Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Lee, Les - Mechanics of Multifunctional Materials and Microsystems - Spring Review 2012
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Lee, Les - Mechanics of Multifunctional Materials and Microsystems - Spring Review 2012

  • 1,039 views
Published

Dr. Les Lee presents an overview of his program - Mechanics of Multifunctional Materials and Microsystems at the AFOSR 2012 Spring Review. …

Dr. Les Lee presents an overview of his program - Mechanics of Multifunctional Materials and Microsystems at the AFOSR 2012 Spring Review.

Published in Technology
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,039
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
23
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. MECHANICS OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL MATERIALS & MICROSYSTEMS 9 March 2012 B. L. (“Les”) Lee, ScD Program Manager AFOSR/RSA Integrity  Service  Excellence Air Force Research Laboratory15 February 2012 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1
  • 2. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEWNAME: B. L. (“Les”) LeeBRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO:Basic science for integration of emerging materials and micro-devicesinto future Air Force systems requiring multi-functional designLIST OF SUB-AREAS:Fundamentals of Mechanics of Materials;Life Prediction (Materials & Micro-devices);Sensing, Detection & Diagnosis;Multifunctional Design of Autonomic Systems;Multifunctional Design of Reconfigurable Systems;Self-Healing & Remediation;Self-Cooling & Thermal Management;Energy Management for Self-Sustaining Systems;Actuation & Threat Neutralization;Engineered Nanomaterials DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 2
  • 3. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEWNAME: B. L. (“Les”) LeeBRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO:Basic science for integration of emerging materials and micro-devicesinto future Air Force systems requiring multi-functional designLIST OF SUB-AREAS:Fundamentals of Mechanics of Materials;Life Prediction (Materials & Micro-devices);Sensing, Detection & Diagnosis;Multifunctional Design of Autonomic Systems;Multifunctional Design of Reconfigurable Systems;Self-Healing & Remediation;Self-Cooling & Thermal Management;Energy Management for Self-Sustaining Systems;Actuation & Threat Neutralization;Engineered Nanomaterials DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 3
  • 4. SCIENTIFIC CHALLENGE• Self-healable or in-situ remendable structural materials (1st-ever program; world lead)• Microvascular composites for continuous self-healing and self-cooling systems (1st-ever program; world lead)• Structural integration of energy harvest/storage capabilities (1st-ever program on structurally integrated multiple energy harvest capabilities; DoD lead)• Neurological system-inspired sensing/diagnosis/ actuation network (pot‟l world lead)• Mechanized material systems and micro-devices for reconfigurable structures (DoD lead)• Experimental nano-mechanics (DoD lead)• Active materials for threat neutralization (planned) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 4
  • 5. PROGRAM INTERACTION AFOSR EXTRAMURAL AFRL/RWStructural Mechanics UNIVERSITIES UAV Sensors Structural Materials INDUSTRY Organic Chemistry AFRL/RB Biosciences Antennas Microelectronics MECHANICS OF AFRL/RB OTHERS MULTIFUNCTIONAL Reconfigurable MATERIALS & AFRL/RX MICROSYSTEMS Active Polymer AFRL/RX Nanostructure NSF Army ESF Navy AFRL/RX NASA DARPA Vascular DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 5
  • 6. PROGRAM INTERACTION AFOSR EXTRAMURAL AFRL/RW Structural Mechanics UNIVERSITIES UAV Sensors Structural Materials INDUSTRY Organic Chemistry AFRL/RB Biosciences Antennas Microelectronics MECHANICS OF AFRL/RB OTHERS MULTIFUNCTIONAL Reconfigurable MATERIALS & AFRL/RX MICROSYSTEMS Active Polymer AFRL/RX AFOSR MURI „06 NanostructureEnergy Harvesting NSF Army ESF Navy AFRL/RX AFOSR MURI „05 NASA DARPA Vascular Self-Healing DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 6
  • 7. PROGRAM INTERACTION AFOSR EXTRAMURAL AFRL/RW Structural Mechanics UNIVERSITIES UAV Sensors Structural Materials INDUSTRY AFOSR MURI ‟09 Organic Chemistry AFRL/RB Sensing Network Biosciences Antennas Microelectronics Discovery CT „09 MECHANICS OF AFRL/RB OTHERS Reconfigurable MULTIFUNCTIONAL Reconfigurable MATERIALS & AFRL/RX Director‟s Call ‟09 MICROSYSTEMS Active PolymerEnergy from Environ AFRL/RX AFOSR MURI „06 Nanostructure Energy Harvesting NSF Army ESF Navy AFRL/RX AFOSR MURI „05 NASA DARPA Vascular Self-Healing DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 7
  • 8. PROGRAM INTERACTION AFOSR/RW CoE ‟12 AFOSR EXTRAMURAL AFRL/RW High-Rate Mechanics Structural Impact UNIVERSITIES UAV Sensors Structural Materials INDUSTRY AFOSR MURI ‟09 Organic Chemistry AFRL/RB Sensing Network Biosciences Antennas Microelectronics Discovery CT „09 MECHANICS OF AFRL/RB OTHERS Reconfigurable MULTIFUNCTIONAL Reconfigurable MATERIALS & AFRL/RX Director‟s Call ‟09 MICROSYSTEMS Active PolymerEnergy from Environ AFRL/RX AFOSR MURI „06 Nanostructure Energy Harvesting NSF Army ESF Navy AFRL/RX AFOSR MURI „05 NASA DARPA Vascular Self-Healing DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 8
  • 9. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEWNAME: B. L. (“Les”) LeeBRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO:Basic science for integration of emerging materials and micro-devicesinto future Air Force systems requiring multi-functional designLIST OF SUB-AREAS:Fundamentals of Mechanics of Materials;Life Prediction (Materials & Micro-devices);Sensing, Detection & Diagnosis;Multifunctional Design of Autonomic Systems;Multifunctional Design of Reconfigurable Systems;Self-Healing & Remediation;Self-Cooling & Thermal Management;Energy Management for Self-Sustaining Systems;Actuation & Threat Neutralization ;Engineered Nanomaterials DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 9
  • 10. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEWNAME: B. L. (“Les”) Lee PI‟s & Co-PI’s: John Kieffer (U Mich)BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO: Ioannis Chasiotis (UIUC) David Kisailus (UC Riverside)Basic science for integration of emerging materials and micro-systems Pablo Zavattieri (Purdue U)into future Air Force systems requiring multi-functional designU)^ Liping Liu (Rutgers G. Ravichandran (Caltech)*LIST OF SUB-AREAS: Jose Andrade (Caltech)* Kaushik Bhattacharya (Caltech)*Fundamentals of Mechanics of Materials; Chiara Daraio (Caltech)*Life Prediction (Materials & Micro-devices); Michael Ortiz (Caltech)* Chris Lynch (UCLA)*Sensing, Detection & Diagnosis; Greg Carman (UCLA)*Multifunctional Design of Autonomic Systems;Multifunctional Design of Reconfigurable Systems; ^ YIP; * CoESelf-Healing & Remediation;Self-Cooling & Thermal Management;Energy Management for Self-Sustaining Systems;Actuation & Threat Neutralization;Engineered Nanomaterials DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 10
  • 11. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEWNAME: B. L. (“Les”) Lee Subject: PI‟s & Co-PI’s: < Multi-scale Simulation of Interfacial PhenomenaJohn Kieffer (U Mich)BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO: for MEMS Deformation & Fracture of Silicon Ioannis Chasiotis (UIUC) > Damage-tolerant Biological Composites David Kisailus (UC Riverside)Basic science for integration of emerging materials and micro-systems Pablo Zavattieri (Purdue U)into future Air > Designing Structuresrequiring multi-functional designU)^ Force systems for Functional Materials Liping Liu (Rutgers > High-rate Physics of Heterogeneous Materials G. Ravichandran (Caltech)*LIST OF SUB-AREAS: Jose Andrade (Caltech)* Kaushik Bhattacharya (Caltech)*Fundamentals of Mechanics of Materials; Chiara Daraio (Caltech)*Life Prediction (Materials & Micro-devices); Michael Ortiz (Caltech)* Chris Lynch (UCLA)*Sensing, Detection & Diagnosis; Greg Carman (UCLA)*Multifunctional Design of Autonomic Systems; > New; < ConcludedMultifunctional Design of Reconfigurable Systems; ^ YIP; * CoESelf-Healing & Remediation;Self-Cooling & Thermal Management;Energy Management for Self-Sustaining Systems;Actuation & Threat Neutralization;Engineered Nanomaterials DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 11
  • 12. FRACTURE OF MEMS MATERIALS (UIUC: Chasiotis)  Mode I fracture toughness of large grain polysilicon increased Polycrystalline SiliconPolycrystalline silicon is mostwidely used for MEMS with the amount of Phosphorus doping. Dopants at grain boundaries may allow for local crack deflection. Large grain Experiments (bi-crystal Chevron) 2% PSG show the role of grain structure  The fracture strength of “laminated” small grain polysilicon in fracture of polysilicon. was 80-150% higher than large grain polysilicon with doping playing a secondary role in fracture strength. Fabrication of Fracture of polysilicon is intra- polysilicon in laminate form reduced the flaw size significantly. granular due to high grain 1.3 3 Small Grain Small Grain boundary strength. Large Grain Toughness (MPa√m) 1.2 Large Grain 2.5 Failure Stress (GPa) 1.1 2 1 1.5 0.9 500 nm 1 0.8 0.7 0.5 Small grain 0.6 0 2% PSG 0% 0.50% 2% 0 2% PSG content PSG content  The modulus and tensile strength of PZT films for MEMS were measured for the first time. They were 30% smaller under short circuit conditions as opposed to open circuit conditions.  The high bias voltage electroactive coefficient varied nonlinearly with the electric field, but it became independent ofPZT thin film bimorph actuates the applied field at high pre-stress values.a millimeter scale wing for MAV -55 500 0 MPa PZT Composites -50 e31,eff (NV-1m-1) 400 100 MPa Stress (MPa) -45 200 MPa 300 300 MPa -40 400 MPa Pt 200 -35 open circuit PZT 100 -30 short circuit -25 0 0 5 10 15 Pt 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Electric Field (MVm-1) SiO2 2 µm Strain (%) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 12
  • 13. AFOSR/RW CO-SPONSORED COE‟12 (RW: Chhabildas) University Center of Excellence: High-Rate Deformation Physics of Heterogeneous Materials California Institute of Technology & University of California, Los AngelesGoals:• Develop a fundamental understanding of the deformation physics of heterogeneous materials at high-strain-rates and high-pressures• Develop microstructures and functional nano- materials for mitigating shock and damage• Use innovative methods for educating and training the next generation of scientists and practitioners PI & Co-PI’s: G. Ravichandran (Caltech) Jose Andrade (Caltech) Kaushik Bhattacharya (Caltech) Chiara Daraio (Caltech) Michael Ortiz (Caltech) Chris Lynch (UCLA) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Greg Carman (UCLA) 13
  • 14. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEWNAME: B. L. (“Les”) Lee PI‟s & Co-PI’s: Gregory Huff (Texas A&M)BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO: Jimmy Xu (Brown U) Erik Thostenson (U Del)^Basic science for integration of emerging materials and micro-systems Akira Todoroki (Tokyo Tech)into future Air Force systems requiring multi-functional design fu-Kuo Chang (Stanford U)* Xian Wang (Stanford U)*LIST OF SUB-AREAS: Boris Murmann (Stanford U)* Philip Levis (Stanford U)*Fundamentals of Mechanics of Materials; Andrew Ng (Stanford U)*Life Prediction (Materials & Micro-devices); Robert McLeod (U CO)* Greg Carman (UCLA)*Sensing, Detection & Diagnosis; Yong Chen (UCLA)*Multifunctional Design of Autonomic Systems; Somnath Ghosh (Ohio St U)*Multifunctional Design of Reconfigurable Systems;Rahmat Shoureshi (NYIT)* Frank Ko (U Brit Columbia)*Self-Healing & Remediation; Jeff Baur (AFRL/RXBC)Self-Cooling & Thermal Management; Ben Dickinson (AFRL/RWGN) Greg Reich (AFRL/RBSA)Energy Management for Self-Sustaining Systems; Yakup Bayram (PaneraTech)+Actuation & Threat Neutralization; Rob Bortolin (NextGen)+ Francesca Scire (Phys Sci)+Engineered Nanomaterials ^ YIP; * MURI; + STTR DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 14
  • 15. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEWNAME: B. L. (“Les”) Lee Subject: PI‟s & Co-PI’s: Electromagnetically Tunable Fluids Gregory Huff (Texas A&M)BRIEF DESCRIPTIONSignature Reduction & EMI Shielding Jimmy Xu (Brown U) Thermal OF PORTFOLIO:Basic science for integration of Domain Reflectometry Erik and micro-systems < Nanocomposites for Sensing & Actuation Damage Detection w Time emerging materials Thostenson (U Del)^ Akira Todoroki (Tokyo Tech)into future Air Force systems requiring multi-functional design Bio-inspired Intelligent Sensing Materials fu-Kuo Chang (Stanford U)* Xian Wang (Stanford U)*LIST OF SUB-AREAS: Boris Murmann (Stanford U)* Philip Levis (Stanford U)*Fundamentals of Mechanics of Materials; Andrew Ng (Stanford U)*Life Prediction (Materials & Micro-devices); Robert McLeod (U CO)* Greg Carman (UCLA)*Sensing, Detection & Diagnosis; Yong Chen (UCLA)*Multifunctional Design of Autonomic Systems; Somnath Ghosh (Ohio St U)*Multifunctional Design of Reconfigurable Systems; Rahmat Shoureshi (NYIT)* Frank Ko (U Brit Columbia)*Self-Healing & Remediation; Embedded Sensors & Actuators for MAV Jeff Baur (AFRL/RXBC)Self-Cooling & Thermal Management; “ Ben Dickinson (AFRL/RWGN) “ Greg Reich (AFRL/RBSA)Energy Management for Antennas of Conductive Textiles Yakup Bayram (PaneraTech)+ > Load-Bearing Self-Sustaining Systems;Actuation & Threat Neutralization; “ Rob Bortolin (NextGen)+ “ Francesca Scire (Phys Sci)+Engineered Nanomaterials > New; < Concluded ^ YIP; * MURI; + STTR DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 15
  • 16. MURI „09 BUILT-IN SENSING NETWORK (Stanford/U CO/UCLA/NYIT: Chang) Sensors Local neurons Synapse: (temperature, (processor, memory, pressure, communication Cognition and decision-making are strain, etc) devices) determined by a relative level of cumulative signal strength with respect to the synapse threshold values Autonomous System Multi-Scale Design, Synthesis & Fabrication Biological sensory systems rely on large numbers of sensors distributed over large areas and are specialized to detect and process a large number of stimuli. These systems are also capable to self-organize Stretchable Matrix Synaptic Circuits and are damage tolerant. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  • 17. MURI „09 Sensor Network for Structural IntegrationTask 1: Sensor Network for Structural IntegrationTo develop a nano/micro-scaled sensor network, functionalize the network to a macro scale, and integrate thesensor network into composite materials.Chang’s groupTo develop PZT sensor network ina CMOS-like foundry:• Scaled down sensor network to reduce wire & node size (for higher spatial resolution).• Developed spin-coated-on process for network fabrication.• Developed a design method for network expansion. 13 by 13 stretchable temperature sensor network Conceptual design of test bedMcLeod’s groupTo develop ultra-precise polymeroptical sensor network via liquiddeposition photolithography:• Deposition of polymer from the liquid state enables tightly integrated optical sensors.• Atomic-scale precision: 0.53 nm• Interrogates thousands of sensors Precision Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry Self-referenced transducer through round-trip delay to each partially-reflecting surface. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  • 18. MURI „09 Micro/Nano Sensors for State AwarenessTask 2: Micro/Nano Sensors for State AwarenessTo develop multi-physics multi-scale sensors for state awareness with an ease of network integration.Chang’s group: Organic Thin Film Diode (OTFD)• Screen-printing PZT sensors onto a network• Integrated organic thin film diodes into sensor network SEM image of good screenWang’s group: printed PZT• Designed an air flow sensor measuring the direction and the velocity.• Used four anisotropic magnetostrictive structures to transduce an air flow-induced beam deflection into a resistance change. Top View Bottom View Electrodes (30um spacing)Ko’s group:• Developed multi-functional nanofibers that can serve as: magnetic, piezo- electric and chemical sensors 20 μm Single fiber (d=90nm)Carman’s group: Magnetic nanofibers Piezoelectric fibers Nanofiber-based chemical sensors• Investigated nano-structured magneto-electric materials for detecting magnetic fields.• 40 and 25 nm diameter Ni nanostructures fabricated using AAO and DBC nanotemplate respectively.McLeod’s group:• A new approach to optical sensor interrogation. DBC Polymer template DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  • 19. Bio-inspired Neuron Circuits &MURI „09 Interface ElectronicsTask 3: Bio-inspired Neuron Circuits and Interface ElectronicsTo develop bio-inspired neuron circuits with appropriate electronics to interface with various sensors.Murmann’s group (a) Without timing alignment. Error=-26.02dB (b) With timing alignment. Error=-43.76dB• Built a dense integrated interface circuit for Output signal (V) Output signal (V) ultrasonic sensing of the structural state.• Defined piezo driver test chip to deliver a high voltage, high freq, continuous-time waveform. Error (V) Error (V)• Plans to integrate piezo sensing interface with piezo driver on a single chip. Time (us) Time (us)Chen’s group Output signals of the piezo-element driver without (left) and with (right) timing alignment• Invented synaptic transistors with dynamic logic, Sensing Analog/ Synaptic Circuit Synaptic Circuit memory, and learning functions by integrating ions in Network Pulse Interface Layer 1 Layer 2 SSS SS Due to statistic variation CNT/polymer composites. SSS SS TTT TT of the sensing signals in• Voltage pulses can induce the electrochemical reactions TTT SSS SS TT different sensors, the … SSS SS TTT TT output spikes will also Voltage Range be dispersed. TTT TT between ions and CNTs, modifying the conductivities of V 0 -5 V V t CNTs reversibly for learning and memory functions. I1 C WINDOW• A neuron circuit with a large number of synapses can be C fabricated by integrating an analog Si-CMOS circuit and a …… Iout Iref randomly connected CNT network in polymer composite. - +• Integrated the first time the synaptic transistors with a Ij C stretchable network (from Chang’s group) to process C Time signals from an array of temperature sensors.• Demonstrated that the integrated circuits can process the temperature profile dynamically. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  • 20. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEWNAME: B. L. (“Les”) Lee PI‟s & Co-PI’s: Sia Nemat-Nasser (UC San Diego)BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO: Nancy Sottos (UIUC) Scott White (UIUC)Basic science for integration of emerging materials and micro-systems Jeffrey Moore (UIUC)into future Air Force systems requiring multi-functional design Nicolaus Correll (U CO) Scott White (UIUC)*LIST OF SUB-AREAS: Jeffrey Moore (UIUC)* Nancy Sottos (UIUC)*Fundamentals of Mechanics of Materials; Jennifer Lewis (UIUC)*Life Prediction (Materials & Micro-devices); Philippe Geubelle (UIUC)* Kenneth Christensen (UIUC)*Sensing, Detection & Diagnosis; Jonathan Freund (UIUC)*Multifunctional Design of Autonomic Systems; Jeff Baur (AFRL/RXBC)Multifunctional Design of Reconfigurable Systems; Darlington (Nanocomposix)+ Tom Tony Starr (SensorMetrix)+Self-Healing & Remediation;Self-Cooling & Thermal Management; * MURI; + STTREnergy Management for Self-Sustaining Systems;Actuation & Threat Neutralization;Engineered Nanomaterials DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 20
  • 21. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEWNAME: B. L. (“Les”) Lee Subject: PI‟s & Co-PI’s: < Thermally Remendable Composites Sia Nemat-Nasser (UC San Diego)BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO:Composites Interfacial Self-Healing in Nancy Sottos (UIUC) Regeneration & Remodeling of Composites Scott White (UIUC)Basic science for integration of emerging materials and micro-systems Jeffrey Moore (UIUC)into future Air > Self-Assembly and Self-Repair of Structures Nicolaus Correll (U CO) Force systems requiring multi-functional design < Microvascular Autonomic Composites Scott White (UIUC)*LIST OF SUB-AREAS: Jeffrey Moore (UIUC)* Nancy Sottos (UIUC)*Fundamentals of Mechanics of Materials; Jennifer Lewis (UIUC)*Life Prediction (Materials & Micro-devices); Philippe Geubelle (UIUC)* Kenneth Christensen (UIUC)*Sensing, Detection & Diagnosis; Jonathan Freund (UIUC)*Multifunctional Design of Autonomic Systems; Jeff Baur (AFRL/RXBC) < Processing of Microvascular StructuresMultifunctionalRemendableof ReconfigurableHeating Tom Darlington (Nanocomposix)+ Design Composites w Resistive Systems; Tony Starr (SensorMetrix)+Self-Healing & Remediation;Self-Cooling & Thermal Management; < Concluded > New; * MURI; + STTREnergy Management for Self-Sustaining Systems;Actuation & Threat Neutralization;Engineered Nanomaterials DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 21
  • 22. THREE APPROACHES FOR SELF-HEALING MURI „05 THERMALLY REMENDABLENature ‘01 10 um MURI „05 POLYMERS (UCLA: Wudl) O O C O O 4 O O O N N N N 3 O O HEAT O O O O + N N O O O Polymer 19 5 mm DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 22
  • 23. STRUCTURAL REGENERATION (UIUC: White/Moore)Regeneration and Conventional Material Systems:Remodeling in biology: • Passive materials not responsive to degradation • Not adaptive to loading conditionsTree skink • Manual repair of damage lizard • Overdesign to account for reduction in mechanical properties and varied loading conditions New approach: Dynamic polymers + inert scaffolds Linckia starfish • Synthesized two types of dynamic covalent bond based polymer systems which can be reversibly changed from Human liquid to solid and vice versa Bone • Poly(vinyl alcohol) and borate ions undergo multiple sol-gel transitions under controlled pH • Reversible gel formation of a functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) and crosslinker DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 23
  • 24. STRUCTURAL REGENERATION: Large Volume DamageBackground: Progress:• Repair volume is limited by surface tension • Sol-Gel transition allowed three orders of magnitude stiffness increase • Scaffold formation based on peptide amphiphile hydrogels is repeatable for multiple cycles • Aggregate scaffolds formed by hydrogen, covalent or ionic bonds in progress• Self-assembled scaffolds will provide • Isolated constituents delivered via vascular temporary support as healing agents network delivered Scaffold-supported Peptide Amphiphile damage region Self-assembling Fibers DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 24
  • 25. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEWNAME: B. L. (“Les”) Lee PI‟s & Co-PI’s: Abraham Stroock (Cornell U)BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO: Noel Holbrook (Harvard U) Vikas Prakash (Case Western)Basic science for integration of emerging materials and micro-systems Patrick Kwon (Mich St U)into future Air Force systems requiring multi-functional design St U) George Lesieutre (Penn Aaron Esser-Kahn (UC Irvine)^LIST OF SUB-AREAS: Scott White (UIUC)* Jeffrey Moore (UIUC)*Fundamentals of Mechanics of Materials; Nancy Sottos (UIUC)*Life Prediction (Materials & Micro-devices); Jennifer Lewis (UIUC)* Philippe Geubelle (UIUC)*Sensing, Detection & Diagnosis; Kenneth Christensen (UIUC)*Multifunctional Design of Autonomic Systems; Jonathan Freund (UIUC)*Multifunctional Design of Reconfigurable Systems; Roy (AFRL/RXBT) AjitSelf-Healing & Remediation; ^ YIP; * MURISelf-Cooling & Thermal Management;Energy Management for Self-Sustaining Systems;Actuation & Threat Neutralization;Engineered Nanomaterials DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 25
  • 26. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEWNAME: B. L. (“Les”) Lee Subject: PI‟s & Co-PI’s: Plant-mimetic Heat Pipes Abraham Stroock (Cornell U)BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO: Noel Holbrook (Harvard U) < CNT Based Thermal Interface Materials Vikas Prakash (Case Western)Basic science for integration of emerging materials and micro-systems New Generation of Perspirable Skin Patrick Kwon (Mich St U)into future Air Force systems requiring multi-functional design St U) Variable Thermal Conductivity Structures George Lesieutre (Penn > Microvascular Systems for Mass/Energy Transport Aaron Esser-Kahn (UC Irvine)^LIST OF SUB-AREAS: < Microvascular Autonomic Composites Scott White (UIUC)* Jeffrey Moore (UIUC)*Fundamentals of Mechanics of Materials; Nancy Sottos (UIUC)*Life Prediction (Materials & Micro-devices); Jennifer Lewis (UIUC)* Philippe Geubelle (UIUC)*Sensing, Detection & Diagnosis; Kenneth Christensen (UIUC)*Multifunctional Design of Autonomic Systems; Jonathan Freund (UIUC)*Multifunctional Design of ReconfigurableMaterials Ajit Roy (AFRL/RXBT) Carbon Fiber Morphology for Thermal Systems;Self-Healing & Remediation; > New; < Concluded ^ YIP; * MURISelf-Cooling & Thermal Management;Energy Management for Self-Sustaining Systems;Actuation & Threat Neutralization;Engineered Nanomaterials DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 26
  • 27. PERSPIRABLE SKIN OF CERAMICS (Mich State U: Kwon)• Approach (I): Deformable materials under thermal loading (The interference between two distinct materials that has been shrink-fitted opens for cooling; gap is not large enough)• Approach (II): A set of tiles to buckle under thermal loading (Upon heating, the tiles push on the core radially, while shrinking circumferentially, enabling a buckling action)• Approach (III): A hinged structure triggered by internal pressure (The assembly consists of the skin (rectangular part), two half circular tiles, and two axes to provide a rotation) A Set of Tiles to Buckle Hinged Structure Skin Composite bending material Core Shrinking core DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 27
  • 28. THERMAL BASE PLATE DESIGN (Penn State: Lesieutre)Need for Material Systems with Cellular Contact-aided Compliant Mechanisms (C3M):Variable Thermal Conductivity • C3M allow the design of cellular structures with novel integrated• Electronic modules are designed to operate near room temperature and they generate contact mechanisms that provide local stress relief under high significant heat loads. They are connected to the loads. They are capable of ultimate strains exceeding 10%, while bulk spacecraft bus structure via a thermal base ceramic materials have high strength, but low strain at failure (0.2-1%). plate which is intrinsically multifunctional.• The thermal base plate transfers mechanical • Using multiple materials (e.g. ceramic-metal combination), these load and transfers heat away from (or insulates) contacts also introduce new thermal conduction pathways and provide the electronics module in order to ensure that the electronics do not overheat (or become too cold). a novel potential avenue to passive thermal switches. • When the “hot side” of the thermal base plate is below a threshold temperature, the base plate is in a thermally-insulating state, associated mainly with ceramic parts of the C3M based structure. • As the temperature of the “hot side” increases above threshold value, the C3M based structure expands and internal contact is made between conducting members, dramatically increasing the thermal• Active and passive thermal switches exist, and passive ones are preferred for low power and conductivity of the base plate. This conductivity is maintained at complexity. higher temperatures. metal/ceramic parts made by “lost mold, rapid infiltration forming” (LM-RIF) process X Non-Conducting Conducting Global strain vs. Cell angle parameter DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 28
  • 29. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEWNAME: B. L. (“Les”) Lee PI‟s & Co-PI’s: Max Shtein (U Mich) #BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO: Henry Sodano (U FL)Basic science for integration of emerging materialsInman (Penn St U) Dan and (VA Tech) Sven Bilén micro-systemsinto future Air Force systems requiring multi-functional design Michael Strano (MIT) Greg Carman (UCLA)LIST OF SUB-AREAS: Wonbong Choi (FL Int‟l U) Hugh Bruck (U MD)Fundamentals of Mechanics of Materials; Gleb Yushin (GA Tech)^Life Prediction (Materials & Micro-devices); Minoru Taya (U WA)* Paolo Feraboli (U WA)*Sensing, Precognition & Diagnosis; Martin Dunn (U CO)*Multifunctional Design of Autonomic Systems; Kurt Maute (U CO)*Multifunctional Design of Reconfigurable Systems; Lee (U CO)* Se-Hee Tom Hahn (UCLA)*Self-Healing & Remediation; Dan Inman (VA Tech)*Self-Cooling & Thermal Management; Ioannis Chasiotis (UIUC)* Michael Durstock (AFRL/RXBN)Energy Management for Self-Sustaining Systems; Maruyama (AFRL/RXBN) BenjiActuation & Threat Neutralization; John Coggin (Prime Photonics)+ Nersesse Nersessian (MAPCo)+Engineered Nanomaterials Anuncia Gonzalez (Lynntech)+ DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. # PECASE; ^ YIP; * MURI; + STTR 29
  • 30. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEWNAME: B. L. (“Les”) Lee Subject: PI‟s & Co-PI’s: Energy Harvesting Textile Composites Max Shtein (U Mich) #BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO:Composites Henry Sodano (U FL) Active Structural Fibers for Multif‟lBasic science Vibration SuppressionElectrodynamic Tethers Dan Inman (Penn St U) forHarvesting Usingof emerging materials and (VA Tech) Energy integration and Energy Harvesting Sven Bilén micro-systemsinto future Air Force systems requiring multi-functional design Environmental Hydrocarbon Harvesting Via CNT Michael Strano (MIT) Nanoscale Based Thermal Energy Harvesting Greg Carman (UCLA)LIST OF SUB-AREAS: Battery of Graphene-CNT Hybrid Wonbong Choi (FL Int‟l U) Flexible > Integrated Solar Cells for MAV Wings Hugh Bruck (U MD)Fundamentals<of Mechanics ofAlloy Nanocomposites Gleb Yushin (GA Tech)^ Multifunctional Mg-Li Materials;Life Prediction (Materials & Micro-devices); < Energy Harvesting/Storage System Integration Minoru Taya (U WA)* Paolo Feraboli (U WA)*Sensing, Precognition & Diagnosis; Martin Dunn (U CO)*Multifunctional Design of Autonomic Systems; Kurt Maute (U CO)*Multifunctional Design of Reconfigurable Systems; Lee (U CO)* Se-Hee Tom Hahn (UCLA)*Self-Healing & Remediation; Dan Inman (VA Tech)*Self-Cooling & Thermal Management; Ioannis Chasiotis (UIUC)* Nanomaterials for Structural Batteries Michael Durstock (AFRL/RXBN)Energy Management for Self-Sustaining Systems; Maruyama (AFRL/RXBN) BenjiActuation & Threat Neutralization; > Hybrid Energy Harvesting Systems John Coggin (Prime Photonics)+ “ Nersesse Nersessian (MAPCo)+Engineered Nanomaterials “ Anuncia Gonzalez (Lynntech)+ > New; < Concluded # PECASE; ^ YIP; * MURI; + STTR DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 30
  • 31. NASA “HELIOS” 2.4 m $15,000,000 62,000 Si PV Cells (SunPower) 19% Efficient PV Cells 75 m wingspan (Boeing 747: 60m)Trailing edgeelevators Batteries & Fuel Cells Propulsion 600 kg empty & Pitch 329 kg payload control180 m2 ~ 35 kW ~ 47 hp DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 31
  • 32. INTEGR‟D ENERGY HARVESTINGMURI „06 (U WA/U CO/UCLA/VT: Taya) Objective: Technical Approach:To develop “self-powered” load-bearing (a) A combination of experimental andstructures with integrated energy harvest/ analytical techniques are employed to advancestorage capabilities, and to establish new multi- the efficiency of the energy conversion meansfunctional design rules for structural (as an integral part of load-bearing structures)integration of energy conversion means. and to optimize their multifunctional performance and ability to cover larger areas. polymer solar cells (b) Multifunctional composites are created with polymer individual layers acting as photovoltaic/thermo- battery cells electric/piezoelectric power harvesting and electrochemical power storage elements. thermo-electrics (TE) Budget: antenna system under the wing with TE FY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 693,335 1,169,560 1,180,608 1,219,324 1,179,991 568,571 $K DoD Benefit:Self-powered load-bearing structures with Major Reviews/Meetings:integrated energy harvest/storage capabilities  29 August 2007: Seattle, WAwill provide meaningful mass savings and  5 August 2008: Boulder, COreduced external power requirements over a 11 August 2009: Blacksburg, VAwide range of defense platforms including 18 August 2010: Los Angeles, CAspace vehicles, manned aircraft, unmanned  5 August 2011: Arlington, VAaerial vehicles, and ISR systems. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  • 33. MURI „06 Thermoelectric Module Integration Linear TE w/ FGM Linear TE w/ FGM Linear TE w/ FGM Phi TE Linear TE and shrink-fit (1.25mm) and shrink-fit (2.5mm) and shrink-fit (2.5mm) TE design Fe-SMA 450CAnalysis results Cu-SMA 50C Generated temperature gap across TE element (deg C) 338 344 344 346 394 Maximum normal stress on electrode (Mpa) -1100 -1200 -535 -591 -642 Maximum shear stress on electrode (MPa) 146 617 329 311 337Maximum shear stress on TE element (MPa) 125 71 34 43 56 Power density (W/cm2) 0.80 0.87 0.87 0.89 1.15 Module efficiency (%) 12.8 13.3 13.3 13.4 14.8  n-type: Mg2Si0.96Bi0.03In0.01 SMA  p-type: Si0.93Ge0.05B0.02  Heat source side: Fe-SMA  Heat exhaust side: Cu-SMA CNT Grazing material  CNT in grazing material gives: (Ag)  locking Ag  reducing the creep strain Electrode (Cu) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  • 34. MURI „06 Comparison of Solar Cells for Structural Integration Monocrystalline Silicon Solar Cell Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell Breaks at 0.23 % tensile strain Works well at 1.6 % tensile strain. Tensile Composite laminates breaks around 1.5 % Loading strain. Fatigue Loading N/A Works well at fatigue cycle of 0.3 % strain Efficiency 23 % 12 % Price High (200 um thick c-Si needed) Low (about 1 um thick a-Si needed) Sample Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cell Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Highest efficiency among thin film Cheapest among thin film solar cells Pros solar cells Degrades with humidity; Unstable efficiency; extremely corrosive Cons manufacturing generates very toxic gases to the environment. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  • 35. MURI „06 Solar Cells Under Fatigue Free standing amorphous Si solar cells Relaxed Strained current path cracks 0 - 0.3 % cyclic strain 0 - 1.0 % cyclic strain DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
  • 36. STTR‟ 10: HYBRID ENERGY HARVEST • Pairing solar panels with magneto-thermoelectric power generator as “active thermal backplane” for solar panel cooling and “hybrid energy harvest” Ferromagnetic State Paramagnetic State Transition State Force Perm-magnet Perm-magnet Perm-magnet Bi-directional Extract work from phase transitions Temperature Tcurie Tcurie -1C Tcurie +1C Bi-Directional Ferromagnetic State Paramagnetic State (Cooling) (Heating) Magnetic Forcemagneto-thermoelectric Magentic Oscillationpower generator Force Amplitude Spring(STTR‟07) Force Spring Force DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 36
  • 37. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEWNAME: B. L. (“Les”) Lee PI‟s & Co-PI’s: Nicolas Triantafyllidis (U Mich)BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO: John Shaw (U Mich) Patrick Mather (Syracuse U)Basic science for integration of emerging materials and micro-systems H. Jerry Qi (U CO)into future Air Force systems requiring multi-functional design Martin Dunn (U CO) Benjamin Shapiro (U MD)LIST OF SUB-AREAS: Elisabeth Smela (U MD) Shiv Joshi (NextGen)Fundamentals of Mechanics of Materials; Sharon Swartz (Brown U)Life Prediction (Materials & Micro-devices); Nakhiah Goulbourne (VA Tech) Minoru Taya (U WA)Sensing, Detection & Diagnosis; Frank Ko (U Brit Columbia)Multifunctional Design of Autonomic Systems; Aaron Dollar (Yale U)^Multifunctional Design of Reconfigurable Systems;John Hart (U Mich)^ A. Xin Zhang (Boston U)Self-Healing & Remediation; C. T. Sun (Purdue U)Self-Cooling & Thermal Management; Thomas Siegmund (Purdue U) Anna Balazs (U Pitt)Energy Management for Self-Sustaining Systems; Nicole Zacharia (Texas A&M)Actuation & Threat Neutralization; Richard Vaia (AFRL/RXBN) Greg Reich (AFRL/RBSA)Engineered Nanomaterials ^ YIP DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 37
  • 38. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEWNAME: B. L. (“Les”) Lee Subject: PI‟s & Co-PI’s: < Cellular Shape Memory StructuresNicolas Triantafyllidis (U Mich)BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO: John Shaw (U Mich)Basic scienceReversible Shape Memoryemerging materials and micro-systems < for integration of Polymer Composites Patrick Mather (Syracuse U) H. Jerry Qi (U CO)into future Air Force systems requiring multi-functional designMartin Dunn (U CO) < Electroosmotically Actuated Shape Change Benjamin Shapiro (U MD)LIST OF SUB-AREAS: Elisabeth Smela (U MD) Ultra-Maneuverable Bat Technologies Shiv Joshi (NextGen)Fundamentals of Mechanics of Materials; Sharon Swartz (Brown U)Life Prediction (Materials & Micro-devices); Nakhiah Goulbourne (VA Tech)Sensing, Detection & Design of Reconfigurable Structures Minoru TayaBrit Columbia) Bio-inspired Diagnosis; Frank Ko (U (U WA)Multifunctional DesignCells for Multifunctional Structures Aaron Dollar (Yale U)^ Active of Autonomic Systems;Multifunctional Design of Morphing CNT Microstructures A. John Hart (U Mich)^ Reconfigurable Systems; Metamaterial Enhanced MEMS Xin Zhang (Boston U)Self-Healing & Remediation; Acoustic Metamaterials w Local Resonance C. T. Sun (Purdue U)Self-Cooling & Thermal Management; Macroscale Meta-Materials Thomas Siegmund (Purdue U) Active Materials w Sensory & Adaptive Capabilities Anna Balazs (U Pitt)Energy Management for Self-Sustaining Systems; > Mechano-Responsive Polymer Systems Nicole Zacharia (Texas A&M)Actuation & Threat Neutralization; Mechanically-Responsive Polymers Richard Vaia (AFRL/RXBN) Thermally-Activated Reconfigurable Systems Greg Reich (AFRL/RBSA)Engineered Nanomaterials > New; < Concluded ^ YIP DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 38
  • 39. DESIGNING SELF-REINFORCING MATERIALS (U Pitt: Balazs)• Developed model to describe BZ gels Oxidation with chemo-responsive X-links + – Modified Oregonator model Reduction – f – dependent complex formation – Time-dependent elastic contribution• Studied response to steady and periodic P P compression in 1D model• Mechanical impact increases X-link density – Self-reinforcing material – Stiffens in response to impact c/c0  45 kPa c/c 0V.V. Yashin, O. Kuksenok, A.C. Balazs,J. Phys. Chem. B 2010, 114(19), 6316. x / L0 0.511 0.926 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 39
  • 40. TOPOLOGICAL INTERLOCKING (Purdue U: Siegmund) In-plane StressConfinement changes translate in change on contact conditionsLarge confinement leads to smaller opening and more resistance to loadRetain damage tolerance in the high stiffness regime DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 40
  • 41. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEWNAME: B. L. (“Les”) Lee PI‟s & Co-PI’s: Jimmy Xu (Brown U)BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO: Erik Thostenson (U Del)^Basic science for integration of emerging materials Baur(U Brit Columbia)* Frank Ko Jeff and(AFRL/RXBC) micro-systemsinto future Air Force systems requiring multi-functional design Nancy Sottos (UIUC) Vikas Prakash (Case Western)LIST OF SUB-AREAS: Ajit Roy (AFRL/RXBT) Michael Strano (MIT)Fundamentals of Mechanics of Materials; Greg Carman (UCLA)Life Prediction (Materials & Micro-devices); Wonbong Choi (FL Int‟l U) Gleb Yushin (GA Tech)^Sensing, Detection & Diagnosis; Se-Hee Lee (U CO)*Multifunctional Design of Autonomic Systems; Michael Durstock (AFRL/RXBN)Multifunctional Design of Reconfigurable Systems;John Hart (U Mich) A. Richard Vaia (AFRL/RXBN)Self-Healing & Remediation; Ray Baughman (U Texas Dallas)Self-Cooling & Thermal Management; Nicholas Kotov (U Mich) Mrinal Saha (OK St U)Energy Management for Self-Sustaining Systems; Tsu-Wei Chou (U Del)Actuation & Threat Neutralization; Yuntian Zhu (NCSU) Alexander Bogdanovich (NCSU)Engineered Nanomaterials Philip Bradford (NCSU) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ^ YIP; * MURI 41
  • 42. 2012 AFOSR SPRING REVIEWNAME: B. L. (“Les”) Lee Subject: PI‟s & Co-PI’s: Thermal Signature Reduction & EMI Shielding Jimmy Xu (Brown U)BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PORTFOLIO: & Actuation Erik Thostenson (U Del)^ Nanocomposites for SensingBasic science for integration of emerging for MAV Frank Ko (U Brit Columbia)* Bio-inspired Intelligent Sensing Materials Embedded Sensors & Actuators materials Baur (AFRL/RXBC) Jeff and micro-systemsinto future Air Force Interfacial Self-Healing in Composites Nancy Sottos (UIUC) systems requiring multi-functional design CNT Based Thermal Interface Materials Vikas Prakash (Case Western)LIST OF SUB-AREAS: Morphology for Thermal Materials Ajit Roy (AFRL/RXBT) Carbon Fiber Environmental Hydrocarbon Harvesting Via CNT Michael Strano (MIT)Fundamentals of MechanicsThermal Energy Harvesting Greg Carman (UCLA) Nanoscale Based of Materials;Life Prediction (Materials & Micro-devices); Flexible Battery of Graphene-CNT Hybrid Wonbong Choi (FL Int‟l U)Sensing, Detection & Diagnosis; System Integration Gleb Yushin(U CO)* Multifunctional Mg-Li Alloy Nanocomposites Energy Harvesting/Storage Se-Hee Lee (GA Tech)^Multifunctional Design of Autonomic Systems; Michael Durstock (AFRL/RXBN) Nanomaterials for Structural BatteriesMultifunctional Design of Morphing CNT Microstructures A. John Hart (U Mich) Reconfigurable Systems; Mechanically-Responsive Polymers Richard Vaia (AFRL/RXBN)Self-Healing & Remediation; Large Stroke & High Force Ray Baughman (U Texas Dallas) Artificial Muscles forSelf-Cooling & Layer-by-layer Processing of CNT Composites Nicholas Kotov (U Mich) < Thermal Management; < Hierarchical Structures of CNT Composites Mrinal Saha (OK St U)Energy Management for Self-Sustaining Systems; Thin Flexible CNT Composites Tsu-Wei Chou (U Del)Actuation & Threat Neutralization; Yuntian Zhu (NCSU)Engineered Nanomaterials Sheets for Strain Sensing Alexander Bogdanovich (NCSU) > Shear Pressed CNT Philip Bradford (NCSU) > New; < Concluded ^ YIP; * MURI DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 42
  • 43. CNT YARNS FOR ARTIFICIAL MUSCLES (UT Dallas: Baughman) Biscrolling process“Biscrolling Nanotube Sheets and Functional Guests into 88 wt% SiO2 in CNT YarnsYarns”, Science 331, 51 (2011). Weavable, sewable, braidable and knottable carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns that can contain over 92 wt% of functional guest powders are made by twist insertion in Superconducting MgB2/CNT yarn a guest/CNT sheet stack. Demonstrated use of these “biscrolled” yarns as battery/fuel cell electrodes and as superconductors.“Torsional Carbon Nanotube Artificial Muscles”, Science334, 494 (2011). 10 5V 0V 5V 0.2 Tensile and torsional actuation results from yarn Paddle rotation (revolutions) A 0 0.0 volume change caused by ion influx to compensate Axial strain (%) -0.2 -10 electronically injected charge. Torsional rotation per -0.4 actuator length was 1000 times that of prior-art torsional -20 -0.6 actuators. -30 -0.8 The actuating yarn electrode can accelerate an 1800 -40 -1.0 times heavier paddle up to 590 revolutions/min in 1.2 s 0 2 4 6 8 10 and provide similar gravimetric torque and mechanical Time(s) power generation per yarn weight as for large electric Torsional and tensile actuation for 0 0.0 Paddle Rotation (deg) -20 -0.2 Axial Strain (%) electrochemically driven twist-spun yarns -40 -0.4 motors. Microfluidic application was demonstrated. -60 -80 -0.6 -0.8 -2 -1 0 1 2 + Potential (V, vs. Ag/Ag ) DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 43
  • 44. MIRAGE EFFECT OF CNT SHEET (UT Dallas: Baughman)"Mirage Effect from Thermally-modulated Transparent Carbon Nanotube Sheet",Nanotechnology 22, 435704 (2011). Electrically conducting sheets, which are drawn from forest-like arrays of carbon nanotube (CNT), can be used as transparent, rapidly thermally switchable mirage cloaks and as inexpensive optical scanners. This invisibility for light oblique to the CNT sheet is caused by the mirage effect, in which a thermally generated refractive index gradient bends light array from an object. Extremely low thermal capacitance and high heat transfer ability of CNT sheets enable high frequency modulation of sheet temperature over a wide range, thereby providing a sharp, rapidly changing gradient of refractive index in surrounding liquid or gas. Cloaking Time Magazine’s issue on 50 Best Inventions of 2011 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 44
  • 45. BIO-INSPIRED SYSTEMS: BEYOND CURRENT VISION VISION: EXPANDEDBiomimeticsDesign for Coupled FUNCTIONS OF INTERESTMulti-functionality AUTONOMICNano-materials AEROSPACE STRUCTURES Adaptive Fluids/Solids Reactive Materials • site specificMulti-scale • Sensing & Precognition • autonomicModel • Self-Diagnosis & ActuationMicro- & Nano- • Self-HealingDevices • Threat NeutralizationManufacturing Sci • Self-Cooling • Self-PoweredNeural Network & Self-Regulating Self-GeneratingInformation Sci Function 7 Function Active Regulation Mesoporous Networks 11 DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 45
  • 46. Design by Nature: BONE REMODELINGResorption vs Ossification; 4~20% renewal per year;Subjecting a bone to stress will make it stronger US-Europe Workshop on Structural Regeneration (27-28 June 2012, Venice) Co-organized by AFOSR, ARO, U Illinois & Max Planck Inst.Fig. 6-4a Anatomy and Physiology: From Science to Life © 2006 John Wiley & Sons DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 46
  • 47. ENGINEERED DEVICES: BEYOND CURRENT VISIONTraditional Transducer Materials Shape Piezoelectric Ionomeric Memory Ceramics and Polymer Alloy Polymers Materials Device/ System Increasing length scale MaterialTransduction Material Dipole Ion Transformation Rotation Migration Mechanism donleo@vt.edu DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 47
  • 48. ENGINEERED DEVICES: BEYOND CURRENT VISIONTraditional Transducer Materials Shape Piezoelectric Ionomeric Memory The question we are studying … Ceramics and Polymer Alloy Polymers Materials Device/ Sensors, System Device/ Energy Increasing length scale How can we use System Capture and Increasing length scale Conversion, biomolecules to Color Changes Material make completely Durable, Robust, new types of Material Easy to materials for Manufacture Material engineeredIon DipoleTransduction Mechanism Transformation devices? Rotation Migration Transduction Channels, Pumps, Mechanism Transporters donleo@vt.edu donleo@vt.edu DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 48
  • 49. SUMMARY• The program is fully focused on the establishment of advanced multi-functional aerospace structures.• A major progress has been made in pursuing a new vision for autonomic/reconfigurable systems and providing research support for baseline multifunctional materials and microdevices.• Multi-disciplinary research initiatives are concluded successfully for “self-healing,” “structurally integrated energy harvest/ storage capabilities,” “energy harvesting from aerospace environment,” and “load bearing antennas.”• Three initiatives are in progress for “neurological system inspired sensory network” (MURI ‟09), “reconfigurable multi-functional structures” (DCT‟09) and “high-rate deformation” (CoE‟12).• New initiatives are planned for “biomolecular autonomic material systems,” “hybrid energy harvesting” and “neutralization of threats” in collaboration with AFRL/AFOSR colleagues. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 49