‘uses the map as a reference Separatist pressures gain ‘national unity and self- to the region in that Kurdistan is Separatist pressure is the effort made by determination and freedom from not shown on any contemporary a group of people within one or more alien slavery’: map’. countries to gain greater autonomy, and http://www.akakurdistan.com/kurds/ ideally independence, from a central stories/index.html. government from which they feel The Kurds alienated. Such people often have a different language, culture, or religion Aim The Kurds are the largest ethnic from the rest of the nation, and are group without a country of their This Geofile unit will define geographically isolated within that area. own. They live across the borders of separatism, say who the Kurds are Examples include the Basques (in France and will locate Kurdistan. It will Iraq, Iran, Syria, Turkey and parts of and Spain), the Catalans (in Spain), the examine a range of reasons for the former Soviet Union – Armenia, Quebecois (Canada), the Chechens Kurdish separatism, consider the and Azerbaijan. (Russia), and the Kurds (Iraq, Iran, evidence for separatist feelings, look Turkey, Syria, and Armenia). at the consequences of separatist The Kurdish Human Rights Project Autonomy pressures, and regard the attitudes of estimates their number at about 40 This is the right of self-government and the different groups of people million, including the diaspora self determination. For centuries the involved. (those who have moved to other Kurds had a physical and cultural parts of the world). They are unlike homeland and a society involving strong The map on the Kurdish stories the Arabs, Turks, or Persians, who tribal organisation. website, already quoted, was form the majority populations in the Today, without a national state and presented at a San Francisco countries in which they live. They government, tribes serve as the highest Conference in 1945. The borders have a separate language, culture, native source of authority in which the shown remain in dispute amongst and history, but currently live, Kurdish people place their allegiance. They are seeking autonomy from their Figure 2: Kurdish population as stated by Guardian Online, drawn from 1999 data respective national governments. 14 Nation The political unit to which people show 12 their allegiance. They see the nation as a Population (millions) large number of people of mainly 10 common descent, language, history and usually territory bounded by defined limits 8 in which there is a society with one government. The nation is the primary 6 focus of political allegiance – not the 4 individual and not the world. 2 Sovereignty This refers to the supreme power held by 0 the government of a nation Turkey Iran Iraq Syria Germany Russia Armenia Geofile Online © Nelson Thornes 2005
    • January 2005 no.487 Separatist Issues: Case Study – The Kurds Figure 3: Population trends among Kurdish populations Dimili-Gurani, supplemented by scores of sub-dialects. A modified Total population of Kurds living in all countries version of the Perso- Arabic alphabet Percentage of Kurds living in individual countries in 1990 is used in Iraq and Iran. Elsewhere, 100 the written language is based on the 90 Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. Population (millions) 80 Iraq 70 60 Iran Syria Nearly three-fifths of the Kurds are 50 Turkey Sunni Muslims; there are Shiite and 40 Sufi Muslims too. There are several 30 indigenous Kurdish faiths of great 20 age. Communities of Jews, 10 The total population living in Christians and Baha’is are found in 0 1990 2000 2020 2050 individual countries various corners of Kurdistan. 250 1990 Total population of Kurds living in individual countries 2000 50 Total population of Kurds living 200 2200 Brief History 1990 Population (millions) 2500 in individual countries Kurdish history can be even more Population (millions) 40 2000 150 2200 30 2500 subjective than most history – there 100 are Kurds, nationalist governments 20 and global powers like Britain, 50 10 France and the United States of 0 America telling the story. Here is 0 CIS Iraq Iran Syria Turkey Iraq Iran Syria Turkey some information to provide a historical background. Source: http://www.xs4all.nl/~tank/kurdish/htdocs/facts/demographic.html There has never been a recognised Figure 4: Information to help locate Kurdistan Kurdistan nation like there is a Information to help locate Kurdistan : Highest Points Turkish or Iraqi state. There were only small kingdoms and tribes that Area Mountain Country Height were alternately united or at war Southern Kurdistan Mt Alvand Iran 3,580 metres over hundreds of years. The Middle Central Kurdistan Mt Halgurd Iraq 3,733 metres East has always seen movements of Western Kurdistan Mt Munzur Turkey 3,840 metres people. In the 12th and 13th Northern Kurdistan Mt Ararat Turkey 5,165 metres centuries Turkish nomads Information to help locate Kurdistan: Area dominated the area, and most independent Kurdish states Area Equivalent areas succumbed. Kurdish principalities 595,700 km2 Germany and France Texas survived and were autonomous until Britain the 17th century. In the course of the 16th to 18th centuries, vast portions Climate Information of Kurdistan were systematically Rainfall 1524–2032 mm per year in the Central Regions devastated by the Safavids and 508–1016 mm per year on lower land Ottomans. Large numbers of Kurds Most precipitation is in the form snow, which can were deported to far corners of their fall for six months of the year empires. The scale of this death and Temperature The mean average temperature is 13–18°C, destruction was the basis for a decreasing with height unification of feeling against foreign vandals. There was a call for a united sometimes without recognition, in ranges. The relationship between the Kurdish state; and the fostering of these countries. Kurds and their mountains is very culture and language. These feelings strong – the Kurds’ home ends were expressed in the literature of Their culture and identity have been where the mountains end. the time. By 1867 the last oppressed by the regimes of the autonomous principalities had been nations within which they live. There are also two Kurdish enclaves eradicated by the Ottoman and Religion, language, culture and in central and north central Anatolia Persian governments that ruled perhaps, most importantly, a in Turkey and in the province of Kurdistan. The Kurdish provinces common history of persecution, tie Khurasan in north-east Iran. were under the control of governors. together the more than 20 million Kurds worldwide. The break-up of the Ottoman Language and Religion Empire at the end of the First World Kurdistan The Kurdish language is part of the War made matters worse. The north-western subdivision of the Treaty of Sevres in 1921 imagined Kurdistan is basically made up of Iranic branch of the Indo-European an independent Kurdish state the mountainous areas of the central family of languages, which is like covering large portions of Ottoman and northern Zagros, the eastern Persian, and by extension, related to Kurdistan – guaranteeing self- third of the Taurus and the Pontus, the European languages. Modern determination to the Kurds. and the northern half of the Amanus Kurdish divides into Kurmanji and However, Britain and France had Geofile Online © Nelson Thornes 2005
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