Break the action up into small, manageable stepsBuild up the users’ confidence Give clear feedbackMake it clear what to do physically, specificallyLook for ways to cheat, and look for habit loops.Question: What sequence of actions will help users exercise?
Motivate – why should they act?Trigger – actually ASK them to act. Identify and neutralize competing motivations & triggers Question: What’s in the users’ environment, for each step? Write out the story: why act, why now, and why not do something else?
Educate? Only if necessary. Usually wastedHook into prior positive associations & experiencesDevelop a self-narrative that the user will succeed Question: How do you prepare the user to act, for each step of the progression?
4 steps ofdesigning foractionA talk for Refresh Baltimore18 April 2012 @BetamoreSteve WendelPrincipal Scientist, HelloWallet@sawendel,Pet stairs. Helping lazy petsmove, one tiny carpetedstep at a time.
Intro: what is Action Design?The four steps of the designLet’s try it outTopics
What is Action Design?• How to design good products……that are effective at changing behavior too• So people can do things they want to do,but havent been able to do before.• From exercising more,to getting the most out of a product.• Without:• Coercion• Persuasion• Trickery
An explosion of research in behavior economics andthe psychology of judgment & decision makingWe’ve learned a great deal, recently
The theory is fascinating.Theory needs to be translated into practical tools.From Physics to Engineering.And?
The processNote: this is what happens when aresearcher does graphic design….We’ll talk about why designersneed to be free to do beautifulthings later.
Intro: what is Action Design?Some Background on the Mind…Four steps to the designTopics
How we decide what do to next1. We have two independentsystems for decision making= Dual Process Theory= The Rider & The Elephant2. Most of the time, we’re notactually “choosing” what to do.3. We’re using habits.4. Or, we’re using hundreds ofcognitive shortcuts.Image from http://kazez.blogspot.com/Metaphor from J. Haidt (2006) & the Buddha
How we decide what do to next, 25. Shortcut: We don’t read webpages.6. Shortcut: Beautiful = Easy to Read = True7. Shortcut: We look to our peers. For what’s “right”, what’senjoyable, and what’s expected.8. Shortcut: We judge based on rough similarity & association.We judge before we think.9. And a lot of obvious stuff. Easy, familiar, beautiful, pleasant,feasible -> all make action more likely.
How we decide what do to next, 31. Familiar is good.2. Easy is good.3. Common or socially expected is good.4. Not requiring conscious burden is good.5. Anything that can be defaulted is good.6. Any repeated action that can be habitualized is good.
So: think strategicallyReduce the work.Cheat with automation.Build a habit.If you must, think.
Intro: what is Action Design?Some background on the mind…The four steps of the designTopics
The 4 steps1. Gather Knowledge2. Structure the Action3.Construct the Environment4. Prepare the User
Gather Knowledge:Know your outcomeMaybe you want people to login.Maybe you want people to buy.Ok.What’s different about theworld, if the product works perfectly?Company outcomes vs. User outcomes
Gather Knowledge:Know your usersEach person is different.Skills. Life experiences.Family responsibilities.How are they different with respect to:1) Experience with the action?2) Experience with the channel?3) Relationship to you?
Structure the Action:Break down hard problemsTake the garden path.Make each step is pleasant.Straightforward.“Easy”.Tailor it to their priorexperiences.Skip ahead where possible.
Construct the environmentto support actionGrab the user’sattention.Make sure themotivation is clear.Provide urgency.Remove distractions.
Prepare the userHelp users seeand tell the storyof their successes.Build on related,positive experiences.Educate usersabout how to dotake action.
The goal: lock it in & move on.Just get it done.Make it a habit.Fully automate it.Automate tracking, andgrab attention whereneeded.
The process againNote: this is what happens when aresearcher does graphic design….We’ll talk about why designersneed to be free to do beautifulthings later.
And that’s it for now.• Comments! Feedback!• What more do you need to know?• Examples in your own work?• Check out actiondesign.hellowallet.com for more on this step-by-stepmethod for designing for behavior change.• Check out www.meetup.com/action-design-dcA Meetup on product-mediated, beneficial behavior change, whereanyone in the community can swap notes.The next meetup, May 14th 6:30pm: Opower will talk about how they dotheir magic.• Contact me any time at firstname.lastname@example.org or @sawendel