Quench! Faith Based Version


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QUENCH!, WaterStep’s new curriculum for water education, is also offered from a faith-based perspective to teach students the impact of safe drinking water, and of the living water of Jesus.

The program is:

Easy to use for all ages from 2nd-12th grade
Interactive, with activities for each lesson
Educational, giving students an international perspective

Use this curriculum for:
Bible studies
Sunday school classes
Small group study

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Quench! Faith Based Version

  1. 1.       WaterStep presents a faith-­based, hands-­on educational curriculum about the global water crisis. Great for students of all ages!
  2. 2.     2     Dear Educator: WaterStep is pleased to present to you QUENCH! a hands-on curriculum to educate students about the Water is the most basic necessity of life. Unfortunately, more than 800 million people lack access to safe water worldwide. This curriculum focuses on teaching students about the importance of water, the shortage of fresh water, the consequences of contaminated water, and the solutions to the water problem. This curriculum is composed of five sequential units that can be adapted for students in second to twelfth grade, and each unit takes about 1-2 hours to complete. This curriculum is flexible to your needs. It can be completed in as little as a few hours, or you can spread it out over 1-2 weeks. Each section includes: o Teacher background material o Teacher resources o Vocabulary words o Discussion Questions o Games, activities, and demonstrations o Spiritual applications is our hope that this curriculum will challenge students to adapt a global mindset and inspire them to take thirst for knowledge while inspiring him/her For a more in- te at www.tappersfunzone.com. Enjoy QUENCH! The WaterStep Team 625 Myrtle Street Louisville, KY 40208 502-568-6342 www.waterstep.org Introduction
  3. 3.     3       Water The Water Problem Area Country Analysis Tragedy Waterborne Disease Education Contamination & Hygiene Response Taking Action . ...6-11 -18 -26 -35 -45 -47
  4. 4.     4     Water:   The Water Problem       Purpose & Overview: The purpose of this lesson is to answer the question: What is the problem? Students will learn about the importance of water and the lack of availability of safe water worldwide. Objectives: 1. Students will be able to state what percentage of the Earth is covered in water. 2. Students will be able to estimate their daily water usage. 3. Students will be able to explain why 99% of the water in the world cannot be used for domestic purposes. Background Information: Water is essential to life. Did you know that the average U.S. citizen uses 100 gallons of water per day for everyday activities like showering and flushing the toilet? Furthermore, if you include hidden water usage (water used to produce the energy you use, the products you buy, and the services you use), the statistic jumps to water covers 75% just how limited our water really is. Only about 1% of the water in the world is usable freshwater. The other 99% is salt water or frozen glacier water. (This water is unusable because the process to remove the salt is extremely time consuming and costly, and glacier water is not only frozen, but located in remote areas like the ice caps). So 1% is all we have for agricultural, commercial, and domestic use. But wait the problem gets worse. Most fresh water is not potable water; it must undergo some type of purification process before it can be consumed. This is not a problem for developed countries like the U.S who have the necessary funds and expertise to implement large-scale water treatment systems. However, in developing countries, safe, drinkable water is hard to come by. In fact, more than 800 million people in the world lack and it is the #1 problem our world faces. Spiritual Application: Scripture Reference: John 4:1-13 Jesus is the Living Water. Just like our bodies thirst for physical water, our souls have a spiritual thirst that can only be quenched by Jesus. We cannot live a healthy spiritual life without Him, just like we cannot live a healthy physical life without water. Additional Resources: http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/freshwater-crisis The Water Problem
  5. 5.     5           Review: No previous units to review. Vocabulary: Fresh water noun; inland water, such as ponds, lakes, and streams, that does not contain a large amount of salt Potable adjective; suit for drinking Safe water noun; high quality water that is free from harmful microorganisms or substances Scarcity noun; shortness of supply Discussion Questions: 1. Pretend you had to live a day without any water at all. What would that day look like? What activities would be difficult or impossible to do without water? 2. What are some practical ways you can cut back on your daily water usage? The Water Problem
  6. 6.     6     Lesson: Water is abundant. resources Level Grades 2-8 Time 5-10 minutes Materials Globe beach ball Preparation None Instructions 1. Have the students spread out around the room. 2. Throw the ball to one of the students. 3. After he/she catches the ball, ask the student to count how many fingers landed on land and how many landed on water. His/her response should be about 2 to 3 fingers on land, and 7 to 8 fingers on water. 4. Ask the student to throw the ball to another student, and repeat the procedure until all the kids have caught the ball. 5. Optional: Have the students try to catch the ball without touching water (they must use all ten fingers). 6. Explain to the students that water covers 75% of the Earth. The water can be found in rivers, lakes, oceans, glaciers, and ice caps. GLOBE TOSS   The Water Problem
  7. 7.     7     Lesson: Fresh water is scarce. Level All ages Time 10 minutes Materials 3 clear plastic bags filled with 400, 100, and 40 M&Ms, respectively Small container with 10 blue M&Ms Preparation None Instructions Use the following script to illustrate the scarcity of usable fresh water. The script should be adjusted to the age of the audience. Furthermore, the analogy can be performed using water er on Earth; 1 tablespoon = fresh water available for use). SCRIPT: Here is a bag with 400 M&Ms. It represents all the water we have on earth, both salt water and fresh water. How many of these M&Ms should we use to represent fresh water as opposed to salt water? 10% would be 40 M&Ms, about the number in a typical bag of M&Ms (hold up smaller bag). Does that seem right? Nope, too high. oo high. container with 10 blue M&Ms is all we have to work with. But wait. 70% of our fresh water is locked up in ice caps. That leaves only 3 blue M&Ms to represent all of our fresh water, either on the surface or underground. But wait. 70% of our non- our 3 M&Ms. So this one pitiful blue M&M is all the fresh water we have to work with, for both business and United States, we enjoy all the clean water we can use, at reasonable prices. But this has given us a wildly distorted idea of how easy it is to get drinkable water. Over huge stretches of earth, fresh, clean water is scarce really scarce. Even though water is scarce, humans misuse it. We pollute it, waste it, dump sewage into it, and generally treat it as though it is an infinite resource of little value.         The Water Problem
  8. 8.     8     The result? The ancient Romans had better water quality than half the people living on earth today, and more people have access to cell phones than have access to a toilet. Half of all hospital beds in the world half! are occupied by people with diseases they contracted from drinking, or bathing in, or cooking with, impure water. But because most of those deaths happen outside the United States, and to children, they also happen outside our awareness. So believe me, safe impure water are very serious. Lesson: Water is essential to life. Level Grades 2-5 Time 20 minutes Materials One coloring page per student Blue crayons/markers Preparation None Instructions 1. Pass out a coloring sheet to each student according to gender. 2. Explain to the students that water is important because it makes up more than half of our physical bodies. Have the students color approximately 65% of the human figure blue (or from the feet to just below the armpits). Encourage the students to get creative by adding faces, clothing, etc. to their person. 4. Have the students fill in the blank at the bottom of the page with the number 65. Stress to the stu 5. As a class, compose a list of common activities that use water (drinking, swimming, bathing, etc.). Reemphasize that it is impossible to live without water.   WATER COLORING SHEET     The Water Problem
  9. 9.     9                             Our  bodies  are  composed  of   _____%  water!   The Water Problem
  10. 10.     10                             Our  bodies  are  composed  of   _____%  water!   The Water Problem
  11. 11.     11     Lesson: Water is essential to life. Level Grades 6-8 Time 15 minutes Materials Writing utensils Paper Preparation None Instructions 1. Make sure each student has a piece of paper and a writing utensil. 2. Have the students compose a written list of activities they do every day that require water. 3. Ask the students to estimate how much water each activity requires. 4. Have the students add up the total number of gallons of water they use every day. (In the U.S., the average is 100 gallons per day per person). 5. Let the students share their results with the class. This exercise will illustrate just how important and useful water is. Level High School Time 25-30 minutes Materials Computers with Internet access Preparation None Instructions 1. Have studen at: http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/freshwater/change-the-course/water- footprint-calculator/. 2. Discuss the results. (What was surprising? How can you cut back on water usage?) WATER = LIFE       Water Usage Taking a bath 36 gallons 5-minute shower 25 gallons Hand-washing dishes 20 gallons Running the dishwasher 15 gallons Brushing your teeth 2 gallons (with the tap running); ½ gallon (with the tap turned off) Flushing the toilet 3-5 gallons Running the washing machine 40 gallons The Water Problem
  12. 12.     12     Area: Country Analysis         Purpose & Overview: The purpose of this lesson is to answer the question: Where does this problem exist? Students will learn about specific countries where the water crisis is prevalent. Objectives: 1. Students will be able to name at least one country that is severely affected by the water crisis. 3. Students will be able to identify problems that stem from a water shortage. Background Information: Problems related to the water crisis are most prevalent in the developing African countries. In fact, more than 320 million population of the United States!) The water crisis also affects parts of Asia and South America. As a general rule, the poorer a country is, the less access it has to safe water. While the average U.S. citizen uses approximately 100 gallons of water a day, some Africans must make due with as little as 5 gallons of water a day contaminated water at that! This is because water sources are either limited or distant. (The average distance that women and children walk for water in Africa and Asia is 3.7 miles, and the average weight of the water they carry is 40 pounds!) In Ethiopia, one of the poorest countries in the world, only 42% of the population has access to an improved water system, and only 20% has access to improved access to safe water and sanitation? Spiritual Application: Scripture References: Isaiah 41:17 Matthew 28:18-20 Just as people around the world thirst for safe water but do not have access to it, so do people thirst for the Living Water (Jesus), but they have never heard the Gospel. As Christians, Jesus calls us to spread the Good News to everyone, both in our own country and overseas. All people should have access to safe water, and all people should have access to the Gospel message. Additional Resources: http://www.who.int/gho/countries/en/index.html Country Analysis
  13. 13.     13           Review: Water is essential to life. Although water is a very abundant resource, usable fresh water is extremely scarce. In some countries, people have to walk miles for water every day. Vocabulary: Developing country noun; a poor country that is not yet highly industrialized Gross Domestic Product (GDP) noun; the total value of all goods and services produced domestically by a nation during a year Infrastructure noun; fundamental facilities and systems in a community (roads, schools, waste management, etc.) Poverty noun; the condition of being without adequate money, food, and other basic necessities Resource noun; a supply that can be used to generate economic wealth (land, labor, etc.) Discussion Questions: 1. How might your life be different if you had to walk 6 miles to get water every day (3 miles to the water source and 3 miles back)? 2. Pretend you are the leader of a community things might you need to create a water infrastructure (what kinds of people, materials, and other resources)? Country Analysis
  14. 14.     14     Lesson: Water is a very limited resource for many. Level Grades 2-6 Time 20-25 minutes Materials 25 clear plastic cups (assumes group of 20 students) 1 bowl or packet of dry oatmeal Plastic dishes 1 baby doll Articles of clothing 6 empty disposable water bottles of equal size Permanent marker Preparation 1. Designate 5 areas of the room to be stations. At each station, place a different item to symbolize a water-related activity: Station 1 Bathing (baby doll) Station 2 Laundry (clothes) Station 3 Cleaning (dishes) Station 4 Cooking (oatmeal) Station 5 Drinking (one empty water bottle) 2. Using a permanent marker, draw a line just under the rim of 5 clear, plastic cups. 3. Label these cups 1-5 so that each group can identify which cup is theirs. 4. Place these cups at the Bathing station. 5. Take 5 more plastic cups and draw a line on each cup just below where you drew the lines on the previous cups. Label these cups 1-5 as well. 6. Place these cups at the Laundry station. 7. Take 5 more plastic cups and draw a line around the middle of each cup. Label these cups 1-5. 8. Place these cups at the Cleaning station. 9. Continue the procedure unti numbered) all 25 cups according to the illustration on the following page. The line on the final 5 cups should be about two inches from the bottom of the cup, and the final cups should be placed at the drinking station. 10. Fill 5 water bottles of equal size with an equal amount of water. Make sure that the amount of water in the bottle is not enough to fill each of the 5 cups (one from each station) to the permanent marker line. (The idea is that the students will experience the frustration of the water shortage by HALF FULL OR HALF EMPTY?         Country Analysis
  15. 15.     15     Instructions 1. Divide the students into 5 groups. 2. Number each family 1-5. 3. homes have no indoor plumbing, so you have to get your water from a river about two miles away. Because the river is so far away and the water containers are so heavy, you can only bring back a limited amount of water to use each day, symbolized by these water bottles. (Give each group one of the water bottles filled with water). This is all the water you have for everything: cleaning, cooking, bathing, and so on. Around the room are five stations that represent five different water- related activities. The first station is the bathing station, represented by the baby doll. This station includes showering, taking baths, washing your hands and face, and so on. The second station is the laundry station, represented by the clothes. The third station is for cleaning, represented by dishes that need to be washed. The station with the oatmeal is the cooking station. When you cook, you need water for boiling, washing food, and making simple things like sauce and soup. The fifth station, represented by the water bottle, is the drinking station. After all, everybody needs your precious water. Each water activity requires a different amount of water. Notice that there are cups with lines on them at each station. The line on the cup represents how much water is necessary to successfully complete that activity. (Go to the cleaning station and show the students a lined cup). For example, if your family decides to fill this cup to the line, then all your dishes will be clean. Bu important to realize that the water in your water bottles cannot fill each cup to the line. Just like families in Africa, you do not have enough water to do everything you need to do, so you must decide which activities are most important and then devote your water to those tasks. At each station, you must decide if you want to fill the cup to the line, fill the cup below the line, or not fill it at all. Remember that the more water you use at a station, the less water you have for the other stations. For the next five minutes, I want your family to plan how you will use your water. There are no right or wrong answers, but try to come to an agreement amongst yourselves. (Give the students 5 minutes to strategize and answer any questions they might have). 4. Assign each group to a different station. Explain to them that they must only fill the cup with their group number on it, saving the other cups for the other groups. 5. After each group has filled their cup (or decided not to fill it), have the students rotate to the next station. 6. Continue step 5 until every group has visited every station. Then have the students sit down, away from the stations. 7. Travel around to each station, and have students explain their reasoning behind how they filled           Step #2 Step #5 Step #7 Step #9 Step #9 Country Analysis
  16. 16.     16     6. Continue step 5 until every group has visited every station. Then have the students sit down, away from the stations. 7. Travel around to each station, and have students explain their reasoning behind how they filled -life hard decisions every day of their lives. We should always remember how fortunate we are to have nearly unlimited amounts o      In the ideal situation, every family needs: 4 gallons every day for good health (1 gallon per person) 28 gallons to do the dishes 15 gallons for cooking 56 gallons for bathing and washing clothes An additional 10+ gallons to water the garden or use for other agricultural purposes Want More Water Fun for All Ages? Set up an obstacle course and have students divide into teams. Each student must carry 2 gallons of water through the course before handing the gallons to the next team member. First team with all team members to complete the course wins! This is a great way to illustrate the difficulty of carrying water from distant water sources. Country Analysis
  17. 17.     17     Lesson: The water crisis looks different for different countries. Level Grades 7-12 Time 30-40 minutes Materials 3 sheets of poster board Crafting materials (markers and crayons at minimum) Internet access or printed materials on Bolivia, Ethiopia, and the U.S. Preparation None Instructions 1. Ask the students where the water the United States, so what countries or people groups are suffering? 2. Explain that the water crisis is most prevalent in Africa, Southeast Asia, and parts of South America. 3. Divide the students into 3 groups, and assign each group a country: Ethiopia, Bolivia, or the U.S. 4. Distribute a poster board and crafting materials to each group. 5. Have the students use the Internet or printed materials to look up information about their population, the most popular industries, the health of the people, and the availability of safe water and sanitation. 6. Tell the students to creatively design a poster to display the information they find. 7. Have each group present their poster to the class. 8. Engage the students in discussion, comparing the three countries. Make sure they realize that Ethiopia is the poorest of the three and therefore has the least amount of safe water and the worst health. The U.S. is often considered the ultimate standard of both wealth and health, so we are at the opposite end of the spectrum. Bolivia is somewhere in the middle. The Bolivian people are not as destitute as the Ethiopians, but they still suffer from the health effects of the water problem just the same. WATER AROUND THE WORLD           Country Analysis
  18. 18.     18     Fact Sheet: Bolivia, Ethiopia, and the U.S.     Bolivia Continent: South America Population: 10,088,000 Life expectancy: 67 years Under-five mortality rate (per 1000 live births): 51 Per capita income: $4,890 Access to improved water sources: 88% Access to improved sanitation: 45% Other: 44% of the workforce makes their living by farming Primary languages: Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara Landlocked systems were privatized under the guidance of the World Bank. In 2000, protests broke out against the higher water prices caused by the privatization, forcing the private owners to give control back to the public utility. The debate about privatization continues today. Ethiopia Continent: Africa Population: 84,734,000 Life expectancy: 60 years Under-five mortality rate (per 1000 live births): 77 Per capita income: $1,110 Access to improved water sources: 42% Access to improved sanitation: 20% Other: 85% of the workforce makes their living by farming Primary languages: Amharic and tribal languages Landlocked Water in Ethiopia is the responsibility of each district. Unfortunately, the district governments lack the finances and the expertise to implement proper water systems. USA Continent: North America Population: 313,085,000 Life expectancy: 79 Under-five mortality rate (per 1000 live births): 8 Per capita income: $48,820 Access to improved water sources: 100% Access to improved sanitation: 100%   Country Analysis
  19. 19.     19     Tragedy:   Waterborne Disease       Purpose & Overview: The purpose of this lesson is to answer the question: What are the consequences of this problem? Students will learn about the severity of various waterborne diseases. Objectives: 1. Students will be able to name at least 3 waterborne diseases. 2. Students will be able to explain why diarrhea can be deadly. 3. Students will be able to explain the ripple effect of a serious waterborne illness (areas of life affected). Background Information: The statistics on waterborne disease are staggering. Did you know that... o Eighty percent of all sickness in the world is caused by contaminated water and lack of sanitation. o Waterborne disease claims more lives each day than armed conflict, HIV/AIDS, and cancer combined. o The carnage from waterborne disease is equivalent to a full 747 aircraft crashing and killing everyone on board every 30 minutes. Some common waterborne diseases include cholera, hepatitis A, and typhoid, as well as parasitic diseases like guinea worm and roundworm. Surprisingly, one of the most deadly symptoms of waterborne illness is diarrhea. Diarrhea drains the body of its liquids, causing the victim to become dehydrated. Without safe water to replenish the body, the victim is in danger of dying from dehydration. Therefore, for many people, diarrhea is not a rip Spiritual Application: Scripture Reference: Romans 6:23 Sin is like a disease that affects every area of our lives. It affects our bodies and souls, and only leads to death and destruction (much like a waterborne illness). However, Jesus came to offer us life, not death. We must turn from our sin and accept his gift of grace. Additional Resources: http://www.lenntech.com/library/diseases/diseases/waterborne-diseases.htm Waterborne Disease
  20. 20.     20             Review: The water crisis affects Africa, Southeast Asia, and parts of South America. Lack of finances and expertise prevent impoverished communities from obtaining safe water. Many families must make do with less water than they actually need. Vocabulary: Dehydration noun; an abnormal loss of water from the body Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) noun; a life-saving solution made from safe water, salt, and sugar, given to diarrhea victims to help stop dehydration Parasite noun; an organism that lives on or in another organism from which it obtains nourishment Waterborne adjective; transmitted by water Discussion Questions: 1. Imagine you have a water- out of bed for days. How might your education be affected? Your job? Your home life? 2. In your opinion, what is more important for a community affected by waterborne disease: a good doctor or safe water? Why? Waterborne Disease
  21. 21.     21     Lesson: Drinking unsafe water has severe consequences. Level All ages Time 30-40 minutes Materials Patient cards (provided) Internet access or printed materials on waterborne diseases Preparation 1. Print off and cut out the provided patient cards. 2. Ensure that older students will have access to computers with Internet for research purposes (minimum of 5 computers). 3. sheet (or create your own with simplified vocabulary). For older students with no Internet access, print off disease descriptions for Cholera, Dracunculiasis, Hepatitis, Ascariasis, and Typhoid from http://www.lenntech.com/library/diseases/diseases/waterborne-diseases.htm. Instructions 1. day: Malaria, AIDS, Diarrhea, or Measles? (Wait for response). Diarrhea kills more children than Malaria, AIDS, and Measles combined. In fact, diarrhea kills about 2195 children each day (CDC). And what is the main cause of diarrhea? Contaminated water. Today we will learn about 5 different diseases that come from drinking contaminated water. These diseases are referred to as 2. Divide the students into 5 groups. 3. Give each group a patient card. 4. waterborne disease, and each group is responsible for diagnosing their patient. Their options of diseases are Cholera, Guinea Worm (Dracunculiasis), Hepatitis A, Roundworm (Ascariasis), or Typhoid. No two groups have the same disease. 5. Give the students 15-20 minutes to research the diseases using either the Internet or printed material. 6. After all groups have come up with a diagnosis, have each group share their findings in front of the class. Each group should and then summarize their research by stating the diagnosis, symptoms, and treatment of the disease.           Waterborne Disease
  22. 22.     22     7. Once all the groups have presented, r can see, waterborne illnesses affect people of all ages all over the world. Unfortunately, for many people, the closest doctor is miles and miles away, and so professional medical help is out of the question. Waterborne diseases not only make people feel ill, but they also keep people from going to work, from going to school, and from accomplishing everyday tasks like fetching water. Furthermore, some diseases are very deadly. For example, if Cholera goes untreated, a victim can die within hours. Today in the United States, we are very fortunate to have safe water right at facilities, people suffered from many of the same waterborne illnesses that we talked about today. In Cincinnati alone, about 8000 people died from cholera in 1849. Then, about 50 years later, 2000 people contracted typhoid (only about 350 died). Although we might not realize it, these diseases are still killing thousands of people every day around the world all because people       If this activity seems too advanced for your students, simplify it! Instead of using 5 diseases, pick 3. Divide the students into 3 groups and give each a patient card to read over. Then pick one disease and describe the symptoms aloud to the class. If a group collectively decides that you are describing the disease of their patient, the group should stand and read their patient card. Tell the group if they are correct or not. Continue this procedure until all 3 diseases have been described and assigned to a patient. Then, discuss with the students how their lives might be different if they had a waterborne disease. Waterborne Disease
  23. 23.     23     Fact Sheet: Waterborne Diseases   Cholera What is it? - An infection of the intestine caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae Transmission Ingestion of contaminated food or water Symptoms - Extreme diarrhea, vomiting, leg cramps, bluish-gray skin from extreme loss of fluids Treatment - Frequent eating to recover normal intestinal function, ORS, antibiotics Guinea Worm (Dracunculiasis) What is it? A long, white, rope-like roundworm found under the skin of humans and animals Transmission Drinking standing water that has tiny water fleas in it Symptoms Blister, intense pain, fever, nausea, and vomiting Treatment Submerge body part in water. As the worm slowly comes out, wrap the protruding part of the worm around a stick and roll it up (takes over a week or more) Hepatitis A What is it? Inflammation of the liver caused by an RNA virus Transmission Ingestion of contaminated food or water Symptoms Fever, weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, stomach pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes) Treatment Resting, avoiding fatty foods and alcohol, staying hydrated Roundworm (Ascariasis) What is it? A long, pink worm with pointed ends that lays eggs and lives in the intestines Transmission Ingestion of contaminated food or water Symptoms Stomach pain, big belly, loss of appetite, weakness, weight loss Treatment - Medication (anthelmintic drugs), surgery (when worms are present in large quantities) Typhoid What is it? An infectious, often fatal disease characterized by intestinal inflammation and ulceration Transmission Ingestion of contaminated water, milk, or food Symptoms High fever, rose colored spots on the stomach and chest, diarrhea or constipation Treatment ORS, antibiotics     Waterborne Disease
  24. 24.     24     Patient #1 My name is Abebe. I live in a small rural village in Zimbabwe, Africa. I am the mother of three kids two girls and one boy. My girls and I walk four miles twice a day to fetch our water from a large pond just south of our village. My girls cannot attend school because they must spend their time helping me fetch water and cook meals so that our family can survive. Unfortunately, I am not currently well enough to walk the distance to fetch water, so my girls have to walk the dangerous path alone. You feel nauseous. I wish I could be doing my part to fetch water, b much pain. Diagnosis: ______________________________ Instructions for patient: _____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________   Patient #2 My name is David. I am a construction worker in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. My main water source is a spigot behind my house. Although the water from the spigot looks clear, I know that it contains deadly pathogens that could kill me, but I have to use it diarrhea for as long as I can remember. But recently, my diarrhea has been more watery than usual, and I have to use the restroom much more frequently. so that I can go back to work. Diagnosis: ______________________________ Instructions for patient: _____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________               Waterborne Disease
  25. 25.     25     Patient #3 My name is Jalsa, and I am a teenage girl living in a busy city in India. I never met my dad, and my mom died when I was young, so my grandparents raised me. Now my grandparents are old, so I take care of them. We are fortunate enough to get our water from a sink in our house. The water seems clean to me, but my grandma high fever. Unfortunately, I think I caught whatever she has because now I have a Diagnosis: ______________________________ Instructions for patient: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________   Patient #4 My name is Antonio. I am a pastor of a small congregation in Bolivia. I used to be married, but my wife died two years ago of Typhoid, and I have no children. I consider the church members to be my only family. I get my water from the church well that some missionaries built a few years back. Three times a week, my church church meals. I know I should eat because I feel really weak, but my stomach hurts too much to think about eating. Also, one of the church members mentioned to me yesterday that my eyes look slightly yellow. What do you think is wrong with me? Diagnosis: ______________________________ Instructions for patient: _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________                 Waterborne Disease
  26. 26.     26     Patient #5 My name is Manu. I am a seven-year-old boy, living as a refugee with my family in Niger, Africa. Everyone living in the refugee camp gets their water from a river about a mile away. My favorite part about living in the camp is playing with the other kids, my that a doctor is coming to our camp tomorrow, and mommy said she would take me Diagnosis: ______________________________ Instructions for patient: ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________   Teacher Answer Key: Patient #1 Guinea Worm (Dracunculiasis) Patient #2 Cholera Patient #3 Typhoid Patient #4 Hepatitis A Patient #5 Roundworm (Ascariasis)                 Waterborne Disease
  27. 27.     27     Education:   Contamination & Hygiene       Purpose & Overview: The purpose of this lesson is to answer the question: Why does the water problem exist? Students will learn about basic contamination and proper hygiene. Objectives: 1. Students will be able to explain how both surface water and groundwater can become contaminated. 2. Students will be able to explain the difference between point sources and non-point sources of contamination. 3. Students will be able to explain how poor hygiene habits can affect the health of an entire community. Background Information: The global water crisis exists because there is a shortage of useable fresh water. However, it also exists because people are uneducated about contamination and hygiene. Water can be contaminated in a variety of ways. Surface water (water that can be found in lakes and rivers) often becomes contaminated by people using the restroom in the water or by animals walking through the water with feces on their feet. Aquifers (deposits of groundwater used to supply water for wells) can be contaminated through point sources of pollution and non-point sources of pollution. Point sources of pollution include any source of contamination that is easily identifiable and has a specific location, such as a landfill or a chemical spill. Non-point sources of pollution are more widespread and include contaminants such as fertilizer and pesticides. Other sources of contamination are a direct result of poor hygiene. Did you know that 85% of people in developing countries use soap for laundry, but NOT for washing their hands? Furthermore, many people do not know the importance of covering sneezes, using toilets, and protecting food from flies. These poor hygiene habits only add to the problems of the water shortage. Spiritual Application: Scripture References: 1 Corinthians 6:11 Romans 12:2 Just like illness can be prevented with good hygiene habits, sin can be prevented with good spiritual habits. By spending our time with people who build us up and by seeking God daily, we can prevent our lives from being bound to happen), we must remember that God does not condemn us for our sin, but looks on us with grace when we turn to Him. Additional Resources: http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/sanitation/facts/en/index.html Contamination & Hygiene
  28. 28.     28           Review: 80% of all disease is caused by contaminated water. Some common waterborne diseases include cholera, guinea worm, hepatitis A, roundworm, and typhoid. Waterborne diseases can be very serious and affect all areas of life, not just health. Vocabulary: Aquifer noun; a deposit of water located underground and used to provide wells with water Contaminate verb; to make impure by contact or mixture with something unclean Feces noun; Hygiene noun; the practice of the preservation of health Sanitation noun; necessary measures to ensure cleanliness Surface water noun; any body of water found above ground Discussion Questions: 1. Why do we do things like wash our hands and throw garbage in a trash can? 2. How do you think surface water becomes contaminated? What about water that is underground? Contamination & Hygiene
  29. 29.     29     Lesson: Proper hand washing kills germs. Level Grades 2-4 Time 5-10 minutes Materials Glitter Sink Soap Preparation None Instructions 1. Put glitter on your dampened hands, being careful not to show anyone. 2. Ask everyone to stand and greet one another with a handshake while you also greet people, transferring glitter to their hands. 3. After the group is seated, say, -They cannot be seen. -They can make you sick. -You can get them from everyone and everything. 4. Ask, 5. Show the group your hands. germs. I was the only one with glitter/germs on my hands to start with. Look how many of you now 6. Say, doing certain activities. When should we wa -Before eating -After using the bathroom -After coughing or sneezing -After interacting with someone ill -washing. They think that if their hands look clean, they must be clean. Or if they do wash their hands, they use dirty water or no soap. Because of this, germs spread very quickly in these communities, and good hygiene habits. 8. Allow students to wash their hands to get the glitter off. GLITTER GERMS         Proper hand washing requires clean water, soap, and at least 20 seconds of friction. Contamination & Hygiene
  30. 30.     30     Lesson: Many poor communities do not practice good hygiene habits. Level All Ages Time 10 minutes Materials res (provided) Classroom projector Preparation sheets for the projector. (Some projectors do not require the clear overhead sheets). Instructions 1. Show the habits. might spread germs? (Draw attention to the open defecation, litter, the animal standing near the water source, and the woman standing in the water source). How might the water source become 4. Ask the class what differences they see between the two pictures. Ask about the perceived well-being of the community in the second picture. Do they think the people are happier? Why? 5. Explain that, in addition to having safe water, people need to be educated about the importance of good hygiene. People need to know how to properly wash their hands, use latrines, protect their food from flies, dispose of their garbage in waste receptacles, and tie up or fence in their livestock. Practicing good health and hygiene habits can dramatically reduce the spread of disease. BEFORE & AFTER           Test Your Knowledge! Have your students test their knowledge about hygiene and sanitation by taking the attached (and you might learn a thing or two as well)! Contamination & Hygiene
  31. 31.     31      
  32. 32.     32        
  33. 33.     33     Sanitation Examination 1. True or False: Your body contains more bacteria than cells. 2. The most important component to hand washing is: a. Water b. Soap c. Friction 3. True or False: Antibacterial soap is more effective at preventing infection than regular soap. 4. A common substitute for soap in developing countries is: a. Dirt b. Ash c. Tree sap 5. True or False 6. What object contains the most bacteria in a hospital room? a. Door handle b. TV remote c. Toilet handle a. 10 seconds b. 20 seconds c. 40 seconds d. 60 seconds 8. How many people in the world lack access to adequate sanitation? a. 5.7 million b. 76 million c. 1.2 billion d. 2.6 billion 9. True or False: 85% of people in developing countries use soap to wash their hands, but not to wash their laundry. 10. True or False: One gram of feces may contain up to 10 million viruses, one million bacteria, 1000 parasite cysts, and 100 worm eggs. Contamination & Hygiene
  34. 34.     34     Sanitation Quiz Answer Key 1. True According to the American Society for Microbiology, human bodies contain 10 times more bacteria than cells. 2. C) Friction 3. False Antibacterial soaps have no proven health benefits over plain soaps. 4. B) Ash Wood ash contains lye, which creates a soap-like substance when mixed with water and left-over cooking fat. 5. False 6. B) TV remote Researchers at the University of Arizona discovered that TV remotes spread Staphylococcus, an antibiotic-resistant bacteria that can cause infection. 7. B) 20 seconds 8. D) 2.6 billion 9. False The reverse is actually true. 85% of people in developing countries use soap to wash their laundry, but not their hands. 10. True Gross, right?     Contamination & Hygiene
  35. 35.     35     Lesson: Even groundwater can become contaminated. GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION*       Level All Ages Time 20 minutes Materials 2 clear plastic containers Aquarium stones Sand Colored sugar or jelly crystals Plastic cup with small holes in the bottom Bottle of water (can be tap water) Preparation 1. Build an aquifer model by filling a clear plastic container 1/3 full with aquarium stones. 2. Use the stones to create a slope on one side of the container. 3. Cover the stones with one inch of sand (patted down). 4. Repeat steps 1-3 for the second container. 5. Place both aquifer models in front of the class where they will be easily visible. Instructions 1. contaminated, but how does groundwater become contaminated? These are models of aquifers. An aquifer is a rocky area underground where water gets trapped. Do any of your houses use well water? If so, the water comes from an aquifer. Today we will learn about two kinds of pollution that Point sources of pollution include any source of contamination that is easily identifiable and has a specific location, such as a landfill or a chemical spill 3. Make a small hole in the sand on the mound of one of the aquifer models. Fill the hole with the colored sugar, then cover the sugar with sand. presents a landfill where people put trash. Over the years, as it rains over the aquifer model until a small lake forms at the bottom. (You may have to refill the rain cup several times). 6. Although nothing may appear to happen at first, the water will soon dissolve the sugar and change to the color of the sugar. Explain to the students that the colored water represents contaminated water. Again, this is an example of a point source of pollution. 7. Repeat the process with the other aquifer model, but instead of putting the sugar in a hole, spread it all over the top of the sand and leave it uncovered. This will represent fertilizer, which is a non-point source of pollution. Once again, the water becomes contaminated (colored). Sand Stones Air Aquifer Model *Activity courtesy of The University of Waikato. [www.sciencelearn.org/nz] Contamination & Hygiene
  36. 36.     36     Response:   Taking Action       Purpose & Overview: The purpose of this lesson is to answer the question: What are the solutions to this problem? Students will learn about present-day clean water solutions that are being implemented in communities around the world. Objectives: 1. Students will be able to list and describe at least 3 clean water solutions. 3. Students will be able to critique the adequacy of various water solutions in relation to a given community. Background Information: Several obstacles exist in finding a solution to the global water crisis. Some obstacles include lack of finances, lack of local expertise, dry climate, rejection of foreign aid because processes seem strange or unnecessary, lack of sustainability in proposed solution (example: broken wells with no one to fix them), recontamination of purified water due to improper hygiene, etc. Because of such obstacles, and because every community is different, no single solution exists to solve the global water crisis in its entirety. However, there are a variety of different solutions that can be implemented in different communities to provide the people with clean water.* Possible solutions range from rain catchments to chemical treatments. The key is to understand which solution is most appropriate and sustainable for a given community. *Note: There is a difference between clean water and safe water. Clean water appears clear, but may still contain some harmful bacteria. Safe water does not contain any harmful bacteria. Spiritual Application: Scripture References: Matthew 25:31-40 James 2:26 When Jesus was on Earth, He healed the sick and befriended the poor. Now that Jesus is in heaven at the right hand of God, it is the responsibility of the Body of Believers (the Church) to act as the hands and feet of Christ. Any good deed we do becomes an act of worship unto God and is evidence of our living faith. It is not enough to proclaim Jesus; we must live as Jesus lived. One way we can do this is by caring for the poor by giving them access to safe water and sanitation. Additional Resources: http://solarwaterdisinfection.ca/water_3methods.html Taking Action
  37. 37.     37           Review: Poor hygiene habits contaminate water and spread disease. In many communities, the same water that animals drink from and that people bathe in is used for cooking, cleaning, even drinking. A community needs safe water and good hygiene habits to be healthy. Vocabulary: Expertise noun; expert skill or knowledge Filtration noun; the use of a filter (a device with a fine physical barrier) to remove impurities from a liquid Solar disinfection noun; rays to disinfect contaminated water Sustainable adjective; able to be maintained or continued; able to endure the test of time Discussion Questions: 1. What is the most interesting thing you have learned about water so far? 2. Do you think the global water crisis is solvable? If so, how do you think we (as the human race) should go about solving it? Taking Action
  38. 38.     38     Lesson: There are solutions to the water problem. Level Grades 5-12 Time 45 minutes Materials Long table (or desks) and chairs Paper and pens for the city council to take notes Optional: prop gavel Preparation 1. Set up a row of desks or a long table at the front of the room. Place 4-5 chairs behind the table, facing the room. This will be where the city council sits. 2. Cut out the a Instructions 1. Pick 3-4 students to serve as the city council. Have them sit at the front of the room behind the table. (The final chair at the table is for you, the teacher, who will play the role of the mayor). 2. Divide the rest of the students into groups of 3- students in grades 5-8, distribute a to each group as well. Each group must have a different card, but not all cards must be used. 3. Optional: Have the class pick a name for the city. For the purpose of these instructions, the name Sunnyville will be used. named Sunnyville. These students (point to city council) are the citizens. Now let me tell you a little about our wonderful town, and then explain to you the purpose of our meeting today. Like I said before, Sunnyville is a small town. We have a population of 120 people. We are a very close-knit community because everybody knows everybody. Some people would say that Sunnyville is a poor town, but I say that no one is poor who has lots of friends and family. Farming is the main industry in Sunnyville, and our citizens are known for being very hard working. The only business in our town is a small convenience store that sells basic food items like bread and soda, but there is also a popular hardware store just outside of town, and many of the farmers buy their tools there. Unfortunat plumbing, so there are no indoor toilets or sinks. When we have to go to the bathroom, we use outhouses and then wash our hands in the river. In terms of weather, Sunnyville lives up to its name. The temperature is almost always between 60-80 degrees, and it only rains about once a month. The main water source in Sunnyville is a river that runs through the north side of town. The kids in Sunnyville like to play in the river, and the adults use the river water for everything from cooking to cleaning to irrigating their crops.  Now to discuss the reason for our meeting today: the Although the citizens of Sunnyville have always suffered from poor health, things seem to be worse than ever. If time allows, expand this activity into multiple days. Have students draw an illustration of their solution and propose a budget for the project before presenting. CITY COUNCIL SIMULATION           Taking Action
  39. 39.     39             Within the past two weeks, many of our citizens have come down with fevers, diarrhea, and rose want to take any chances. We need to come up with a solution to this widespread sickness. We need to answer a few key questions: What is take action and put an end to the suffering of Sunnyville. 5. Grades 5-8: In their groups, have students discuss the situation. learned about Sunnyville, take a few minutes to discuss the following questions: Which waterborne disease is affecting the citizens? What can be done to help solve the problem? Look over the water solution on your card. Discuss with your group whether or not you think your spokesperson for your group to share (1) what your solution is and (2) whether or not you think it would work well in Sunnyville. We will recommence our meeting in 20 minutes to hear about possible Grades 9-12: Do not use the Water Solution cards. Rather, divide the students into groups, and fill out a Water Project Proposal form. Then, have each group share their idea, and have the city council vote on which solution they like best. A reward can be given to the winning group. 6. Grades 5-8: Give the students 20 minutes to discuss their water solution. You may want to walk around and answer any questions the students may have about the town. (You may have to one group might ask if the hardware store sells chlorine, to which you can answer either yes or no). 7. After the students have had adequate time, call the meeting to order (use gavel). health/water problem. We are meeting here today to decide on which solution to use. We will hear from all interested groups regarding this issue, and then the city council will decide on a solution. We will first hear from Group 1. Please have your spokesperson nk it would be a 9. After group 1 has spoken, thank the spokesperson, and call on the next group. Continue this step until all groups have shared their idea. 10. After all groups have participated, ask the city council members if they have any questions for the spokespersons. which solution to use. We will consider the cost, the sustainability, and the effectiveness of each idea. Plea (The city council discussion may be aloud in front of the class, or quietly in a corner of the room). has been made to ____________. Thank you to all who attended this meeting today. Meeting adjourned (use gavel) Taking Action
  40. 40.     40           TownProfile Population:120people EconomicCondition:poor MainIndustry:farming LocalBusinesses:conveniencestoreandhardwarestore Weather:60-80degreesFahrenheit,rainfallonceamonth WaterSource:river Hygiene:outhouses,hand-washing/bathingintheriver   TownProfile Population:120people EconomicCondition:poor MainIndustry:farming LocalBusinesses:conveniencestoreandhardwarestore Weather:60-80degreesFahrenheit,rainfallonceamonth WaterSource:river Hygiene:outhouses,hand-washing/bathingintheriver   TownProfile Population:120people EconomicCondition:poor MainIndustry:farming LocalBusinesses:conveniencestoreandhardwarestore Weather:60-80degreesFahrenheit,rainfallonceamonth WaterSource:river Hygiene:outhouses,hand-washing/bathingintheriver   TownProfile Population:120people EconomicCondition:poor MainIndustry:farming LocalBusinesses:conveniencestoreandhardwarestore Weather:60-80degreesFahrenheit,rainfallonceamonth WaterSource:river Hygiene:outhouses,hand-washing/bathingintheriver   Taking Action
  41. 41.     41     Water Solution Cards Solution: Build a Well Description: Pros: Cons: Wells  harvest  water  from   aquifers  hundreds  of  feet     danger  of  walking  to  a   distant  water  source     most  lake/river  water   dangerous  to  drink     dollars  to  build       Solution: Filtration Description: Pros: Cons: A  water  filter  is  a  device   that  uses  a  fine  physical   barrier  to  remove   impurities  from  the  water   that  passes  through  it.   ers  can   remove  99.9%  of  harmful   bacteria   well   -­ bought  or  hand-­made   using  simple  materials  like   fabric  and  sand   changed/cleaned   periodically     e,   filtration  is  not  very   efficient,  especially  when   large  quantities  of  water   are  needed   Taking Action
  42. 42.     42     Solution: Boiling Description: Pros: Cons: Boiling  involves  heating  a   liquid  to  the  point  that  it   bubbles,  killing  all  bacteria.         amount  of  energy  (wood,   charcoal,  etc.)   (boiling  large  quantities  of   water  takes  a  long  time,   and  water  must  be  cooled   before  it  can  be  consumed)     Solution: Chemical Purification Description: Pros: Cons: Chemical  purification  uses   tablets  or  drops  of   chemicals  such  as  iodine  or   chlorine  to  purify  water.       prevent  recontamination   can  be  purified  at  a  time   viral  disinfection   funny   chemical  by-­products   chemicals   Taking Action
  43. 43.     43     Solution: Solar Disinfection Description: Pros: Cons: Solar  water  disinfection   involves  leaving  plastic   bottles  of  water  in  the  sun   for  6+  hours.         viral  disinfection           mentally   friendly  (many  used  plastic   bottles)     be  less  than  4  inches  in   diameter)   Solution: Rain Collection Description: Pros: Cons: Rain  collection  utilizes   tanks  to  store  runoff   rainwater  from  roofs.       water  for  domestic   purposes       from  dirty  roofs     construct  system   Taking Action
  44. 44.     44     Water Project Proposal Form Name: ________________________________ Group: ________________________________ 1. What is the sickness? 2. How is the water becoming contaminated? 3. What is your idea to give the town safe water? 4. How much will it cost, and where will the money come from? 5. Is it effective? (Does it make water completely safe to drink?) Explain. 6. Is it efficient? (How long does it take to sanitize the water?) Explain. 7. Is it sustainable? Explain. 8. What are the negatives aspects of your idea, if any?   Taking Action
  45. 45.     45     Lesson: There are solutions to the water problem. Level Grades 2-4 Time 40 minutes Materials Plastic cup with holes in the bottom Clear plastic water bottle filled with water Small piece of clean cloth Plastic Tupperware container Cardboard toilet paper roll Sand Rubber band Preparation 1. Create a simple water filter by securing a small piece of cloth to the end of a toilet paper tube using a rubber band. Then fill the tube half full with sand. (Note: This water filter would not adequately filter water. However, it does provide a good visual for younger students). Instructions 1. Read the Sunnyville town description (found in the previous City Council Simulation activity) to the class. 2. Discuss possible solutions to the Typhoid outbreak in Sunnyville by demonstrating 3 clean water solutions: solar disinfection, rain collection, and filtration. 3. Solar Disinfection Place the water bottle in the sun (or near a window). Explain to the students that after 6 hours of sun exposure, the water in the bottle will be completely safe to drink. Then discuss the pros and cons of this solution (as described on the Water Solution cards). 4. Rain Collection Hold the plastic cup with holes over the Tupperware container. Pour some of the water from the bottle into the cup to simulate rain. Explain that the citizens of Sunnyville could use rain water instead of river water by collecting the rain in large tanks. Discuss the pros and cons of this solution. 5. Filtration Pour some water from the bottle into the filter you made (over the Tupperware container as to not make a mess). Explain that filters can be made with simple materials like cloth, rocks, and sand. Discuss pros and cons. 6. Facilitate a class discussion about which clean water solution they think would work best in Sunnyville. Ask the students if they know of any other ways to make water safe to drink. CITY COUNCIL SIMULATION -­ ADAPTED         Taking Action
  46. 46.     46     3, 2, 1. . . Action! Want to get involved in the fight against the global water crisis? You can! Charitable organizations around the world are taking action to provide water to those who need it most. Use this resource as a guide to learn about our organization and how you can get involved. What We Do The goal of WaterStep is to see the day when everyone has access to safe water. r to developing countries to providing water for disaster relief and emergency contingency plans in local communities. How We Do It We train individuals to provide solutions through water treatment, health and hygiene, and sanitation. Examples include: Offering hand pump repair classes and tools Teaching health and hygiene practices to preventing deadly diarrheal diseases and parasites Sponsoring teams for community development and disaster relief Most importantly, WaterStep trains one to train others to provide safe water for themselves. Technology and Tools WaterStep, together with engineers from General Electric and Louisville Water Company, has developed an innovative water purifier that produces chlorine using simple materials found everywhere in the world. This purifier is at the heart of our efforts to provide safe drinking water. The WaterStep Water Purifier Sets up in just 5 minutes Operates off of a 12V battery and a handful of salt Can purify more than 10,000 gallons of water per day The Wat Supplying water in developing countries Disaster relief Emergency management Rural applications In addition to the WaterStep Water Purifier, WaterStep offers water pumps, filters, solar panels, collapsible portable water tanks, and other accessories to set up a mini water treatment facility anywhere in the world. Results WaterStep has helped bring over 46 million gallons of safe water to 23 countries through our water purification units and mini-water treatment plants. So far, more than 5,000 people have been trained to bring lifesaving water to those in need. Get Involved
  47. 47.     47     Get Involved Hold a shoe drive - We have established the WaterStep Shoe Program, where donated new and gently used shoes are sold to an exporter to help finance our water projects. Volunteer at WaterStep WaterStep is always looking for volunteers to roll up their sleeves and lend a hand at our international headquarters in Louisville, KY. Participate in training We offer training in water treatment, health and hygiene, and hand pump repair to individuals and groups who desire to go into the field and implement safe water projects. Travel with WaterStep We take teams on trips all over the world to set up water treatment facilities in developing countries and help with disaster relief. Donate WaterStep relies heavily on donations to support our many global water projects. WaterStep is an international non-profit organization qualified under U.S. Internal Revenue Service code 501(c)3. Your donation to WaterStep is tax deductible as allowed by federal and state law. Learn more at www.WaterStep.org Get Involved
  48. 48.     48     Thirsty for More?   Check out these water-­related Bible stories!       Genesis 6:9-9:17 The Parting of the Red Sea Exodus 14:5-31 Sacrifice on Mount Carmel 1 Kings 18:1-40 Jesus Walks on Water Matthew 14:22-33 Jesus Turns Water to Wine John 2:1-11 The Woman at the Well John 4:1-26 John 13:1-17       Bible Stories
  49. 49.     49     Sources 1. Center for Disease Control www.cdc.gov 2. Kenmar Foundation: Solar Water Disinfection www.solarwaterdisinfection.ca 3. Lenntech: Water Treatment and Purification www.lenntech.com 4. Louisville Water Company www.louisvillewater.com Developed by: Kelley Dearing Smith 5. National Geographic www.nationalgeographic.com 6. UNICEF www.unicef.org 7. United Nations www.un.org 8. The University of Waikato: Science Learning Hub www.sciencelearn.org/nz 8. World Bank www.worldbank.org 9. World Health Organization www.who.int   Sources