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  • 1. INFORMATION TO USERS This manuscript has been reproduced from the microfilm master. UMI films the text directly from the original or copy submitted. Thus, some thesis and dissertation copies are in typewriter face, while others may be from any type of computer printer. The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. Broken or indistinct print, colored or poor quality illustrations and photographs, print bleedthrough, substandard margins, and improper alignment can adversely affect reproduction. In the unlikely event that the author did not send UMI a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if unauthorized copyright material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. Oversize materials (e.g., maps, drawings, charts) are reproduced by sectioning the original, beginning at the upper left-hand comer and continuing from left to right in equal sections with small overlaps. Photographs included in the original manuscript have been reproduced xerographically in this copy. Higher quality 6" x 9” black and white photographic prints are available for any photographs or illustrations appearing in this copy for an additional charge. Contact UMI directly to order. ProQuest Information and Learning 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346 USA 800-521-0600 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 2. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 3. NOTE TO USERS This reproduction is the best copy available. UMT Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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  • 5. LEADERSHIP PROFICIENCIES FOR EFFECTIVE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS: PERCEPTIONS OF PRINCIPALS AND TEACHERS IN ST. LOUIS COUNTY SCHOOLS Mary Ellen Buribrd, B.S., M.Ed. A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty ofthe Graduate School ofSaint Louis University in Partial Fulfillment ofthe Requirements for the Degree ofDoctor ofPhilosophy 2001 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 6. UMI Number. 3014237 Copyright 2001 by Burford, Mary Ellen All rights reserved. _ ___ ® UMI UMI Microform 3014237 Copyright 2001 by Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company. All rights reserved. This microform edition is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code. Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company 300 North Zeeb Road P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor. Ml 48106-1346 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 7. c Copyright by Mary E. Burford ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 2001 i Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 8. LEADERSHIP PROFICIENCIES FOR EFFECTIVE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS: PERCEPTIONS OF PRINCIPALS AND TEACHERS IN ST. LOUIS COUNTY SCHOOLS Mary Ellen Burford, B.S., M.Ed. A Digest Presented to the Faculty ofthe Graduate School ofSaint Louis University in Partial Fulfillment ofthe Requirements for the Degree ofDoctor ofPhilosophy 2001 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 9. DIGEST The purpose ofthis study was to examine the perceptions ofelementary school principals and elementary school teachers regarding proficiencies for effective elementary school principals and the level ofagreement between principals and teachers regarding those proficiencies among five independent variables: position, gender, years ofexperience, highest degree earned, and year highest degree was earned. This study was limited to elementary school principals and teachers, in three St. Louis County School districts. The random sample for the study was 300 teachers and 60 administrators. The rate ofreturn was 39% for teachers and 66% for administrators. The survey questionnaire measured 68 competencies extracted from the revised document, Proficiencies for Principals, published by the National Association ofElementary School Principals. The instrument used was a modified version ofPerceptions ofthe Essential Skills ofEffective Elementary Principals. The respondents were teachers (74.4%), female (66.2%), with more than 10 years of experience in their district (54.2%). Respondents’ highest degree earned was a master’s degree (65.6 %) earned between 1996 to 2001 (30.6%). Hypothesis one suggested a difference based onjob position and was accepted. Hypothesis two, three, four and five suggested differences based on the gender, years ofexperience, highest degree earned, and year highest degree was earned and were rejected. 1 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 10. The conclusions ofthe study were that elementary school administrators and teachers have different perceptions ofthe proficiencies of an effective elementary school principal, and the differences in the perceptions were not based on gender, years ofexperience in the district, highest degree earned, or the year the highest degree was earned. Elementary school principals should be informed ofproficiencies for principals establish by the National Association ofElementary School Principals and given training in each ofthe proficient areas as part ofa mentor program for principal’s leadership program. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 11. COMMITTEE IN CHARGE OF CANDIDACY: Associate Professor Ronald Rebore, Chairperson and Advisor Professor Michael Grady Associate Professor William Rebore Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 12. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS All ofmy life I have loved learning. Mydream has been to earn a Doctoral Degree. I am grateful to many people who guided me as I worked to accomplish this goal. I would like to acknowledge the support and guidance ofDr. Earl Hobbs who was my advisor until his retirement and Dr. Ronald Rebore whose advice was essential to the research and writing ofthis dissertation. Appreciation is also extended to the other members ofmy committee Dr. W. Rebore, Dr. M. Grady, Dr. L. Scott, Dr. C. Mccowen and Dr. C. Eakin, whose advice and comments assisted me in completing this dissertation. There are many people I would like to thank who supported me when the task seemed unobtainable: Dr. L.L. Mosley, Dr. P. Doener, Ms. L. Buchanan. Dr. J.Oldani, Dr. J. Scatizzi, Ms. D. Luckett, Dr. S. Scheer, Dr. J.Williams, Dr. W. Campbell, Mr. J. Bartlett, and Ms. S. Bryant. Thanks to my loving husband, Lawson, who was so patient, supportive and understanding. I could not have completed this dissertation without the help ofmy husband. He continued telling me I could do it and helped me to believe in myselfThanks also to my wonderful son, Todd, who continued to inspire me through his wit, his encouragement, and his wonderful sense ofhumor. My family has helped me to experience greatjoy and happiness. I would like to thank the members ofmy family for their support ill Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 13. Finally I would like to thank my parents, who were the foundation for my growth, independence and endurance. They taught me to work hard, to be humble, and appreciative. We miss them but we will always have the gifts they left within us. I dedicate this dissertation to their memory. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 14. TABLE OF CONTENTS List ofTables ................................................................................... vii Chapter L THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY... 1 Introduction......................................................... 1 Statement ofthe Problem..................................... 3 Purpose ofResearch.............................................. 3 Significance ofthe Study........................................ 5 Hypotheses.............................................................. 9 Limitation ofthe Study.......................................... 12 Definition ofTerms.............................................. 12 Summary................................................................ 13 Chapter II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE............. 15 Introduction............................................................ 15 Historical Review................................................... 15 Principals and Effective School Leadership 18 Effective Schools................................................... 23 Characteristics for Effective Elementary School Principals............................................ 34 Summary................................................................ 44 Chapter HI. PROCEDURES.................................................... 45 Introduction............................................................. 45 Description ofthe Population................................. 45 v Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 15. Data Collection Procedure........................................... 46 Description ofQuestionnaire....................................... 46 Hypotheses.................................................................. 48 Description ofData Analysis....................................... SO Validity and Reliability................................................ 53 Characteristics ofthe Sample....................................... 54 Summary..................................................................... 56 Chapter IV. FINDINGS.................................................................. 59 Introduction................................................................. 59 Analysis ofHypotheses........................................ 109 Summary.................................................................... 121 Chapter V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS........................................... 124 Introduction.......................................................... 124 Summary.................................................................... 124 Conclusions................................................................ 128 Recommendations....................................................... 128 APPENDICES Appendix A................................................................. 130 Appendix B................................................................ 132 BIBLIOGRAPHY................................................................................. 136 VTTAAUCTORIS................................................................................ 150 vi Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 16. LIST OF TABLES Table Name ofTable Page Number Number 1 Analysis Plan for Hypotheses............................... 53 2 Elementary Status................................................. 54 3 Gender.................................................................. 54 4 Experience............................................................. 55 5 Highest degree earned........................................ 55 6 Year highest degree was earned............................ 56 7 Exercise vision in defining and accomplishing the mission ofthe school............................................. 60 8 Demonstrate a genuine interest in children................................................................. 60 9 Inspire all concerned to join in accomplishing the school’s mission...................................................... 61 10 Be highly visible throughout the school................... 61 11 Apply effective human relation’s skills.................... 62 12 Encourage the leadership ofothers......................... 63 13 Analyze information relative to problems, make decisions, and delegate responsibility as appropriate 63 14 Create a strong sense oftogetherness.................... 64 15 Apply established principles and strategies of effective leadership................................................ 65 16 Participate as a member oflocal, state, and national professional groups................................................. 65 17 Model the expected behavior ofothers.................... 66 18 Persuasively articulate his or her beliefs and effectively defend his or her decisions..................... 67 19 Be trustworthy, conscientious, enthusiastic, and sensitive................................................................... 67 vii Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 17. 20 Write clearly and concisely so that the intended audience understands the message........................ 68 21 Apply facts and datato determine priorities 69 22 Be an active listener so as to truly hear others 69 23 Know his or her verbal and nonverbal communications strengths and weaknesses and their implications....................................................... 70 24 Understand the philosophy, functioning, and practices ofmass media......................................... 71 25 Understand the impact ofhis or her personal image and practices ofmass media.................................. 71 26 Identify— with staff- the decision-making procedures the school will follow...................... 72 27 Involve others in setting short and long-term goals.. 73 28 Be aware ofvarious decision-making techniques and be able to match the appropriate technique to the particular situation..................................... 73 29 Apply validated principles ofgroup dynamics and facilitation skills..................................................... 74 30 Understand the process ofconsensus building and apply that process both as a leader and as a member ofa group.............................................................. 75 31 Achieve intended outcomes through the use of principles ofmotivation.......................................... 75 32 Maintain disciplinary stability throughoutthe school..................................................................... 76 33 Understand the communities values and goals and what it wants the curriculum to achieve.................. 77 34 Seek appropriate resources oftime, money, and materials to support the curriculum...................... 78 35 Set forth, as a continuum, the skills and concepts the curriculum is designed to provide................. 79 36 Be familiarwith curriculum materials and their relationship to program goals and objectives 80 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 18. 37 Monitorthe curriculum to ensure that the appropriate content and sequence are followed— 81 38 Demonstrate multicultural and ethnic understanding 82 39 Establish an environment conducive to learning 82 40 Analyze standardized test scores and other student performance indicators to identify general strengths and weaknesses in the educational program 83 41 Understand and apply effective observation and conferencing skills.............................................. 84 42 Understand and apply principles of child growth and development................................................ 84 43 Apply grouping practices that most effectively meet- student needs....................................................... 85 44 Regularly assess the teaching methods and strategies being used at the school to ensure that they are appropriate and varied........................... 86 45 Design effective staffand professional development programs that match the goals ofboth the school and ofthe participating individuals....................... 87 46 Set high expectations for students, staff, parents, and self................................................................. 87 47 Recognize and show concern for personal goals of students and staff................................................... 88 48 Enhance student and staffstrengths and remediate weaknesses........................................................ 89 49 Appropriately match specific learning styles with specific teaching styles...................................... 89 50 Engage in a program ofcontinuing professional development............................................................ 90 51 Inspire oven the most excellent teachers to acquire new competencies and experiences..................... 91 52 Bring about the kind ofrapportamong students, teachers, staff, parents, and the community that fosters constructive suggestions for making the school program even stronger............................. 92 be Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 19. 53 Use a variety oftechniques and strategies to assess student performance, individual teacher and staff performance, the achievement ofcurriculum goals, and the effectiveness ofthe total instructional program............................................................. 93 54 Assess progress toward achieving goals established for students, teachers, the principalship, and the involvement ofparents and the community at large....................................... 94 55 Seek and encourage input from a variety ofsources to improve the school’s program........................... 95 56 Demonstrate a level ofhuman relations skills that make the evaluation process helpful rather then destructive......................................................... 95 57 Develop assistance plans and remediation efforts to improve teaching performance............................ 96 58 Develop and implement equitable and effective schedules.......................................................... 97 59 Use strategic planning to implement long-range goals............................................................... 97 60 Attract volunteers and be adept in training them 98 61 Manage the operation and maintenance ofthe physical plant................................................. 99 62 Allocate and organize staffin such a way as to assure accomplishmentofthe school’s mission... 99 63 Know education law, including the implication of liability, and keep current with developments 100 64 Develop and implement administrative procedures consistent with board policy and contractual agreements........................................................... 101 65 Manage the school within the allocated resources... 101 66 Understand the school district budget and its specific implications for his & her school................ 102 67 Plan, prepare,justify, and defend the school budget......................................................... 103 68 Use cost control procedures and institute cost- effective practices................................................ 103 x Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 20. 69 Interpretbudgetpriorities and constraints to the staffand the community................................. 1 0 4 70 Participate in local, state, and federal legislative action programs................................................ 105 71 Understand the dynamics oflocal, state and national politics.......................................... 105 72 Be accessible to teachers, students, parents and other members ofthe community.................... 106 73 Develop plans and strategies for helping attract appropriate financial support ofeducation. 107 74 Involve the community leaders in the development and support ofthe school’s program................... 108 75 Identify and apply effective strategies for dealing with political issues and political forces that 109 impinge on the school’s operation....................... 76 Differences between elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers 110 77 Differences between gender.................................... 113 78 Differences based on years ofexperience in the district............................................................... 114 79 Differences based on highest degree earned.............................................................. 117 80 Differences based on year highest degree was earned.................................................................... 118 81 Summary ofAnalysis ofHypotheses......................... 122 xi Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 21. CHAPTER 1 THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY Introduction As the role and responsibilities ofschools become more complex, educators are constantly searching for ways to meet the educational needs of students (Dietrich, 1996). Researchers have identified effective leadership as the single most important determinant of student success. The success of schools is an issue that continues to generate concern. Demand for excellence in education and concern for quality ofeducation has led to issues of school effectiveness, leadership styles and instructional management (Madaus & Kellaghan, 1980). The role ofthe principal has been determined as essential in the development and growth ofeffective schools (A Nation at Risk, 1983). Research associated with successful assessment and development programs for school administrators revealed significant differences between successful schools and less successful schools and their principals. Principals in the most successful schools motivated the entire community and were willing to share leadership. Their success could be traced to specific attitudes and skills that made them effective (Bradshaw & Buckner, 1994). With the release in 1984 of Standards for Quality Elementary Schools: Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade, the National Association ofElementary l Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 22. 2 School Principals sought to identify the basic characteristics offirst-rate elementary schools. At the core ofthat analysis were two fundamental propositions that research has repeatedly demonstrated: first, that children’s early years are crucial to their long-term success in education and in life and second, that as the leader within the school, the building principal is the key figure in determining the effectiveness ofthose years (NAESP, 1997). The NAESP (1997) has stated that given those facts, it is essential that K-8 principals be among the most able and effective ofAmerica’s education leaders. Principals must possess appropriate personal characteristics and aptitudes and receive professional preparation that is relevant and effective. Stover (1989) identified specific traits that were important for effective principals: vision for the school, dedication to learning, good knowledge ofthe school, active leadership style and lack ofconcern for obstacles. Effective principals are leaders who are sensitive to problems and changing conditions in their schools. Effective leadership will indicate readiness by the principal to take on responsibilities that result in changing conditions (Shuster & Stewart, 1973). Leadership makes the school philosophy; mission and vision come alive. The principal is expected to be the initiator, the energizer, the facilitator, the visionary, and the leader ofthe school. Leadership means building strength in others to achieve growth for all (Krajewski, 1996). The emphasis principal’s give to motivation of students is important These same concepts are importantto the faculty working with the students. An effective environment must be provided for Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 23. 3 students as well as teachers to increase motivation and effectiveness ((Krajewski, 1996). Few studies have identified specific differences or similarities in perceptions among administrators and teachers regarding leadership proficiencies characteristic ofan effective elementary school principal. This study broadens the research base by contributing to the existing body ofknowledge concerning leadership proficiencies skills, which characterize an effective principal as perceived by elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers. Statement ofthe Problem The purpose ofthis study was to examine the perceptions ofelementary school principals and elementary school teachers regarding proficiencies for effective elementary school principals. The study examined the level ofagreement between principals and teachers regarding those proficiencies characteristic of effective elementary school principals. The study provided data that was used to analyze the perceptions ofthese two groups and the level ofagreement among the five variables: position, gender, years ofexperience, highest degree earned, and year highest degree was earned. Purpose ofthe Research The purpose ofthis study was to examine the perception ofelementary school principals and elementary school teachers regarding proficiencies that are essential to being an effective elementary school principal. The study examined Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 24. 4 the level ofagreement ofprincipals and teachers regarding proficiencies that are characteristic for effective elementary school principals. There is general agreement among educators that the principal is important in school success. The principal will need to fulfill the role ofbeing the leader for successful schools. Expectations will need to be clearly stated for the principal to be effective in making the necessary changes. What will make the difference will be the leadership ofthe principal (Hechinger, 1981). Principals must be dedicated in their willingness to lead and to implement change when necessary. The elementary school is the most flexible level offormal learning. The focus must be on the success ofthe children. The school principals must help to improve the nation’s schools (Boyer, 1995). Research indicates that education and school success depends upon the effectiveness ofthe principal and his or her knowledge ofskills that are essential for school success. Effective leadership is a major contributor to the school environment and to the overall success ofthe school (Austin, 1981). The responsibility for establishing a positive school environment begins with the principal, who provides leadership in developing and maintaining a climate conducive for learning, hi recent years, as the traditional role ofprincipals has changed, it has expanded to include counseling, advising, modeling desired behaviors, relinquishing control and establishing supportive climates (Bredeson, 1995). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 25. 5 Significance ofthe Study The early school years for children are crucial to long- term success in education. The building principal is the key figure in determining the effectiveness ofthose years. Most principal preparation programs are designed to provide a sound base ofknowledge about school administration, but often fall short in translating such knowledge into action in the school (NAESP, 1997). Most research has focused on leadership, effective principals and effective schools. Little research has focused on proficiencies for principals as perceived by teachers and principals. Ifthe principal is to fulfill the role ofeffective leader, he or she will need clearly defined expectations for the role and adequate training and support to meet such expectations (Riggs, 1992). This study contributed to the existing body ofknowledge that continues to explore proficiencies characteristic to outstanding elementary school principals. The study will provide knowledge, information and professional experiences for aspiring administrator, professors and others involved in education management Findings in the study will be a guide for those who specialize in the preparation ofelementary school principals. Education is the instruction and development ofknowledge through formal teaching or training (Granowsky & Weber, 1987). The education system as we know it today was created in the mid-20th century to serve all pupils fortwelve years. This system ofeducation must meet unprecedented challenges. We are at the time when assessment ofstrengths and weaknesses ofthe schools in Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 26. 6 public education is necessary. We need to build on the strengths ofour system and evaluate the weaknesses (Kirst, 1993). The most important current problem facing educators is the inability ofour instructional programs to adapt successfully to the educational needs ofthe students who are not achieving or, are not being fulfilled in programs as they are operating today. The emphasis principals give to motivation of students is important These same concepts are important to the faculty working with the students. An effective environment must be provided for students as well as teachers to increase motivation and effectiveness. Quality education and effective elementary schools are primarily a function ofcompetent elementary school principals who are committed to effective leadership, and encourage their teachers to become committed to the growth, development and education ofthe children they work with (Sergiovanni, 1987). Ginty (1995) stated that researchers have identified effective leadership as the single most important determinant ofsuccess. Based on the data gathered through interviews with beginning school administrators several suggestions were made to assist new principals and assistantprincipals. It presents recommendations in three areas ofprofessional development: academic preparation, field-based learning, and personal and professional formation. Formany years, school administrators have voiced concern with training and preparation for administrators. Many administrators wanted programs that Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 27. 7 presented knowledge that developed skills which translated into practice (Ginty, 1993). The effective elementary school principal gives first priority to educational leadership responsibilities. The principal knows and understands elementary school programs and children and possesses high standards and a sense ofmission with respect to the elementary school. Implementation of standards and building the quality of life in the school as an organization is a quality ofan effective principal. (Sergiovanni, 1987). Effective principals are leaders who are sensitive to human problems and to changing conditions in their schools. They are flexible in adapting their behavior to the new changes. What leadership ought to be and what it should produce is still controversial, howevertrue leadership will indicate readiness by the principal to take on or to give up responsibilities that result in changing conditions (Shuster & Stewart, 1973). Strong educational leadership is emphasized with leaders being knowledgeable and visionary. There must be respect to educational programs and competent principals with respect to organizational systems such as staffgrowth and development and building commitmentto the school. It is educational and organizational leadership together which characterize the effective principal in schools today (Sergiovanni, 1979). The effectiveness ofschools is a concern ofparents, communities and the nation as a whole. Coleman (1966) was one ofthe first researbhers to use pupil Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 28. 8 cognitive gain as a measure of school effectiveness. In his report, Coleman indicated that family and social background ofchildren were factorsjust as important as schools in the educational achievement ofchildren. Coleman’s findings were different from what people previously thought about schools. Other researchers (Edmonds 1979; Young 1975) came to the conclusion that some schools were more effective than others and that school effectiveness must be a major factor in the achievement of students. They concluded that school effectiveness and student achievement was related. Research associated with successful assessment and development programs for school administrators revealed significant differences between more and less successful schools and their principals. Principals in the most successful schools motivated the entire school community and were willing to share leadership. Some principals seemed to intuitively know how to create the kind of environment that facilitated change. Their success could be traced to specific attitudes and skills that made them effective (Bradshaw & Buckner, 1994). National commissions and studies have been created to report on the status ofeducation in America. One study revealed by educators and researchers that leadership is key to excellence in schools (The Role ofthe Principal in Effective Schools, 1989). Research has indicated thatthe most important element in affecting change in schools is the principal (Rutherford, 1985; Hall, 1984; Manasse, 1992; Fullan, 1988). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 29. 9 The concern for the quality ofeducation in the country is evident in the report issued by the National Commission on Excellence in Education (1983). The report indicated on-going concern regarding the effectiveness ofpublic education and possible solutions to increase the quality ofschools. The public concern regarding the quality ofeducation and confidence by the people is stated in the National Commission on Excellence in Education report (1983). This report stated a concern for the decline in educational excellence. This report was concerned with one ofthe many causes and dimensions ofeducation. There is pride in what schools and colleges have historically accomplished and contributed. The report related the concept ofhow the educational system has eroded and how the future ofthe Nation and the people may be affected in the future (National Commission on Excellence in Education 1983). Educators and citizens expressed determination to bring schools to a level where integrity, respect and purpose are foremost for educational excellence. In a Nation at Risk (1983) the leadership role ofthe principal was stated as essential in the development of effective schools. The report revealed that the leadership of the principal was important in the growth and development of schools, and that school reform had to be supported by the community. (Nation at Risk, 1983) Hypotheses Five hypotheses were tested in the study. The hypotheses ofthe study were: Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 30. 10 1. There will be significant difference in the perceptions ofelementary school administrators and elementary school teachers regarding the proficiency of elementary school principals as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development and implementation ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the day-to-day functions, fiscal management, and political issues. 2. There will be significant difference in the perceptions ofelementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on gender regarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management of group processes, supervising the development ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the school’s day-to- day functions, fiscal management and political issues. 3. There will be significant difference in the perceptions ofelementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on years of experience in the district regarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management of group processes, supervising the developmentof the curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organising the school’s day-to-day functions, fiscal management and political issues. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 31. 11 4. There will be significant difference in the perceptions ofelementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on highest degree earned regarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the school’s day-to- day functions, fiscal management and political issues. 5. There will be significant difference in the perceptions ofelementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on year highest degree was earned regarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management of group processes, supervising the development ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the school’s day-to-day functions, fiscal management and political issues. The dependent variables were perceptions ofelementary school principals and elementary school teachers regarding proficiencies characteristic ofeffective elementary school principals. The independent variables were: position (elementary principals and elementary teachers grades K-6), gender (male or female), years ofexperience (1 to 10 years - 11 to 20 years) highest degree earned (bachelors, masters, doctoral) and year highest degree was earned (6 choices ranging from before 1976 to 2001). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 32. 12 Limitations ofthe Study This study was limited to elementary school principals and teachers, in three S t Louis County School districts. The districts were chosen because of geographic location and size. The study can not necessarily be generalized to larger populations, but to the principals and teachers in the three elementary school districts in S t Louis County. Only elementary school principals and teachers listed in the three school directories were invited to participate in the study. The study was designed to provide information regarding proficiencies characteristic of effective elementary school principals as perceived by elementary school principals and elementary school teachers. The findings will apply only to the elementary schools used in the study. Definitions ofTerms To provide understanding and clarification in this study the following terms were defined: Competencies: necessary areas ofqualifications Elementary Principal: one employed as a supervisor and administrator ofan elementary school who is responsible for developing and implementing policies, curriculum, budgets, and programs that help students and staffto grow and progress academically and socially. Elementary School: a school for students grades kindergarten through sixth grade. Essential Skills: knowledgeable areas needed Grade Level: the level ofinstruction attained by a student Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 33. 13 Instructional Leadership: a kind ofaction related to teachers and students and the encouragement ofproductivity. Leadership: the ability ofone to encourage others to advance toward specific criteria. Performance: the demonstration ofa skill, or use ofknowledge in attainment of educational tasks in working with teachers. Proficiencies: the skills, behaviors, and capabilities shared by principals who lead schools of exceptional quality (NAESP, 1997). School Success: academic achievement and accomplishment of students, teachers and principals relating to educational growth within a specified time span. St. Louis County Schools: Elementary schools located in North St Louis County, South S t Louis County and Mid S t Louis County. Summary The purpose ofthis study was to examine the perceptions ofelementary school principals and elementary school teachers regarding proficiencies for effective elementary school principals and the level ofagreement between principals and teachers regarding those proficiencies. The study provided data that was used to analyze the perceptions ofthese two groups and the level of agreement among the five variables: position, gender, years ofexperience, highest degree earned, and year highest degree was earned. This study was limited to elementary school principals and teachers, in three S t Louis County School districts. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 34. 14 Chapter 1includes the introduction, a statement of the problem, the purposes of the study, the significance of the study, the hypotheses, the limitations of the study, and the definition of terms used in the study. Chapter 2 contains the review ofrelated literature. The procedures used in the study and selected characteristics of the principals and teachers are presented in Chapter 3. The perceptions of the principals and teachers and a statistical analysis of the data are presented in Chapter4. Chapter S includes a summary, the conclusions, and the recommendations ofthe study. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 35. CHAPTERn REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Introduction This study was designed to examine the perception ofelementary school administrators and teachers regarding proficiencies that are essential to being an effective elementary school principal. The study examined the level ofagreement ofprincipals and teachers regarding proficiencies that are characteristic for effective elementary school principals. A review ofthe literature provided important information about proficiencies essential to being an effective elementary school principal and the characteristics for effective elementary school principals. This review was divided into three sections: historic review, principals and effective school leadership, and characteristics for effective elementary school principals. Historical Review The role ofthe principalship began to change with major changes in society where technology, industrialization and immigration began to effect schools. Population increased as a result ofindustrialization; student population, faculty and staffand the need for school size began to change also. Teachers had minimum preparation (Coleman, 1966). The role ofthe principal began to be defined precisely in an effort to respond to a changing society (Coleman, 1966). The early nineteen hundreds gave rise to the “principal” as manager. As manager, the principal was responsible for the organization ofthe school, the 15 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 36. 16 clerical duties and the general control ofthe building. Aspects ofschool administration and studies of educational processes were interests that surfaced with the principal as manager of school and the daily operation offacilities. Specific studies concerning theories ofleadership did not arise until the 1950’s (Coleman, 1966). In education today the principalship has become known as manager and as instructional leader (Coleman, 1966; Smith & Andrews, 1989). Coleman’s reference to principal as manager indicated manager as major disciplinarian, overall school planner, school advisor for guidance and counseling, school budgeter, promoter ofpositive student-teacher relationships and influencer of students, teachers, and parents in assisting and guiding them to finding solutions to problems that may hinder progress (Coleman, 1966). Instructional leadership was defined by Smith & Andrews (1989) as provider ofresources to assist in student/teacher/parent relations, encourager of effective communication, promoter offrelevant curriculum and assessable helper for problems and solutions during daily school activities throughout the year. The concept ofinstructional leadership was a new expectation ofthe principal supported by the research and public opinion, which became relevant in the last twenty years (Bird & Little, 1985). Engelking (1990) reported that effective principals are committed to instructional leadership. He found that in high achieving schools the principal demonstrated and concentrated effort in Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 37. 17 curriculum, instruction, supervision and evaluation. High expectations for student achievement and effectiveness ofstaffwere prevalent with effective principals. The trend in recent times is forprincipals to balance management and leadership. Thejob ofthe principal includes leadership ofthe entire building, inclusive ofpeople progress, programs and physical plant (Blumberg, 1980). The principal sets the tone for the building. The principal leams thejob by doing it, never sure that the job is being done well. The principal works - through trial and error, intuition and experience- to make sense ofthe role and to lead others through a precarious institution (Lieberman & Miller, 1984). The imperative For Educational Reform (1983) a statement from a Nation at Risk, represented concern during the 1980’s. Confusion and disagreement was apparent and raised several potential solutions to the perceived crisis. Orlich (1989) stated that studies concerning the status ofschools were being done rapidly in the 1980’s. In 1992 William Chance reported that two hundred seventy five task forces on education were organized in the United States to study the status of schools. Books and reports were published with information intended to address the needs ofthe schools (Orlich, 1989). Effort to improve education was made by state legislators and governors (Futrell, 1989). “Time for Results,” a report by the National Governor’s Association indicated an effort was being made to address the crisis in education. This prompted the education reform movement where rules about education were Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 38. 18 established and state statues addressing teaching and practices were enacted (Timar&Kirp, 1989). Principals and Effective School Leadership The major thrust for elementary leaders in recent years has been on instructional leader rather than school manager (Snyder and Johnson, 1984). This trend resulted in three major types ofleadership styles in principals: 1. The principal as manager of the school performed daily tasks with little interest in instructional leadership. 2. The principal lacked training as instructional leadership and was unsure of the role of instructional leadership. 3. The principal who understood the importance ofthe instructional leadership role and used this style in building an effective school McLeary and Thompson, 1979). 4. The building principal is the source ofeffective leadership and facilitates the restructuring of the educational institution (Rutherford, 1985). In the early 1950s, supporters and reformers ofpublic education concentrated on the central administration of local school systems. School boards and superintendents were seen as the most effective agents ofchange (Barth, 1990). The place ofthe principal was as “middle manager,” responsible for taking the plans of those outside the school and making sure there was compliance (Barth, 1990). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 39. 19 Today, the individual school is increasingly recognized as the unit for analysis and the critical force for change and improvement ofpupil performance. One finding that consistently emerges from recent studies is the importance within the school ofthe principal (Barth, 1990). Barth listed key concepts that demonstrated the importance ofthe principal: 1. The principal is the key to a good school and the quality ofthe educational program depends on the school principal. 2. The principal is the most important factor in determining school climate which helps create good schools There is agreement that with strong leadership by the principal, a school is likely to be effective. Boyer (1995) found that in schools where achievement was high and where there was a clear sense ofcommunity, invariably, the principal made the difference. Attention in recent years has shifted to the school principal because ofthe capability ofan effective principal to elicit the best from most students, teachers, and parents most ofthe time. Principals have the capacity to stimulate both learning and community (Barth, 1990). Boyer (1995), in The Basic Schools A Community For Learning stated concerns society was not making sufficientprogress in the effort to improve the nation’s schools. He stated his concern aboutthe loss ofconfidence in public education and a failed educational system. Barth stated that for America’s future to be secure every child must have a quality education. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 40. 20 Madaus (1980) related that education has been looked on as a great equalizer ofopportunity that helped to fulfill the democratic and equalitarian ideals ofthis country. Madaus (1980) stated that schooling now appeared to be incapable ofproviding equal opportunity for all children. The effectiveness ofschools concerns people. Pupil cognitive gain has been a measure ofschool effectiveness (Coleman 1966). The Coleman Report has been interpreted to indicate that the educational attainment ofchildren involves not only school significance but also such factors as family and social background. The issue of school effectiveness as researched by Coleman was controversial to many researchers (Edmonds 1979). This researcher concluded that some schools were more effective than others. These conclusions resulted in researchers agreeing that school effectiveness must be a factor in student achievement. Much ofthe research dealing with school effectiveness identified specific characteristics that resulted in high student achievement and effective teacher performance. The role ofthe principal has continued to change throughout the years (American Association of School Administrators, 1989). The modem principal had been thought ofas an instructional leader who demonstrated concern about professional development activities and student relationships. The role of management had been minimized. Sergiovanni (1992) & Rogus (1988) listed major actions the modem principal was responsible for. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 41. 21 The principal as school leader is looked to for school effectiveness, school climate, relationships among members ofthe staff, student achievement and curriculum. Morris (1987) stated that the legacy ofthe effective school was the beliefthat the building principal was the key provider ofinstructional leadership. Research conducted in New York, California and Michigan revealed that schools with the strongest leadership allowed students to believe that they had a greater value in their futures. It was also concluded that firm leadership in schools with strong principals provided a great sense ofdirection for the students and for the school. Students also held themselves to higher academic expectations (Austin, 1981). It is important to assess perceived effectiveness of leaders in our schools to build on the strengths ofthe public education system. It is also necessary to improve the adaptation of instructional programs successfully to meet the educational needs ofstudents. The Carnegie Commission (1986) released its report on the state of education in America. Educators were asked to make changes that would increase effective leadership for school improvement As the leader ofthe school, the principal was expected to initiate these changes effectively and productively. Effective school leaders are important in the motivation ofteachers and students. The principal is the one to lead the movementtoward educational growth and achievement as may be attainable by the studentpopulation in which education is most lacking. The literature on effective schools indicated that one of Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 42. 22 the most often identified characteristics ofeffective schools is effective leadership by the principal. In orderto provide this leadership, principals must have knowledge ofwhat is perceived, as essential skills needed for school leadership. The principal must have clearly defined expectations, needs and explanations to be adequately prepared to meet such expectations. It is the hope of this researcherthat this research report will be used by beginning principals as one source ofinformation in examining skills necessary for effective leaders and successful schools. Ifeffective schools are dependent upon effective leaders (Lipham, 1981) those who select school leaders need to know what skills are perceived by principals and teachers as essential to effective leaders in elementary school. There is general agreement among educators that the principal is important in school success. The principal will need to fulfill the role ofbeing the leader for successful schools. Expectations will need to be clearly stated for the principal to be effective in making the necessary changes, which may cause a great deal of adjustment, by teachers and pupils. What will ultimately make the difference will be the leadership ofthe principal (Hechinger, 1981). Principals must be dedicated in their willingness to lead and to implement change when necessary. The elementary school is the most flexible level offormal learning. The focus must be on the success ofthe children and the school. Principals must help to improve the nation’s schools (Boyer, 1995). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 43. 23 Past history gave us hope for future American schools. Educators, citizens and branches ofgovernment have all responded with determination to bring schools to a level where integrity, respect and purpose are foremost In a Nation a Risk (1983), the leadership role ofthe principal was stated as essential in the development ofeffective schools. Research findings differ on the activities and descriptions ofthe principalship. The role ofthe principal has continued to change throughout the years (AASA, 1989). The modem principal has been thought ofas an instructional leader who demonstrated concerns about professional development activities and student relationships. (Sergiovanni, 1992). Rogus, (1988) stated three major actions the modem principal was responsible for First, the principal needed to establish instructional leadership as a priority. Second, daily activities needed be stated that helped to encourage instructional leadership and third, the principal needed to demonstrate actions daily that strengthen the quality of instruction for students. Effective Schools The “Effective Schools” movement has given some light on why some schools are more effective than others in educating the same types ofchildren. Ronald Edmonds (1989) believed effective schools were those that brought the achievement level ofchildren from disadvantaged homes closer to the achievement level ofchildren from middle class homes. Research on effective schools indicates effective principals are most important for successful schools Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 44. 24 (Gibbs, 1989; Hall, 1984). These researchers believed principal style and personalities were another important factor in effective schools. The effective schools movement assumes that schools are unusually effective in teaching disadvantaged and minority students basic skills as measured by standardized tests, that successful schools display characteristics that characterize their success and may be adjusted by educators, and that successful schools may be used as a model for improving other schools (Bickel, 1983). According to Jwaideh (1984) most educators believe the role ofthe principal is to supervise and evaluate teachers and operate the school constructively, productively and smoothly. He believed a principal could become a better leader by: (1) requiring staffto work together to establish clear goals for the school and for themselves; (2) encouraging teachers to experiment and try out new approaches and techniques; (3) gathering information about relationships within the school through discussions and surveys; (4) improving communication through sharing and (5) managing motivational processes to increase productivity. The research indicated that effective principals love working with people and exhibit this feeling throughoutthe day. Ferrandino and Tirozzi (2000) state that recruitment, preparation, development, and financial support ofour school leaders must be a national priority. The role ofthe principal has expanded so fully; it is time to redefine and update it There has been some discussion of a two-leader approach as suggested by the center for principals at Harvard. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 45. 25 Principal leadership today involves tackling tough curriculum standards, with the task of educating an increasingly diverse student population. Principals are shouldering responsibilities that were once taken care ofat home or in the community (Ferrandino & Tirozzi, 2000). Jacobson (2000) supported the standards concept, finding states are moving rapidly to implement policies built around higher standards and increased accountability. Policymakers are learning it is important not to leave the public out ofthe process. In several places around the country, education leaders are making greater efforts to involve members ofthe public in the drive to improve student achievement New academic standards are being written and states are beginning to hold schools accountable for student performance (Jacobson, 2000). Jewideh (1984) states that in order for there to be success among students, the educational leader must be able to: 1. Establish clear goals and priorities. 2. Achieve a balance between task considerations and interpersonal relationship. 3. Serve as role models. 4. Communicate high expectations to teachers. 5. Provide support and direction for change and. 6. Gain support ofthe community and higher education. (Jewideh, 1984). As stated in the revised Proficiencies for Principals (NAESP, 1987) the principal must have a vision for the school and manage the day-to-day activities effectively to be an effective leader. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 46. 26 In 1982, Clark and Lotto reviewed ten years ofliterature on effective schools research. They developed a list ofskills and characteristics ofeffective principals. A panel ofexperts who had been active in effective schools research listed fifty-three variables in eight categories from this research as essential skills ofeffective principals. The skills included: Program Leadership and Direction: 1. Devotes time to the tasks ofcoordinating and controlling instruction 2. Understand their classrooms 3. Does not accept the difficulty ofa teacher’s work as an explanation for failure 4. Visits classrooms frequently and for the purpose ofinteraction 5. Emphasizes student achievement as primary out-come ofschooling 6. Emphasizes student achievement in basic skills as primary program outcome 7. Evaluates the teaching process 8. Monitors and evaluates student progress 9. Provides coherence to the school’s instructional program 10. Coordinates content, sequence and materials ofinstruction 11. Participates in the selection ofinstructional materials 12. Provides structured learning environment (p.5) Goals and Standards ofPerformance: 1. Frames specific curriculargoals and objectives 2. Establishes high standards ofperformance for students and teachers 3. Emphasizes student acquisition ofbasic skills 4. Emphasizes instruction in basic skills 5. Communicates organization goals clearly (p. 8) Characteristics ofschool leaders: 1. Are more powerful than their less effective colleagues 2. Are oriented toward achievementrather than human relations 3. Are enablers ratherthen directors ofactivity 4. Are interveners and problem solvers 5. Are role models for teachers, students, and parents 6. Are warm and caring (p. 10) Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 47. 27 Technical Tasks ofAdministration: 1. Are good business managers 2. Are good instructional managers 3. Communicate office information and policies to teachers 4. Are fair disciplinarians who run a tight ship 5. Buffer classroom from disruptions (p. 14) School climate and Expectations: 1. Holds high expectations for student behavior and achievement 2. Expects teachers to be successful in the classroom and communicates this expectation to teachers 3. Emphasizes performance in communicating with teachers and students 4. Projects a feeling ofoptimism that teachers and students can meet their instructional goals 5. Provides a sense ofidentification and engagement with school {p. 15) Funds and Resources: 1. Able to use external political and organizational structures in support of school programs and policies 2. Identifies and attracts special project funding 3. Allocates resources more efficiently and effectively in support of teachers and the instructional program (p. 17) Staffand Personal Development: 1. Consistently supportive ofteachers 2. Discusses classroom work problems with teachers 3. Spends more time observing classroom teachers 4. Initiates. Promotes, and maintains continuous in service programs 5. Supports teachers’ ideas and projects 6. Recognizes unique styles and needs ofteachers 7. Encourages and acknowledges good work 8. Increases teacher morale and satisfaction 9. Conducts regular reviews ofteacher’ instructional practices 10. Holds their staffaccountable for successful performances 11. Structures teacherrewards to reinforce working with children 12. Are accessible to their staff 13. Takes a personal interest in the welfare oftheir staff(p. 19) Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 48. 28 School Community Relations: 1. Maintains positive relationships with parents 2. Solicits the active involvementofparents and com m unity leaders in school functions 3. Provides opportunities for parents to work with their children in learning settings (p. 21) Bennis (1985) found that compelling vision is the key ingredient of leadership among highly successful organizations he studied. Vision refers to the capacity to create and communicate a view ofthe desired state ofaffairs that induces commitment among those working in the organization. Bennis (1985) viewed leadership as a form ofpowerthat represents one’s capacity to translate intention into reality and sustain it. Lunenburg (1996) defines leadership as: 1. “The process ofinfluencing group activities toward the achievement of goals.” 2. “Influencing, guiding in direction, course, action, and opinion.” 3. “Effective influence.” 4. “Building cohesive and goal oriented teams.” 5. “Persuading others to sublimate their own selfinterests and adopt the goals ofa group oftheir own.” 6. “Persuading otherpeople to set aside their individual concerns and to pursue a common goal that is important for the welfare ofthe group.” (P. 113) Effective leaders, according to Drucker (1993) do not make many decisions. They focus on important ones and ones that have impact on the later aspects ofthe organization. They try to think through what is generic and what is strategic, ratherthan solve daily problems or “put out fires.” They try to make few important decisions on the highest level ofconceptual understanding Effective Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 49. 29 leaders in organizations engage in decentralized decision-making. Responsibility and authority are given to middle management Shared decision making is made by a committee or by a group, giving effective leaders the opportunity to bring in people from inside and outside the organization as part ofthe team (Drucker, 1993). Lunenburg (1996) states that efforts to discover the best set of leader traits and the one best set ofleader behaviors in all situations have failed. Contemporary researchers and school administrators are more likely to believe that the practice of leadership is too complex to be represented by a single set oftraits or behaviors. The idea that effective leadership behavior is “contingent” on the situation is more prevalent today (Lunenburg, 1996). Fiedler and his associates have spent two decades developing and refining a contingency theory ofleadership (Fiedler, 1984). According to the theory, the effectiveness ofa leader in achieving high group performance is contingent on the leader’s motivational system and the degree to which the leader controls and influences the situation. Fiedler stated thatthe favorableness ofthe situation with the leadership style determines effectiveness. In his review of 800 groups investigated he found that task-motivated leaders were most effective in extreme situations where the leader either had a great deal ofinfluence or very little power and influence (Fiedler, 1967). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 50. 30 Austin (1981) found in his research that the greatest asset of an exemplary school is its firm leadership; because of that leadership, student in exemplary schools believes that they have a great deal ofcontrol over their future. Austin noted that two characteristics of firm leadership by the principals were their ability to establish a strong sense of direction in the school and their ability to establish or create opportunities for greater academic expectations. If the building principal is to be the source of leadership that will facilitate the needs of the educational system, he or she must possess the necessary skills and personal traits to provide effective leadership. According to Rutherford (1985) effective principals: (1) have clear, informed visions of what they want their schools to become-visions that focus on students and their needs; (2) translate these visions into goals for their schools and expectations for their teachers, students and administrators; (3) continuously monitor progress; and intervene in a supportive or corrective mannerwhen this is necessary, (p. 32) In Missouri, the state Board of Education adopted a model for evaluating principals (Mallory, 1987). A list of twenty- three suggested criteria was listed for evaluating principals. These criteria formed the basis for the state’s model evaluation plan. The plan included: L Instructional leadership: The principal: 1. Provides direction for the school. 2. Provides for management ofinstruction. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 51. 31 3. Demonstrates effective skill in the recruitment, selection and assignment of school personnel. 4. Promotes ongoing staffdevelopment 5. Communicates standards ofexpected performance. 6. Provides leadership for appropriate curriculum and organization of personnel to staff the curriculum. 7. Effectively implements evaluation strategies oriented toward improvement ofinstruction. n. School Management The principal: 1. Provides for effective and efficient day-by-day operation of the school. 2. Ensures that school plant and facilities are conducive to a positive learning environment. 3. Ensures efficient management of building-level fiscal resources. 4. Promotes and maintains a positive school climate 5. Establishes and maintains effective discipline in the school. 6. Demonstrates effective communication skills. 7. Demonstrates effective problem-solving skills and decision-making skills. 8. Demonstrates positive interpersonal relationships with parents and the community. HL Interpersonal Relationships The principal: 1. Demonstrates positive interpersonal relationships with students. 2. Demonstrates positive interpersonal relationships with staff. 3. Demonstrates positive interpersonal relationships with other administrators. 4. Demonstrates positive interpersonal relationships with parents/ community. IV. Professional Responsibilities The principal: 1. Implements the policies and procedures of the district 2. Participates in professional growth activities. 3. Demonstrates a sense ofprofessional responsibility, (p. 9) Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 52. 32 Kimbrough and Burkett (1990) suggested that ifthe principal is so important to the school why do we not give more attention to the training of the leader. The Southern Regional Educational Board produced a publication focusing on training for principals (1984). The Danforth Foundation (1987) introduced a preparation program which identifies prospective principals and emphasizes effective leadership. The program lists eight skills for effective leadership: (1) creating and enhancing a school-wide environment that promotes learning and student achievement; (2) evaluating the school curriculum in order to assess and improve its effectiveness in meeting academic and other goals; (3) analyzing, evaluating, and improving instruction and teacher performance; (4) appraising and assessing student performance and other indicators ofoverall school performance; (S) understanding and applying the findings of research to school leadership and improvement; (6) organizing and managing school resources; (7) ensuring student discipline and a climate of order; and (8) developing human relations skills (p.l). After extensive research regarding the qualities ofeffective leadership Drucker (1966) concluded that the most important thing to report was that effectiveness can be learned and most important it must be learned. Members ofthe commission of A Nation At Risk (1983) appeared to agree with Drucker by stating that the distinction between leadership skills involved Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 53. 33 persuasion, setting goals and developing communityconsensus behind them, contrasted to managerial and supervisory skills. The United States Department ofEducation’s (1987) publication, Principal Selection Guide, contained some ofwhat has been learned about effective principals, selection processes, and reliable methods of assessment. The personal characteristics of an effective principal included: (1) commands attention; (2) inspires respect (3) sets high goals; (4) integrity; (5) knowledge; (6) coDegiality; (7) cooperation; (8) teamwork; (9) radiates enthusiasm for excellence; (10) creative (11) risk taker; (12) clear compelling vision; (13) inspirational; (14) able to encourage and reward achievement (p.3,4). The list ofinstructional and managerial skills for principals included: 1. Supervising teaching and curriculum development 2. Establishing an atmosphere conducive to learning staffing 3. Communicating effectively inside the school 4. Directing school support services 5. Setting high expectations for faculty, staff, and students 6. Setting school goals 7. Building parent and community support 8. Maintaining the school building 9. Maintaining financial resources 10. Coordinating school activities 11. Building sound relations with the central office 12. Monitoring organizational information Stover (1989) identified five specific traits that potential employers should look for in a principal: 1. A vision for the school 2. A dedication to learning 3. A good knowledge of the school 4. An active leadership style Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 54. 34 5. A lack ofconcern for obstacles (p. 26) According to Olson (2000) leadership is effective as a result ofteachers having ownership in decision-making. She reports there is a significant pattern among principals who are effective at leading instruction. Academic standards and achievement has placed extraordinary demands on principals. They are expected to fundamentally revise instruction in their schools, (p.l). Andrews and Smith (1989) reported on the importance ofthe building principal to the overall effectiveness ofthe school. They indicated that studies on effective schools reflect the views that the direct responsibility of improving instruction and learning is the responsibility ofthe school principal. Smith and Andrews wrote: Ifwe want principals to be instructional leaders, we must develop descriptions that are compatible with fulfilling such a role, evaluate the performance ofthe principal on thesejob dimensions, educate teachers and parents on the value ofsuch roles, and buffer the school environmental or community forces that would press for a different kind of principal behavior. There are numerous characteristics, associated behaviors and activities that must be planned for and implemented if principals are to be instructional leaders, (p. 6) Characteristics forEffective Elementary School Principals The revised Proficiencies document reflects the critical importance ofthe principal in establishing and maintaining a quality school. Special emphasis is given to the principal’s role in leading and other leaders and to school-based management This is a practice that provides opportunities for the principal and staffto participate directly in decisions that affect them (NAESP, 1997). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 55. 35 According to the revised Proficiencies for Principals (NAESP, 1997) document there are at least four prerequisites for success as a school leader. 1. Advanced understanding ofthe teaching and learning processes. School leaders must be solidly grounded in both contemporary and traditional instructional techniques. They must be able to recognize effective teaching, evaluate progress in learning, and demonstrate commitmentto enhancing learning for all students, regardless ofbackground or ability. 2. A thorough understanding ofchild growth and development, and of adult learning. School leaders must have expert knowledge in the field ofchild growth and development as well as experience in teaching children. They must be capable ofassuring that the curriculum is both challenging and developmental^ appropriate. To work effectively in the area ofstaffdevelopment, school leaders must understand adult learning, their readiness to change, their interpersonal styles, and their receptiveness to make choices about learning. 3. A broad base ofknowledge, including a solid background in liberal arts. School leaders must have a liberal arts foundation that provides a firm grasp of basic curriculum content and an understanding ofthe relationship between that body ofknowledge and the elementary level ofcurriculum. 4. A sincere commitment to educational equity and excellence at all levels for all children. School leaders must be caring people who know how to create a learning climate that is based on mutual trust and respect, produces high morale, and places strong emphasis on the fact that all students can succeed. Effective leaders consistently act on the beliefthat all children can leam. They harbor no doubts in this regard. They are engaged in sustaining an environment in the school that produces excitement about learning among students and staffalike, (p. 3). As stated in the document Proficiencies for Principals, elementary schools are extremely complex organizations that require a wide range ofleadership proficiencies in achieving and sustaining high quality. A principal in an elementary school models these proficiencies in every aspect ofthe school’s operation (NAESP, 1997). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 56. 36 According to the revised Proficiencies for principals document (NAEST.1997) in the exercise ofleadership, the proficient principal: 1. Demonstrates vision and provides leadership that appropriately involves the school community in the creation ofshared beliefs and values. 2. Demonstrates moral and ethicaljudgment 3. Demonstrates creativity and innovative thinking 4. Involves the school community in identifying and accomplishing the school’s mission. 5. Recognizes the individual needs and contributions ofall staffand students. 6. Facilitates the leadership ofothers. 7. Conducts needs assessments and uses data to make decisions and to plan school improvement 8. Identifies, pursues, and creatively coordinates the use ofavailable human, material, and financial resources to achieve the school’s mission and goals. 9. Explores, assesses, and implements educational concepts that enhance teaching and learning. 10. Understands the dynamics ofchange and the change process. 11. Advances the profession through participation as a memberof local, state and national professional groups. 12. Initiates and effectively coordinates collaborative endeavors with local and state agencies. 13. Participates in professional development to enhance personal leadership skills, (p. 6) One ofthe most important proficiency that distinguishes outstanding elementary principals is the ability to communicate effectively. There is likely to be more support for a school ifthe mission goals and accomplishments are understood. The images effective principals project, through verbal, nonverbal, and written communication, create an important perception ofthe school in the minds ofthe students, staff parents, community members, and the media. The proficient principal keeps the community informed about what the school and its staffare striving to accomplish, and conveys a positive image ofall aspects of school life. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 57. 37 Principals interact with diverse groups ofpeople in a variety of settings. Consequently they must be sensitive to issues ofcultural differences, gender, race, and ethnicity. Proficient principals capitalize on opportunities to highlight student achievement, underscore the school’s mission, and honestly and openly address questions and problems. According to the revised Proficiencies for Principals document (NAESP, 1997), in using communication skills, the proficient principal: 1. Articulates beliefs persuasively, effectively explains decisions, checks for understanding, and behaves in ways that reflect these beliefs and decisions. 2. Writes and speaks clearly and concisely so the message is understood by the intended audience. 3. Conveys opinions succinctly and distinguishes between facts and opinions when communicating priorities. 4. Understands the impact that his or her nonverbal communication has on others. 5. Uses appropriate communication modes to communicate the school’s philosophy, needs, mission, and accomplishments. 6. Accurately interprets others’ written communications. 7. Makes effective use ofthe media. 8. Uses active listening skills. 9. Expresses disagreement without being disagreeable. 10. Demonstrates skill in giving and receiving feedback. 11. Models the behavior expected ofothers. 12. Exhibits multicultural awareness, gender sensitivity, and racial and ethnic appreciation, (p.8) A school has many committed and energetic people, some whose talents and expertise may exceed those ofthe principal. The proficient principal capitalizes on the talents and expertise ofothers and gives them appropriate credit for their contributions. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 58. 38 Proficientprincipals recognize that there are powerful cultural norms within the school communitythat could inhibit change. Proficientprincipals understand the dynamics ofchange and the effective application ofgroup process skills. They gain staffand community commitmentto the school’s goals and stay informed about currentthinking in the field oforganizational development as part oftheir continuing professional growth. According to the revised Proficiencies for Principals document (NAESP, 1997), in facilitating group processes, the proficient principal: 1. Understands group dynamics and applies effective group process skills. 2. Establishes a framework for collaborative action and involves the school community in developing and supporting shared beliefs, values, mission, and goals for the school. 3. Uses appropriate team- building skills. 4. Implements appropriate decision-making and conflict resolution techniques. 5. Identifies, in collaboration with the school community, the decision­ making procedures the school will follow. 6. Works to build consensus, both as a leader and as a member ofa group. 7. Recognizes when direction and intervention are necessary, (p. 9) The proficient principal assures that the school’s curriculum specifies what students should learn, what concepts and skills students should acquire and what values, attitudes, and habits they should assimilate. These concepts have been determined through the cooperative effort of school staffand community members. Theyreflect the school’s mission as well as the requirements ofstate laws, regulations, and local board ofeducation policies. The proficient principal continually seeks adequate resources-time, money, personnel, and materials-to supportthe instructional program. He or she makes Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 59. 39 certain that instruction is based on purposeful planning, is appropriate to the departmental level ofeach child, and incorporates a variety ofteaching strategies. According to the revised Proficiencies for Principals document (NAESP, 1997), in supervising the development and implementation ofcurriculum and instruction, the proficient principal: 1. Maintains a visible presence in the classroom. 2. Works with staffand community representatives to identify a curriculum framework and common core oflearning that support the mission and goals ofthe school. 3. Demonstrates to all concerned knowledge ofthe school’s curriculum framework and common core oflearning. 4. Convenes staffto review and modifythe curriculum framework and common core of learning on a regular basis. 5. Seeks financial resources sufficient to meetthe needs generated by the common core oflearning. 6. Facilitates the allocation offinancial and instructional resources within the school. 7. Ensures that a diverse, gender-sensitive, and developmentally appropriate program is provided for each child. 8. Encourages students and staffto participate in a co-curricular activities, such as community service, that enhance and complement what is learned in the classroom. To enlist the expertise ofstafffor improving instruction, the proficient principal: 1. Engages staffin the study ofeffective teaching practices. 2. Provides varied support strategies such as mentors, research, and support team. 3. Seeks information and advice from a variety of sources, (p. 10) The proficient principal monitors the daily operation ofthe school to determine whether established program and service goals are being m et The proficient principal gathers information that helps determine which programs and Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 60. 40 services should be maintained, which should be modified, and which be abandoned. The proficient principal gives high priority to assessing student and staff performance, reinforcing strengths, and developing appropriate assistance plans and remediation. The proficient principal is sensitive to the sometimes delicate issues associated with staffevaluations and possesses the range ofhuman- relations skills needed to cany out the evaluation process constructively. Proficient principals also benefit from assessment They make appropriate self-assessments, look for feedback from others, and participate in professional development activities focused on reinforcing their strengths and improving areas ofneed. According to the revised Proficiencies for Principals (NAESP, 1997) document, in assessing programs and services, student achievement, or staff performance, the proficient principal: 1. Ensures that all parties understand the assessment criteria and procedures. 2. Seeks and encourages input from a variety ofsources. 3. Seeks constructive suggestions from all parties. 4. Models observation, conferencing, and collaboration, skills. 5. Uses both formative and summative evaluation procedures. 6. Ensures that the assessment process is both positive and constructive. 7. Develops, plans, and offers resources for growth and improvement 8. Uses due process procedures and legal assistance in dealing with non- compliance, disciplinary, anddismissal issues. 9. Involves others in analyzing assessmentdata to help design instructional programs that ensure the mission and goals ofthe school are being met 10. Encourages parents in discussions on ways to improve student learning. 11. Ensures that staffmembers communicate regularly with parents regarding studentprogress, (p. 12) Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 61. 41 In supervising performance, the proficientprincipal: 1. Maintains high expectations for students, staff, parents, and self. 2. Works with staffto create an effective professional development plan. 3. Expects staffparticipation in professional development activities. 4. Cooperates with staffto develop a comprehensive counseling, advisory, and support program for students. 5. Ensures instruction is appropriate to the developmental level ofthe child. 6. Ensures teaching strategies is used to help students succeed. 7. Stresses the importance ofpurposeful planning. 8. Engages parents in discussions on ways to improve student learning. 9. Ensures that staffmembers communicate regularly with parents regarding student progress, (p. 12) Schools differ according to the needs and nature of students and to the and to the skills oftheir staffs, and the priorities oftheir communities. The proficient principal works with these various groups in setting the school’s unique organizational goals and priorities. Proficient principals are skilled in managing many tasks and responsibilities. They manage the school plan, student services and record, personnel, and the various programs that support instruction. They develop and implement policies and procedures that establish routine practices. They are adept managers oftheir own time and are protective ofthe time ofothers. Proficient principals participate in professional development programs. They are open to new technology, and analyze research findings carefully. Proficient principals are aware oforganizational adjustments that will improve efficiency and enhance student learning. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 62. 42 According to the revised Proficiencies for Principals (NAESP, 1997) document, in managing and organizing the school’s day-to-day functions, the proficient principal: 1. Possesses a clearview ofthe past, present, and future ofthe school. 2. Uses collaborative planning to help identify objectives that accomplish the school’s mission and goals. 3. Selects, assigns, and organizes staffin a way that ensures the greatest potential for clarifying and accomplishing the school’s mission. 4. Considers research findings in making program decisions. 5. Analyzes problems effectively and reaches logical decisions. 6. Develops and implements administrative procedures consistent with local policies, state and federal rules and regulations, and contractual agreements. 7. Ensures that students are offered programs that are relevant to their unique needs. 8. Attracts volunteers and provides them with effective training and meaningful assignments. 9. Works with staffand community to create and maintain a safe and orderly learning environment 10. Coordinates services ofcommunity agencies so that appropriate resources are directed to all children. 11. Develops and implements equitable and effective schedules. 12. Employs time management principles. 13. Identifies staffstrengths in orderto appropriately delegate tasks. 14. Develops and facilitates a process for the review ofcurriculum and instructional issues raised by individuals or groups outside the school. 15. Creates and implements policies that assure appropriate and confidential collection and use ofschool and student data. 16. Keeps abreast ofdevelopments in education law. 17. Manages the operation and maintenance ofthe physical plant 18. Develops plans for applying technologies to instruction and management 19. Promotes the placement ofteaching practicum students, student teachers, and teacher and administrative interns in the school, (p. 15) Proficientprincipals understand the relationship between the goals of school programs and the budgeting process. They clearly articulate school needs and create ways to find new resources to support school programs. They are able Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 63. 43 to project future needs, and identify new opportunities. The proficient principal develops grantproposals and establishes productive school business partnerships. They engage diverse groups and individuals to provide support for school programs. According to the revised Proficiencies for Principals (NAESP, 1997) document in fiscal management, the proficient principal: 1. Understands the school district budget and its implications for the school. 2. Involves members ofthe school community in developing budget priorities based on the mission and goals ofthe school. 3. Prepares the school budget in accordance with school district budgeting procedures. 4. Employs and monitors acceptable accounting procedures in the maintenance of all fiscal records. 5. Uses cost control procedures and institutes cost-effective practices in the management ofall school funds. 6. Exercises creativity in finding new resources to support school programs, (p. 17) A principal’s responsibility extends far beyond the boundaries ofan individual school or community. Proficient principals leam to work with people outside the school environment They generate public support for school programs and for education in general. To keep abreast ofcommunity desires and needs the proficient principal is involved in a variety ofcivic activities. The involvement assists in understanding the community and gaining public support ofinstructional programs. There is a practical understanding ofthe dynamics and interrelationships oflocal, state, and national political decision-making processes and their implications forthe school. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 64. 44 According to the revised Proficiencies for Principals (NAESP, 1997) document, in political management, the proficient principal: 1. Develops strategies to attract appropriate financial support for public education. 2. Involves community leaders in the development and support ofthe school’s program. 3. Uses effective strategies to deal with the political issues and forces that affect the school’s operation. 4. Understands the dynamics ofschool district decision making. 3. Works effectively with diverse elements ofthe school community. 6. Positions the school as a community resource. 7. Participates in local, state, and federal legislative activities. ( p.18) Summary The review ofthe literature provided important information about proficiencies essential to being an effective elementary school principal and the characteristics for effective elementary school principals. This chapter presented information in three sections: historic review, principals and effective school leadership, and characteristics for effective elementary school principals. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 65. CHAPTER THREE PROCEDURES Introduction This study examined the perceptions ofelementary school principals and elementary school teachers regarding proficiencies characteristic ofeffective elementary school principals. The study examined the level ofagreement of elementary school principals and elementary school teachers regarding proficiencies characteristic to effective elementary school principals. A quantitative study was conducted for the research. Description ofthe Population The population for this research study was three public school Districts located in St Louis County. The sample for the study was randomly selected from a population of 1200 elementary school teachers and 76 administrators. Schools districts were selected for geographic location, size and economic level. Three hundred teachers and 60 administrators were selected by means ofa random sample reference table. Completed returns were received from 116 teachers and 40 administrators. The rate ofreturn for the teachers was 39% and the rate of return for administrators was 66%. School district staffdirectories were used to randomly select the sample. Only elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers were selected to participate in the study. No other groups participated in this study. 45 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 66. 46 Data Collection Procedure The first step in collecting data was to obtain permission from the superintendent ofeach school district for elementary school principals and elementary school teachers to participate in the study. A letter was sent to the superintendent ofeach school district asking permission to distribute the instrumentto each elementary principal and elementary teacher selected to participate in the study. A random sample ofprincipals and teachers were selected from the school directories. The questionnaire was sent to principals and teachers. They were asked to complete the questionnaire and return it in a self- addressed envelope provided. A cover letter was provided with an explanation and instructions for completing the questionnaire. Confidentiality was assured to participants in this study. A coded questionnaire was used to send a second questionnaire ifthe first one was not returned within two weeks. Questionnaires were sealed in individual envelopes and sentto each subject A cover letter assured the participants that results ofthe questionnaire would not include names ofparticipants, schools, ortheir identity in anyway. Description ofthe Questionnaire The instrument used to gather data from the sample group was a survey (Babbie,1990; Borg,1989;Creswell,1994) questionnaire designed using proficiencies for principals from the research findings ofthe National Association ofElementary School Principals (NAESP,1997). The questionnaire was divided Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 67. 47 into ten sections. Each ofthese sections represented an area ofessential competency as listed by NAESP (1997). Each competency area included a listing ofthe specific skills considered to be descriptive ofthe competency. Items on the questionnaire represented skills commonly considered essential for effective instructional leadership. The instrument was constructed to obtain data from teachers and principals concerning their perceptions on proficiencies regarding effective instructional leadership. A Likert Scale (Likert, 1932) was used for individuals to respond to a series ofstatements by indicating a level ofagreement, from strongly agree to strongly disagree: (5 Strongly agree, 4 agree, 3 undecided, 2 disagree and 1 strongly disagree (Gay, 1996). Each response was associated with a point value. Individual scores were determined by summing the point values for each statement A total score for each respondentwas calculated and used in the subsequent analysis. Each participant was asked to provide demographic information in the first section ofthe questionnaire. This information provided information on the variables ofconcern in the study. Independent variables were position, gender, years ofexperience within the school district, highest degree earned and yearthe highest degree was earned. Dependent variables were leadership skills, communication skills, management of group processes, supervising the development and implementation ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 68. 48 supervising performance, evaluation process, organizing the school’s day-to-day functions, fiscal management, and political issues. The survey questionnaire measured 68 competencies extracted from the revised document, Proficiencies for Principals, published by the National Association ofElementary School Principals (1997). The instrument used was a modified version ofPerceptions ofthe Essential Skills ofEffective Elementary Principals (Riggs, 1992). A group offormer superintendents principals and teachers tested the validity and reliability ofthe instrument to establish consistency ofthe questions in relations to the research problem. This effort established the consistency ofthe items with the findings ofthe National Association ofElementary School Principals and the value ofthe items as measures ofcompetency and skills needed by elementary school principals (Riggs, 1992). Hypotheses The study tested five hypotheses related to the perceptions ofelementary school administrators and teachers regarding the leadership proficiency of principals. The hypotheses tested were: 1. There will be significant difference in the perceptions ofelementary school administrators and elementary school teachers regarding the proficiency of elementary school principals as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management of group processes, supervising the development and implementation ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 69. 49 performance, the evaluation process, organizing the day-to-day functions, fiscal management, and political issues. 2. There will be significant difference in the perceptions ofelementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on gender regarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the school’s day-to- day functions, fiscal management and political issues. 3. There will be significant difference in the perceptions ofelementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on years of experience in the district regarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the school’s day-to-day functions, fiscal management and political issues. 4. There will be significant difference in the perceptions ofelementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on highest degree earned regarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 70. 50 supervising performance, the evaluation process, organising the school’s day-to- day functions, fiscal management and political issues. S. There will be significantdifference in the perceptions ofelementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on year highest degree was earned regarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management of group processes, supervising the development ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the school’s day-to-day functions, fiscal management and political issues. Description ofData Analysis Descriptive analysis and inferential statistics were used in the study (Wiersma, 1986). Frequency, percent, and mean were reported on each ofthe items ofthe instrument The t-test was used to test the first hypotheses concerning the difference between position and principal proficiency. An independent-samples t test was used to see if there was a significant difference between the means ofthe two groups (principals and teachers). The t-test was used to test the second hypotheses concerning the difference between gender and principal proficiency. An independent-samples t test was used to see if there was a significant difference between the means ofthe two groups. The t test was used to analyze differences in perceptions ofadministrators and teachers regarding the proficiencies ofeffective principals as measured by the dependent variables, leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 71. 51 supervising the development and implementation ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, fiscal management, and political issues. A series ofANOVA’S were generated to determine thejoint effects ofthe independent variables years ofexperience within the district, highest degree earned, and yearhighest degree was earned. These ANOVA’S were used in the analysis to answer hypotheses three, four and five. Table 1below summarizes the analysis method used for each hypothesis. The analysis allowed for some decisions to be made about the whole population from the random sample. Statistics applied to the sample allowed inferences that can be suggested on the basis ofcertain probability to the parameters ofthe population (Wiersma, 1986). Table 1 Analysis Plan for Hypotheses HYPOTHESIS ANALYSIS METHODS 1. There will be significant difference in the perceptions of elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers regarding the proficiency ofelementary school principals as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development and implementation ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the day-to-day functions, fiscal management, and political issues. T-test 2. There will be significantdifference in the perceptions of elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on genderregarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by T-test Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 72. 52 leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development and implementation ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the day-to- day functions, fiscal management, and political issues. 3. There will be significant difference in the perceptions of elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on years ofexperience in the district regarding the proficiency of an effective elementary school principal as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development and implementation ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the day-to-day functions, fiscal management, and political issues. Analysis of Variance 4. There will be significant difference in the perceptions of elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on highest degree earned regarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development and implementation ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the day-to-day functions, fiscal management, and political issues. Analysis of Variance 5. There will be significant difference in the perceptions of elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on year highest degree was earned regarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development and implementation ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the day-to-day functions, fiscal management, and political issues. Analysis of Variance Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 73. 53 Validity and Reliability: The instrument had been tested for reliability and validity by public school superintendents ofIndiana and faculty members in the education department at the University ofIndiana (Riggs, 1992). This procedure established the consistency and value ofthe items with the findings ofthe National Association ofElementary School Principals as skills essential to effective leadership. A pilot test was conducted to test the reliability ofthe research instrument A group of26 teachers and administrators took the Perceptions of Leadership Proficiencies Characteristic ofEffective Elementary School Principals Survey, and took a retest seven days later. The paired samples t-test was used to test the null hypothesis that there was no difference in the test and retest scores for the questions on the Perceptions ofLeadership Proficiencies Characteristic of Effective Elementary School Principals Survey. The mean score for the first time the group took the survey was 297.6538, and the mean score for the retest was 296.8077. The paired samples test revealed a significance level of .773, which exceeded the .05 level ofsignificance. There is no evidence to reject the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the test and retest scores for the questions on the Perceptions ofLeadership Proficiencies Characteristic ofEffective Elementary School Principals Survey. The Pearson Product Correlation score between the test and retest scores was .881. The fact that there was no significant difference in the test and retest scores forthe questions on the instrumentand that Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 74. 54 there was a high correlation between the test and retest scores shows the reliability ofthe research instrument used in the study. Characteristics ofthe Sample Individuals were asked to indicate their status in the elementary education system. Teacher was the most frequent response (74.4%) and principal was the next most frequent response (25.6%). Table 2 shows the data. Table 2 Elementary Status Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Principal 40 25.5 25.6 25.6 Teacher 116 73.9 74.4 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their gender. Female was the most frequentresponse (66.2%) and male was the next most frequent response (33.8%). Table 3 shows the data. Table 3 Gender Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Male 52 33.1 33.8 33.8 Female 102 65.0 66.2 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 75. 55 Teachers and principals were asked their experience level in elementary education. More than 10 years was the most frequent to response (54.2%) and less than 10 years of experience was the next most frequent response (45.8%). Table 4 shows the data. Table 4 Experience Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Less than 10 years 71 45.2 45.8 45.8 More than 10 years 84 53.5 54.2 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked about the highest degree they have earned over the years. The most frequent response was a Masters degree (65.6 %) and Bachelors degree was the next most frequent response (25.3%). Table 5 shows the data. Table 5 Highest Degree Earned Freauency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Bachelors 39 24.8 25.3 25.3 Masters 101 64.3 65.6 90.9 Doctoral 14 8.9 9.1 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 76. 56 Teachers and principals were asked in what five year span did they achieve their highest degree. The most frequent response was 1996 to 2001 (30.6%), 1991 to 199S was the next most frequent response (29.9%). Table 6 shows the data. Table 6 Year Highest Degree Was Earned Freauencv Percent VaOd Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Before 1976 11 7.0 7.5 7.5 1976 to 1980 6 3.8 4.1 11.6 1981 to 1985 8 5.1 5.4 17.0 1986 to 1990 33 21.0 22.4 39.5 1991 to 1995 44 28.0 29.9 69.4 1996 to 2001 45 28.7 30.6 100.0 Total 147 93.6 100.0 Missing System 10 6.4 Total 157 100.0 Summary The sample for the study was randomly selected from a population of 1200 elementary school teachers and 76 administrators from three public school districts located in S t Louis County. Three hundred teachers and 60 administrators were selected by means of a random sample reference table. Completed returns were received from 116 teachers and 40 administrators. The rate of return for the teachers was 39% and the rate of return for administrators was 66%. The survey questionnaire measured 68 competencies extracted from the revised document Proficiencies for Principals, published by the National Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 77. 57 Association of Elementary School Principals (1997). The instrument used was a modified version of Perceptions of the Essential Skills of Effective Elementary Principals (Riggs, 1992). Descriptive analysis and inferential statistics were used in the study. Frequency, percent, mean and standard deviation were reported on each ofthe items ofthe instrument The t-test was used to test the first hypotheses concerning the difference between position and principal proficiency. The t-test was used to test the second hypothesis concerning the difference based on gender. A series ofANOVA’S were generated to compare the responses from principals and teachers with independent variables, years ofexperience within the district, highest degree earned, and year highest degree was earned. These ANOVA’S were used in the analysis to answer hypotheses three, four and five. The characteristics ofthe sample included the following: 1. Individuals were asked to indicate their status in the elementary education system. Teacher was the most frequent response (74.4%) and principal was the next most frequent response (25.6%). 2. Teachers and principals were asked their gender. Female was the most frequent response (66.2%) and male was the next most frequent response (33.8%). 3. Teachers and principals were asked their experience level in elementary education. More than 10 years was the most frequent to response (54.2%) and less than 10years ofexperience was the nextmost frequentresponse (45.8%). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 78. 58 4. Teachers and principals were asked about the highest degree they have earned over the years. The most frequent response was a Masters degree (65.6 %) and Bachelors degree was the next most frequent response (253%). 5. Teachers and principals were asked in what five year span did they achieve their highest degree. The most frequent response was 1996 to 2001 (30.6%), 1991 to 1995 was the next most frequent response (29.9%). Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 79. CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS Introduction This chapterpresents the perceptions ofelementary school principals and elementary school teachers regarding proficiencies for effective elementary school principals. The chapter includes an analysis ofthe five research questions examined in the study. Perceptions Regarding Proficiencies for Effective Elementary Principals This section provides the perceptions ofelementary school principals and elementary school teachers regarding proficiencies for effective elementary school principals. Narrative and tables for each essential competency are provided. Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in leadership skills, the principal must exercise vision in defining and accomplishing the mission of the school. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (76.1%) and agree was the next most frequent response (20.6%). Table 7 shows the data. 59 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 80. 60 Table 7 Exercise vision in defining and accomplishing the mission ofthe school Freouencv Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent S 3.2 3.2 32 Agree 32 20.4 20.6 23.9 StronglyAgree 118 75.2 76.1 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in leadership skills, the principal must demonstrate a genuine interest in children. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (94.2%) and agree was the nest most frequent response (5.1%). Table 8 shows the data. Table 8 Demonstrate a genuine interest in children Freouencv Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid indifferent 1 .6 .6 .6 Agree 8 5.1 5.1 5.8 Strongly Disagree 147 93.6 94.2 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in leadership skills, the principal must inspire all concerned to join in Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 81. 61 accomplishing the school’s mission. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (74.8%) and agree was the next most frequent response (23.2%). Table 9 shows the data. Table 9 Inspire all concerned tojoin in accomplishing the school's mission Freouencv Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 3 1.9 1.9 1.9 Agree 36 22.9 23.2 252 StronglyAgree 116 73.9 74.8 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in leadership skills, the principal must be highly visible throughout the school. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (80.1%) and agree was the next most frequent response (18.6%). Table 10 shows the data. Table 10 Be highly visible throughoutthe school Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Vaiid Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Indifferent 1 .6 .6 1.3 Agree 29 18.5 18.6 19.9 Strongly Disagree 125 79.6 80.1 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 82. 62 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in leadership skills, the principal must apply effective human relations skills. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (833%) and agree was the next most frequent response (16.0%). Table 11 shows the data. Table 11 Apply effective human relation's skills Freouencv Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 1 .6 .6 .6 Agree 25 15.9 16.0 16.7 StronglyAgree 130 82.8 83.3 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in leadership skills, the principal must encourage the leadership of others. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (59.6%) and agree was the next most frequent response (35.3%). Table 12 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 83. 63 Table 12 Encourage the leadership ofothers. Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Indifferent 7 4.5 4.5 5.1 Agree 55 35.0 35.3 40.4 StronglyAgree 93 59.2 59.6 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missingr System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in leadership skills, the principal must analyze information relative to problems, make decisions, and delegate responsibility as appropriate. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (70.5%) and agree was the next most frequent response (24.4%). Table 13 shows the data. Table 13 Analyze information relative to problems, make decisions, and delegate responsibility as appropriate Freouencv Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Indifferent 7 4.5 4.5 5.1 Agree 38 24.2 24.4 29.5 StronglyAgree 110 70.1 70.5 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 84. 64 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in leadership skills, the principal must create a strong sense of togetherness. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (64.1%) and agree was the next most frequent response (28.8%). Table 14 shows the data. Table 14 Create a strong sense oftogetherness Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 11 7.0 7.1 7.1 Agree 45 28.7 28.8 35.9 StronglyAgree 100 63.7 64.1 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in leadership skills, the principal must apply established principles and strategies of effective leadership. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (66.0%) and agree was the next most frequent response (27.6%). Table 15 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 85. 65 Table 15 Apply established principles and strategies ofeffective leadership Freouencv Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Indifferent 9 5.7 5.8 6.4 Agree 43 27.4 27.6 34.0 StronglyAgree 103 65.6 66.0 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in leadership skills, the principal must participate as a member of local, state and national professionals groups. Agree was the most frequent response (43.6%), indifferent was the next most frequent response (32.1%). Table 16 shows the data. Table 16 Participate as a memberoflocal, state, and national professional groups Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 3 1.9 1.9 1.9 Disagree 7 4.5 4.5 6.4 Indifferent 50 31.8 32.1 38.5 Agree 68 43.3 43.6 82.1 StronglyAgree 28 17.8 17.9 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 86. 66 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in communication skills, the principal must model the expected behavior of others. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (77.6%) and agree was the next most frequent response (19.9%). Table 17 shows the data. Table 17 Model the expected behavior ofothers Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 1.3 Indifferent 2 1.3 1.3 2.6 Agree 31 19.7 19.9 22.4 StronglyAgree 121 77.1 77.6 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in communication skills, the principal must persuasively articulate his or her beliefs and effectively defend his or her decisions. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (52.9%) and agree was the next most frequent response (38.7%). Table 18 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 87. 67 Table 18 Persuasively articulate his or her beliefs and effectively defend his or her decisions Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Indifferent 12 7.6 7.7 8.4 Agree 60 38.2 38.7 47.1 StronglyAgree 82 52.2 52.9 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in communication skills, the principal must be trustworthy, conscientious, enthusiastic and sensitive. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (89.1%) and agree was the next most frequent response (103%). Table 19 shows the data. Table 19 Be trustworthy, conscientious, enthusiastic, and sensitive Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 1 .6 .6 .6 Agree 16 10.2 10.3 10.9 StronglyAgree 139 88.5 89.1 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 88. 68 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in communication skills, the principal must write clearly and concisely so that the intended audience understands the message. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (60.3%) and agree the next most frequent response (37.8%). Table 20 shows the data. Table 20 Write clearly and concisely so that the intended audience understands the message Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 3 1.9 1.9 1.9 Agree 59 37.6 37.8 39.7 StronglyAgree 94 59.9 60.3 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in communication skills, the principal must apply facts and data to determine priorities. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (47.4%) and agree was the nextmost frequent response (41.7%). Table 21 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 89. 69 Table 21 Apply facts and data to determine priorities Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Indifferent 16 10.2 10.3 10.9 Agree 65 41.4 41.7 52.6 StronglyAgree 74 47.1 47.4 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in communication skills, the principal must be an active listeners so as truly hear others. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (77.9%) and agree was the next most frequent response (21.4%). Table 22 shows the data. Table 22 Be an active listener so as to truly hear others Freouencv Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 1 .6 .6 .6 Agree 33 21.0 21.4 22.1 StronglyAgree 120 76.4 77.9 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in communication skills, the principal must know his or her verbal Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 90. 70 and nonverbal communications strengths and weaknesses and their implications. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (37.1%) and agree was the next most frequent response (34.0%). Table 23 shows the data. Table 23 Know his or her verbal and nonverbal communications strengths and weaknesses and their implications. Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 14 8.9 9.0 9.0 Agree 53 33.8 34.0 42.9 StronglyAgree 89 56.7 57.1 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in communication skills, the principal must understand the philosophy, functioning and practices of mass media. Agree was the most frequent response (48.7%) and indifferent was the next most frequent response (25.0%). Table 24 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 91. 71 Table 24 Understand the philosophy, functioning, and practices ofmass media. Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Disagree 10 6.4 6.4 7.1 Indifferent 39 24.8 25.0 32.1 Agree 76 48.4 48.7 80.8 StronglyAgree 30 19.1 19.2 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in communication skills, the principal must understand the impact of his or her personal image and how to make that image an effective one. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (49.4%) and agree was the next most frequent response (39.1%). Table 25 shows the data. Table 25 Understand the impact of his or her personal image and how to make that image an effective one Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Indifferent 17 10.8 10.9 11.5 Agree 61 38.9 39.1 50.6 StronglyAgree 77 49.0 49.4 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 92. 72 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in management of group processes, the principal must identify staff the decision-making procedures the school will follow. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (67.9%) and agree was the next most frequent response (22.4%). Table 26 shows the data. Table 26 Identify—with staff—the decision-making procedures the school will follow Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Indifferent 14 8.9 9.0 9.6 Agree 35 22.3 22.4 32.1 StronglyAgree 106 67.5 67.9 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in management of group processes, the principal must involve others in setting short and long-terms goals. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (62.2%) and agree was the next most frequent response (32.7%). Table 27 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 93. 73 Table 27 Involve others in setting short and long-term goals Freouencv Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 8 5.1 5.1 5.1 Agree 51 32.5 32.7 37.8 StronglyAgree 97 61.8 62.2 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in management of group processes, the principal must be aware of various decision-making techniques be able to match the appropriate technique to the particular situation. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (48.4%) and agree was the next most frequent response (40.6%). Table 28 shows the data. Table 28 Be aware of various decision-making techniques and be able to match the appropriate technique to the particular situation Freouencv Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 1.3 Indifferent 15 9.6 9.7 11.0 Agree 63 40.1 40.6 51.6 StronglyAgree 75 47.8 48.4 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 94. 74 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in management of group processes, the principal must apply validated principles ofgroup dynamics and facilitation skills. Agree was the most frequent response (48.1%) and strongly agree was the next most frequent response (35.9%). Table 29 shows the data. Table 29 Apply validated principles ofgroup dynamics and facilitation skills Freouencv Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 3 1.9 1.9 1.9 Indifferent 22 14.0 14.1 16.0 Agree 75 47.8 48.1 64.1 StronglyAgree 56 35.7 35.9 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in management ofgroup processes, the principal must understand the process of consensus building and apply that process as a leader of a group. Strongly agree as the most frequent response (51.9%) and agree was the next most frequent response (39.7%). Table 30 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 95. 75 Table 30 Understand the process of consensus building and apply that process both as a leader and as a member ofa group Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 1.3 Indifferent 11 7.0 7.1 8.3 Agree 62 39.5 39.7 48.1 Strongly Agree 81 51.6 51.9 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in management of group processes, the principal must achieve intended outcomes through the use of principles of motivation. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (42.9%) and agree was the next most frequent response (42.3%). Table 31 shows the data. Table 31 Achieve intended outcomes through the use ofprinciples ofmotivation Freouencv Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 3 1.9 1.9 1.9 Indifferent 20 12.7 12.8 14.7 Agree 66 42.0 42.3 57.1 StronglyAgree 67 42.7 42.9 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 96. 76 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in management of group processes, the principal must maintain disciplinary stability throughout the school. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (89.1%) and agree was the next most frequent response (9.6%). Table 32 shows the data. Table 32 Maintain disciplinary stability throughout the school Freouencv Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 2 1.3 1.3 1.3 Agree 15 9.6 9.6 10.9 StronglyAgree 139 88.5 89.1 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in supervising the development and implementation of the curriculum, the principal must understand the communities values and goals and what it wants the curriculum to achieve. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (49.4%) and agree was the next most frequent response (39.1%). Table 33 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 97. 77 Table 33 Understand the communities values and goals and what it wants the curriculum to achieve. Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Indifferent 17 10.8 10.9 11.5 Agree 61 38.9 39.1 50.6 StronglyAgree 77 49.0 49.4 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in supervising the development and implementation of the curriculum, the principal must seek appropriate resources of time, money, and materials to support the curriculum. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (62.8%) and agree was the next most frequent response (30.1%). Table 34 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 98. 78 Table 34 Seek appropriate resources of time, money, and materials to support the curriculum Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 7 4.5 4.5 4.5 Indifferent 4 2.5 2.6 7.1 Agree 47 29.9 30.1 37.2 StronglyAgree 98 62.4 62.8 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in supervising the development and implementation of the curriculum, the principal must set forth, as a continuum, the skills and concepts the curriculum were designed to provide. Agree was the most frequent response 46.8% and strongly agree was the next most frequent response (40.4%). Table 35 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 99. 79 Table 35 Set forth, as a continuum, the skills and concepts the curriculum is designed to provide Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Disagree 1 .6 .6 1.3 Indifferent 18 11.5 11.5 12.8 Agree 73 46.5 46.8 59.6 StronglyAgree 63 40.1 40.4 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in supervising the development and implementation of the curriculum, the principal must be familiar curriculum materials and their relationship to program goals and objectives. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (64.1%) and agree was the next most frequent response (33.3%). Table 36 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 100. 80 Table 36 Be familiar with curriculum materials and their relationship to program goals and objectives. Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Indifferent 3 1.9 1.9 2.6 Agree 52 33.1 33.3 35.9 StronglyAgree 100 63.7 64.1 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in supervising the development and implementation of the curriculum, the principal must monitor the curriculum to ensure that the appropriate contingent and sequence were followed. Agree was the most frequent response (45.8%) and strongly agree was the next most frequent response (43.9%). Table 37 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 101. 81 Table 37 Monitor the curriculum to ensure that the appropriate content and sequence are followed Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 3 1.9 1.9 1.9 Indifferent 13 8.3 8.4 10.3 Agree 71 45.2 45.8 56.1 StronglyAgree 68 43.3 43.9 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in supervising the development and implementation of the curriculum, the principal must demonstrate multicultural an ethnic understanding. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (50.6%) and agree was die next most frequent response (50.6%) and agree was the next most frequent response (42.9%). Table 38 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 102. 82 Table 38 Demonstrate multicultural and ethnic understanding Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 1.3 Indifferent 8 5.1 5.1 6.4 Agree 67 42.7 42.9 49.4 StronglyAgree 79 50.3 50.6 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in supervising the development and implementation of the curriculum, the principal must establish and environment that was conductive to learning. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (90.4%) and agree was the next most frequent response (9.6%). Table 39 shows the data. Table 39 Establish an environment conductive to learning Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Agree 15 9.6 9.6 9.6 StronglyAgree 141 89.8 90.4 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 103. 83 be proficient in supervising the development and implementation of the curriculum, the principal must analyze standardized test scores and other student performance indicator to have identified general strengths weaknesses in the educational program. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (55.1%) and agree was the next most frequent response (38.5%). Table 40 shows the data. Table 40 Analyze standardized test scores and other student performance indicators to identify general strengths and weaknesses in the educational program Freauenev Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 3 1.9 1.9 1.9 Indifferent 7 4.5 4.5 6.4 Agree 60 38.2 38.5 44.9 StronglyAgree 86 54.8 55.1 100.0 Total 156 99.4 100.0 Missing System 1 .6 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in supervising instruction, the principal must understand and apply effective observation and conferencing skills. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (69.0%) and agree was the next most frequent response (27.1%). Table 41 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 104. 84 Table 41 Understand and apply effective observation and conferencing skills Freauenev Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 6 3.8 3.9 3.9 Agree 42 26.8 27.1 31.0 StronglyAgree 107 68.2 69.0 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in supervising instruction, the principal must understand and apply principles of child growth and development Strongly agree was the most frequent response (51.6%) and agree was the next most frequent response (43.2%). Table 42 shows the data. Table 42 Understand and apply principles ofchild growth and development Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 8 5.1 52 52 Agree 67 42.7 432 48.4 StronglyAgree 80 51.0 51.6 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 105. 85 be proficient in supervising instruction, the principal must apply grouping practices that most effectively meet student needs. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (41.9%) and agree was the next most frequent response (413%). Table 43 shows the data. Table 43 Apply grouping practices that most effectively meet student needs Freauenev Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 4 2.5 2.6 2.6 Indifferent 22 14.0 14.2 16.8 Agree 64 40.8 41.3 58.1 StronglyAgree 65 41.4 41.9 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in supervising instruction, the principal must regularly assess the teaching methods and strategies being used at the school to ensure that they were appropriate and varied. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (57.4%) and agree was the next most frequent response (38.1%). Table 44 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 106. 86 Table 44 Regularly assess the teaching methods and strategies being used at the school to ensure that they are appropriate and varied Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Indifferent 6 3.8 3.9 4.5 Agree 59 37.6 38.1 42.6 StronglyAgree 89 56.7 57.4 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in supervising performance, the principal must design effective staff and professional development programs that match the goals of both the schools and of the participating individuals. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (60.4%) and agree was the next most frequent response (29.9%). Table 45 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 107. 87 Table 45 Design effective staff and professional development programs that match the goals ofboth the school and ofthe participating individuals Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Disagree 1 .6 .6 1.3 Indifferent 13 8.3 8.4 9.7 Agree 46 29.3 29.9 39.6 StronglyAgree 93 59.2 60.4 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in supervising instruction, the principal must set high expectations for students, staff, parents, and self. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (78.7%) and agree was the next most frequent response (19.4%). Table 46 shows the data. Table 46 Set high expectations for students, staff parents, and self Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 3 1.9 1.9 1.9 Agree 30 19.1 19.4 21.3 StronglyAgree 122 77.7 78.7 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 108. 88 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in supervising instruction, the principal must recognize and show concern for personal goals of students and staff. Strongly agree was the next most frequent response (67.5%) and agree was the next most frequent response (29.2%). Table 47 shows the data. Table 47 Recognize and show concern for personal goals ofstudents and staff Freauenev Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 5 3.2 3.2 3.2 Agree 45 28.7 29.2 32.5 StronglyAgree 104 66.2 67.5 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in supervising instruction, the principal must enhance students and staff strengths and remediate weaknesses. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (63.2%) and agree was the next most frequent response (33.5%). Table 48 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 109. 89 Table 48 Enhance student and staffstrengths and remediate weaknesses Freauenev Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 5 3.2 3.2 3.2 Agree 52 33.1 33.5 36.8 StronglyAgree 98 62.4 63.2 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in supervising instruction, the principal must appropriately match specific learning styles with specific teaching styles. Agree was the most frequent response (44.8%) and strongly agree was the next most frequent response (37.0%). Table 49 shows the data. Table 49 Appropriately match specific learning styles with specific teaching styles Freauenev Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Disagree 5 3.2 3.2 3.9 Indifferent 22 14.0 14.3 18.2 Agree 69 43.9 44.8 63.0 StronglyAgree 57 36.3 37.0 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 110. 90 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in supervising instruction, the principal must engage in a program of continuing professional development Strongly agree was the most frequent response (48.4%) and agree was the next most frequent response (40.0%). Table SOshows the data. Table 50 Engage in a program ofcontinuing professional development Freauenev Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Indifferent 17 10.8 11.0 11.6 Agree 62 39.5 40.0 51.6 StronglyAgree 75 47.8 48.4 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in the evaluation process, the principal must inspire even the most excellent teachers to acquire new competencies and experiences. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (53.5%) and agree was the next most frequent response (34.8%). Table 51 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 111. Table 51 Inspire even the most excellent teachers to acquire new competencies and experiences Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Indifferent 17 10.8 11.0 11.6 Agree 54 34.4 34.8 46.5 StronglyAgree 83 52.9 53.5 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in the evaluation process, the principal must bring about the kind of rapport among students, teachers, staff, parents, and community that fosters constructive suggestions for making the school program even stronger. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (65.2%) and agree was the next most frequent response (31.6%). Table 52 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 112. 92 Table 52 Bring about the kind of rapport among students, teachers, staff, parents, and the community that fosters constructive suggestions for making the school program even stronger Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 5 3.2 3.2 3.2 Agree 49 31.2 31.6 34.8 StronglyAgree 101 64.3 65.2 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in the evaluation process, the principal must use a variety of techniques and strategies to assess student performance individual teacher and staff performance, the achievement of curriculum goals, and the effectiveness of the total instructional program. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (56.1%) and agree was the next most frequent response (36.1%). Table 53 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 113. Table S3 Use a variety of techniques and strategies to assess student performance, individual teacher and staff performance, the achievement of curriculum goals, and the effectiveness ofthe total instructional program Freauenev Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Indifferent 11 7.0 7.1 7.7 Agree 56 35.7 36.1 43.9 StronglyAgree 87 55.4 56.1 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in the evaluation process, the principal must assess progress toward achieving goals established for students, teachers, principalship, and involvement of parents and the community at large. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (47.1%) and agree was the next most frequent response (46.5%). Table 54 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 114. 94 Table 54 Assess progress toward achieving goals established for students, teachers, the principalship, and the involvement ofparents and the community at large Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Indifferent 9 5.7 5.8 6.5 Agree 72 45.9 46.5 52.9 StronglyAgree 73 46.5 47.1 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in the evaluation process, the principal must seek and encourage input from a variety of sources to improve the school’s program. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (52.9%) and agree was the next most frequent response (37.4%). Table 55 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 115. 95 Table 55 Seek and encourage input from a variety of sources to improve the school's program Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Indifferent 14 8.9 9.0 9.7 Agree 58 36.9 37.4 47.1 StronglyAgree 82 52.2 52.9 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in the evaluation process, the principal must demonstrate a level of human relations skills that make the evaluation process helpful rather than destructive. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (80.6%) and agree was the next most frequent response (18.1%). Table 56 shows the data. Table 56 Demonstrate a level of human relations skills that make the evaluation process helpful ratherthan destructive Freauenev Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 2 1.3 1.3 1.3 Agree 28 17.8 18.1 19.4 StronglyAgree 125 79.6 80.6 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 116. 96 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in the evaluation process, the principal must develop assistance plans and remediation efforts to improve teaching performance. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (58.1%) and agree was the next most frequent response (38.1%). Table 57 shows the data. Table 57 Develop assistance plans and remediation efforts to improve teaching performance Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Indifferent 5 3.2 3.2 3.9 Agree 59 37.6 38.1 41.9 StronglyAgree 90 57.3 58.1 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in organizing the school’s day-to-day functions, the principal must develop and implement equitable and effective schedules. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (70.8%) and agree was the next most frequent response (24.7%). Table 58 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 117. 97 Table 58 Develop and implement equitable and effective schedules Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Disagree 1 .6 .6 1.3 Indifferent 5 3.2 3.2 4.5 Agree 38 24.2 24.7 29.2 StronglyAgree 109 69.4 70.8 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in organizing the school’s day-to-day functions, the principal must use strategic planning to implement long-range goals. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (48.7%) and agree was the next most frequent response (44.2%). Table 59 shows the data. Table 59 Use strategic planning to implement long-range goals Freauenev Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Disagree 3 1.9 1.9 2.6 Indifferent 7 4.5 4.5 7.1 Agree 68 43.3 44.2 51.3 StronglyAgree 75 47.8 48.7 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 118. 98 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in organizing the school’s day-to-day functions, the principal must attract volunteers and be adept in training them. Agree was the most frequent response (44.8%) and strongly agree was the next most frequent response (31.8%). Table 60 shows the data. Table 60 Attract volunteers and be adept in training them Freauenev Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Disagree 5 3.2 3.2 3.9 Indifferent 30 19.1 19.5 23.4 Agree 69 43.9 44.6 68.2 StronglyAgree 49 31.2 31.8 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in organizing the school’s day-to-day functions, the principal must manage the operation and maintenance ofthe physical plant Agree was the most frequent response (42.2%) and strongly agree was the next most frequent response (33.1%). Table 61 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 119. 99 Table 61 Manage the operation and maintenance ofthe physical plant Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 4 2.5 2.6 2.6 Disagree 11 7.0 7.1 9.7 Indifferent 23 14.6 14.9 24.7 Agree 65 41.4 42.2 66.9 StronglyAgree 51 32.5 33.1 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in organizing the school's day-to-day functions, the principal must allocate and organize staff in such a way as to assure accomplishment of the school’s mission. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (58.2%) and agree was the next most frequent response (35.3%). Table 62 shows the data. Table 62 Allocate and organize staff in such a way as to assure accomplishment of the school's mission Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 10 6.4 6.5 6.5 Agree 54 34.4 35.3 41.8 StronglyAgree 89 56.7 56.2 100.0 Total 153 97.5 100.0 Missing System 4 2.5 Total 157 100.0 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 120. 100 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in organizing the school's day-to-day functions, the principal must know education law, including the implication of liability, and keep current with developments. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (57.8%) and agree was the next most frequent response (37.7%). Table 63 shows the data. Table 63 Know education law, including the implication of liability, and keep current with developments Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 7 4.5 4.5 4.5 Agree 58 36.9 37.7 42.2 StronglyAgree 89 56.7 57.8 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in organizing the school’s day-to-day functions, the principal must develop and implement administrative procedures consistent with board policy and contractual agreements. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (61.0%) and agree was the next most frequent response (34.4%). Table 64 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 121. 101 Table 64 Develop and implement administrative procedures consistent with board policy and contractual agreements Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 7 4.5 4.5 4.5 Agree S3 33.8 34.4 39.0 StronglyAgree 94 59.9 61.0 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in fiscal management, the principal must manage the school in the allocated resources. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (65.6%) and agree was the next most frequent response (27.3%). Table 65 shows the data. Table 65 Manage the school within the allocated resources Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 11 7.0 7.1 7.1 Agree 42 26.8 27.3 34.4 StronglyAgree 101 64.3 65.6 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 122. 102 be proficient in fiscal management, the principal must understand the school district budget and its specific implications for his or her school. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (623%) and agree was the next most frequent response (34.4%). Table 66 shows the data. Table 66 Understand the school district budget and its specific implications for his or her school Freauenev Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 5 3.2 3.2 3.2 Agree 53 33.8 34.4 37.7 StronglyAgree 96 61.1 62.3 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in fiscal management, the principal must plan, prepare, justify, and defend the school budget Strongly agree was the most frequent response (64.9%) and agree was the next most frequent response (27.9%). Table 67 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 123. 103 Table 67 Plan, prepare,justify, and defend the school budget Freauenev Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 11 7.0 7.1 7.1 Agree 43 27.4 27.9 35.1 StronglyAgree 100 63.7 64.9 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in fiscal management, the principal must use cost control procedures and institute cost-effective practices. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (47.4%) and agree was the next most frequent response (39.6%). Table 68 shows the data. Table 68 Use cost control procedures and institute cost-effective practices Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Indifferent 20 12.7 13.0 13.0 Agree 61 38.9 39.6 52.6 StronglyAgree 73 46.5 47.4 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 124. 104 be proficient in fiscal management, the principal must interpret budget priorities and constraints to the staff and the community. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (49.4%) and agree was the next most Sequent response (35.1%). Table 69 shows the data. Table 69 Interpret budget priorities and constraints to the staffand the community Freauenev Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 1.3 Indifferent 22 14.0 14.3 15.6 Agree 54 34.4 35.1 50.6 StronglyAgree 76 48.4 49.4 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in political issues, the principal must participate in local, state, and federal legislative action programs. Indifferent was the most Sequent response (43.9%) and agree was the next most Sequent response (27.1%). Table 70 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 125. 105 Table 70 Participate in local, state, and federal legislative action programs Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 7 4.5 4.5 4.5 Disagree 21 13.4 13.5 18.1 Indifferent 68 43.3 43.9 61.9 Agree 42 26.8 27.1 89.0 StronglyAgree 17 10.8 11.0 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in political issues, the principal must understand the dynamics of local, state, and national politics. Agree was the most frequent response (37.4%) and indifferent was the next response (32.3%). Table 71 shows the data. Table 71 Understand the dynamics oflocal, state and national politics Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 5 3.2 3.2 3.2 Disagree 8 5.1 5.2 8.4 Indifferent 50 31.8 32.3 40.6 Agree 58 36.9 37.4 78.1 StronglyAgree 34 21.7 21.9 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 126. 106 be proficient in political issues, the principal must be accessible to teachers, students, parents and other members of the community. Strongly agree was the most frequent response (74.8%) and agree was the next most frequent response (213%). Table 72 shows the data. Table 72 Be accessible to teachers, students, parents and other members ofthe community Freauencv Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Indifferent 5 3.2 3.2 3.9 Agree 33 21.0 21.3 25.2 StronglyAgree 116 73.9 74.8 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in political issues, the principal must develop plans and strategies for helping attract appropriate financial support of education. Agree was the most frequent response (43.2%) and strongly agree was the next most frequent response (323%). Table 73 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 127. 107 Table 73 Develop plans and strategies for helping attract appropriate financial support of education Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 1.3 Disagree 7 4.5 4.5 5.8 Indifferent 29 18.5 18.7 24.5 Agree 67 42.7 43.2 67.7 StronglyAgree 50 31.8 32.3 100.0 Total 155 98.7 100.0 Missing System 2 1.3 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in political issues, the principal must involve the community leaders in the development and support of the school’s program. Agree was the most frequent response (44.2%) and strongly agree was the next most frequent response (37.7%). Table 74 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 128. 108 Table 74 Involve the community leaders in the development and support of the school's program Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 3 1.9 1.9 1.9 Disagree 2 1.3 1.3 3.2 Indifferent 23 14.6 14.9 18.2 Agree 68 43.3 44.2 62.3 StronglyAgree 58 36.9 37.7 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Teachers and principals were asked their perception of the following leadership proficiency characteristic of effective elementary school principals: to be proficient in political issues, the principal must identify and apply effective strategies for dealing political issues and political forces that impinge on the school’s operation. Agree was the most frequent response (40.9%) and indifferent was the next most frequent response (292%). Table 75 shows the data. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 129. 109 Table 75 Identify and apply effective strategies for dealing with political issues and political forces that impinge on the school's operation Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Strongly Disagree 1 .6 .6 .6 Disagree 7 4.5 4.5 5.2 Indifferent 45 28.7 29.2 34.4 Agree 63 40.1 40.9 75.3 StronglyAgree 38 24.2 24.7 100.0 Total 154 98.1 100.0 Missing System 3 1.9 Total 157 100.0 Analysis ofHypotheses The section contains an analysis ofthe five hypotheses examined in the study. Narrative and tables were written for each hypothesis. Hypotheses one stated that there will be significant differences in the perceptions ofelementary school administrators and elementary school teachers regarding the proficiency of elementary school principals as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development and implementation ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the day- to-day functions, fiscal management, and political issues. Table 76 shows the mean scores and the analysis ofvariance scores forthe total instrument and each section ofthe research instrument There was a significant difference in the overall perceptions ofthe elementary school administrators and elementary school Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 130. 110 teachers regarding the proficiencyofelementary school principals. There was a significant difference in seven ofthe ten proficiencies measured: leadership skills, communication skills, supervising the development and implementation of the curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, and organizing the day-to-day functions. There was no evidence to reject hypothesis one. Hypothesis one was accepted. Table 76 Differences between elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers CATEGORY STATUS N MEAN T SIG Total score Principal Teacher 37 105 316.5405 304.6190 2.943 .004 * Leadership skills Principal Teacher 38 115 47.4211 45.5739 3.991 .000* Communications skills Principal Teacher 39 113 41.7949 40.0000 3.201 .002* Management ofgroup process Principal Teacher 39 115 31.9231 31.0000 1.672 .099 Supervising the development and implementation ofthe curriculum Principal Teacher 39 115 37.3846 35.3652 3.857 .000* Supervising instruction Principal Teacher 39 115 18.5385 17.6174 2.835 .006* Supervising ' performance Principal Teacher 38 114 28.2105 26.6316 3.828 .000* Evaluation process Principal Teacher 39 115 32.9231 31.2087 3.505 .001* Organizing the school’s day-to-day functions Principal Teacher 39 113 31.5385 30.3628 2.060 .043* Fiscal management Principal Teacher 39 114 22.7436 222895 1.086 280 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 131. Ill Political issues Principal 39 24.2564 1.366 .176 Teacher 113 23.3982 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 132. 112 Hypothesis two stated that there will be significant differences in the perceptions ofelementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on gender regarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management of group processes, supervising the development ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the school’s day-to-day functions, fiscal management and political issues. Table 76 shows the mean scores and the t-test for equality ofmean scores for the total instrument and each section ofthe research instrument There was no significant difference in the overall perceptions ofthe elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on gender regarding the proficiency of elementary school principals. There was a significant difference based on gender in two ofthe ten proficiencies measured: leadership skills and management ofthe group process. There was evidence to reject hypothesis one. Hypothesis two was rejected. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 133. Table 77 Differences between gender CATEGORY STATUS N MEAN T SIG Total score Male Female 46 94 304.4783 309.4362 -1.050 297 Leadership skills Male Female 50 101 45.1200 46.5050 -2.379 .020* Communications skills Male Female 50 100 39.9600 40.7600 -1.227 223 Management of group process Male Female 51 101 30.3725 31.6733 -2.318 .023* Supervising the development and implementation of the curriculum Male Female 52 100 35.5192 36.0700 -.944 .348 Supervising instruction Male Female 52 100 17.4423 18.0700 -1.844 .068 Supervising performance Male Female 52 98 26.5962 272551 -1272 207 Evaluation process Male Female 52 100 31.6538 31.6500 .007 .994 Organizing the school’s day-to-day functions Male Female 51 99 30.4314 30.8081 -.648 .519 Fiscal management Male Female 52 99 22.0769 22.6263 -1.181 240 Political issues Male Female 51 99 23.5882 23.5556 .054 .957 113 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 134. 114 Hypothesis three stated thatthere will be significant differences in the perceptions ofelementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on years ofexperience in the district regarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the school’s day-to-day functions, fiscal management and political issues. Table 78 shows the mean scores and the analysis ofvariance scores forthe total instrument and each section ofthe research instrument There was no significant difference in the overall perceptions ofthe elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on years ofexperience in the district regarding the proficiency of elementary school principals. There was no significant difference in any ofthe ten proficiencies measured. There was evidence to reject hypothesis three. Hypothesis three was rejected. Table 78 Differences based on years ofexperience in the district CATEGORY STATUS N MEAN T SIG Total score < 10 years >= 10 years 66 75 309.6061 3062533 .822 .413 Leadership skills < 10 years >= 10 years 71 81 46.0845 45.9753 206 .837 Communications skills < 10 years >=10 years 71 80 40.5211 40.4375 .143 .887 Management of group process <10years >= 10 years 71 82 31.4085 31.1098 .592 .555 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 135. 115 Supervising the development and implementation of the curriculum < 10 years >= 10 years 70 83 36.0571 35.7590 .563 .575 Supervising instruction < 10 years >= 10 years 70 83 18.0143 17.7108 .993 .322 Supervising performance < 10 years >= 10 years 69 82 27.2464 26.8537 .855 .394 Evaluation process < 10 years >= 10 years 70 83 32.0000 31.3614 1.298 .196 Organizing the school’s day-to- day functions < 10 years >= 10 years 69 82 30.7391 30.6098 .241 .810 Fiscal management < 10 years >= 10 years 69 83 22.6232 22.2530 .868 .387 Political issues < 10 years >= 10 years 70 81 24.0000 23.2963 1.197 .233 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 136. 116 Hypothesis four stated that there will be significant differences in the perceptions ofelementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on highest degree earned regarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the school’s day-to-day functions, fiscal management and political issues. Table 79 shows the mean scores and the analysis ofvariance scores for the total instrument and each section ofthe research instrument There was no significant difference in the overall perceptions ofthe elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on highest degree earned regarding the proficiency ofelementary school principals. There was no significant difference in any ofthe ten proficiencies measured. There was evidence to reject hypothesis four. Hypothesis four was rejected. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 137. Table 79 Differences based on highest degree earned CATEGORY STATUS N MEAN T SIG Total score Bachelors Masters Doctoral 33 94 13 305.5758 307.8404 308.9231 .130 .878 Leadership skills Bachelors Masters Doctoral 39 99 13 45.3077 46.2121 46.4615 1.221 298 Communications skills Bachelors Masters Doctoral 37 99 14 40.1622 40.4444 40.9268 234 .792 Management of group process Bachelors Masters Doctoral 38 100 14 30.3947 31.5300 30.9286 1.866 .158 Supervising the development and implementation of the curriculum Bachelors Masters Doctoral 38 100 14 35.8684 35.7100 36.7143 .578 .562 Supervising instruction Bachelors Masters Doctoral 38 100 14 17.3684 17.9700 18.0714 1.482 .231 Supervising performance Bachelors Masters Doctoral 38 98 14 26.4211 27.1939 27.2857 1.085 .341 Evaluation process Bachelors Masters Doctoral 38 100 14 31.1316 31.6500 32.5714 1.132 .325 Organising the school’s day-to- day functions Bachelors Masters Doctoral 37 99 14 30.0000 30.9091 30.2857 1.092 .338 Fiscal management Bachelors Masters Doctoral 38 99 14 22.2632 22.4646 222143 .112 .895 Political issues Bachelors Masters Doctoral 38 98 14 23.8684 23.3673 24.4268 .640 .529 117 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 138. Hypothesis five stated that there will be significant differences in the perceptions ofelementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on year highest degree was earned regarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the school’s day-to-day functions, fiscal management and political issues. Table 80 shows the mean scores and the analysis ofvariance scores for the total instrument and each section ofthe research instrument There was no significant difference in the overall perceptions ofthe elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on year highest degree was earned regarding the proficiency ofelementary school principals. There was no significant difference in any ofthe ten proficiencies measured. There was evidence to reject hypothesis five. Hypothesis five was rejected. Table 80 Differences based on yearhighest degree was earned CATEGORY STATUS N MEAN F SIG Total score Before 1976 9 300.4444 .785 .577 1976-1980 6 318.6667 1981-1985 7 300.0000 1986-1990 30 306.8333 1991-1995 40 311.6750 1996-2001 41 307.1707 Leadership skills Before 1976 10 47.3000 1.373 .238 1976-1980 6 47.3333 1981-1985 8 43.8750 1986-1990 32 45.8750 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 139. 119 1991-1995 1996-2001 44 44 46.2955 45.9545 Communications Before 1976 9 39.3333 1.009 .415 skills 1976-1980 6 42.1667 1981-1985 8 38.7500 1986-1990 32 40.3125 1991-1995 43 40.9767 1996-2001 45 40.6000 Management of Before 1976 10 30.8000 .402 .847 group process 1976-1980 6 32.1667 1981-1985 7 30.2857 1986-1990 33 31.3636 1991-1995 44 31.6364 1996-2001 45 31.2444 Supervising the Before 1976 10 34.8000 .827 .532 development and 1976-1980 6 37.5000 implementation of 1981-1985 8 34.7500 the curriculum 1986-1990 33 35.7273 1991-1995 44 36.2500 1996-2001 44 36.8182 Supervising Before 1976 10 16.7000 1.502 .193 instruction 1976-1980 6 18.5000 1981-1985 8 17.3750 1986-1990 33 17.8788 1991-1995 44 18.2955 1996-2001 44 17.7500 Supervising Before 1976 10 26.9000 .496 .779 performance 1976-1980 6 28.3333 1981-1985 8 27.1250 1986-1990 32 26.5625 1991-1995 43 27.2558 1996-2001 44 27.1136 Evaluation Before 1976 10 31.4000 .468 .800 process 1976-1980 6 33.0000 1981-1985 8 30.7500 1986-1990 33 31.5152 1991-1995 44 31.9318 1996-2001 44 31.5227 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 140. 120 Organizing the school’s day-to- day functions Before 1976 1976-1980 1981-1985 1986-1990 1991-1995 1996-2001 10 6 8 32 43 44 29.9000 31.3333 30.7500 30.4063 31.3721 30.3182 .691 .631 Fiscal Before 1976 10 20.5000 2.058 .074 management 1976-1980 6 23.8333 1981-1985 8 21.1250 1986-1990 33 22.2727 1991-1995 44 22.8409 1996-2001 43 22.4651 Political issues Before 1976 10 22.5000 .419 .835 1976-1980 6 24.5000 1981-1985 8 22.5000 1986-1990 3 23.7500 1991-1995 43 23.9070 1996-2001 44 23.6364 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 141. 121 Summary An analysis ofthe data showed the following: 1. There was a significant difference in the overall perceptions ofthe elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers regarding the proficiency ofelementary school principals. There was a significant difference in seven ofthe ten proficiencies measured: leadership skills, communication skills, supervising the development and implementation ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, and organizing the day-to-day functions. There was no evidence to reject hypothesis one. Hypothesis one was accepted. 2. There was no significant difference in the overall perceptions ofthe elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on gender regarding the proficiency ofelementary school principals. There was a significant difference based on gender in two ofthe ten proficiencies measured: leadership skills and management ofthe group process. There was evidence to reject hypothesis two. Hypothesis two was rejected. 3. There was no significant difference in the overall perceptions ofthe elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on years ofexperience in the district regarding the proficiency ofelementary school principals. There was no significant difference in any ofthe ten proficiencies measured. There was evidence to reject hypothesis three. Hypothesis three was rejected. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 142. 122 4. There was no significant difference in the overall perceptions ofthe elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on highest degree earned regarding the proficiency ofelementary school principals. There was no significant difference in any ofthe ten proficiencies measured. There was evidence to reject hypothesis four. Hypothesis four was rejected. 5. There was no significant difference in the overall perceptions ofthe elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on year highest degree was earned regarding the proficiency ofelementary school principals. There was no significant difference in any ofthe ten proficiencies measured. There was evidence to reject hypothesis five. Hypothesis five was rejected. The table below summarizes the results ofthe analysis ofeach hypothesis. Table 81 Summary ofAnalysis ofHypotheses HYPOTHESIS OUTCOME 1. There will be significant difference in the perceptions of elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers regarding the proficiency ofelementary school principals as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development and implementation ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the day-to-day functions, fiscal management, and political issues. Accepted 2. There will be significantdifference in the perceptions of elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on genderregarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by Rejected Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 143. 123 leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development and implementation ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the day-to- day functions, fiscal management, and political issues. 3. There will be significant difference in the perceptions of elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on years ofexperience in the district regarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development and implementation ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the day-to-day functions, fiscal management, and political issues. Rejected 4. There will be significant difference in the perceptions of elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on highest degree earned regarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development and implementation ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the day-to-day functions, fiscal management, and political issues. Rejected 5. There will be significant difference in the perceptions of elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on year highest degree was earned regarding the proficiency ofan effective elementary school principal as measured by leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development and implementation ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, organizing the day-to-day functions, fiscal management, and political issues. Rejected Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 144. CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction This chapter presents a summary ofthe research study and the conclusions drawn from the findings. Recommendations ofthe researcher are included in this chapter. Summary The purpose ofthis study was to examine the perceptions ofelementary school principals and elementary school teachers regarding proficiencies for effective elementary school principals and the level ofagreement between principals and teachers regarding those proficiencies. The study provided data that was used to analyze the perceptions ofthese two groups and the level of agreement among the five variables: position, gender, years ofexperience, highest degree earned, and year highest degree was earned. This study was limited to elementary school principals and teachers, in three S t Louis County School districts. The sample for the study was randomly selected from a population of 1200 elementary school teachers and 76 administrators from three public school Districts located in S t Louis County. Three hundred teachers and 60 administrators were selected by means ofa random sample reference table. Completed returns were received from 116 teachers and 40 administrators. The 124 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 145. 125 rate ofreturn for the teachers was 39% and the rate ofreturn for administrators was 66%. The survey questionnaire measured 68 competencies extracted from the revised document, Proficiencies for Principals, published by the National Association of Elementary School Principals (1997). The instrument used was a modified version of Perceptions of the Essential Skills of Effective Elementary Principals (Riggs, 1992). Descriptive analysis and inferential statistics were used in the study. Frequency, percent, mean and standard deviation were reported on each ofthe items ofthe instrument The t-test was used to test the first hypotheses concerning the difference between position and principal proficiency. An independent-samples t test was used to see if there was a significant difference between the means ofthe two groups (principals and teachers). The t-test was used to test the second hypotheses concerning the difference between gender and principal proficiency. An independent-samples t test was used to see ifthere was a significant difference between the means ofthe two groups. The t test was used to analyze differences in perceptions ofadministrators and teachers regarding the proficiencies ofeffective principals as measured by the dependent variables, leadership skills, communication skills, management ofgroup processes, supervising the development and implementation ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, fiscal management, and political issues. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 146. 126 A series ofANOVA’S were generated to determine thejoint effects ofthe independent variables years ofexperience within the district, highest degree earned, and year highest degree was earned. These ANOVA’S were used in the analysis to answer hypotheses three, four and five. Individuals were asked to indicate their status in the elementary education system. Teacher was the most frequent response (74.4%) and principal was the next most frequent response (25.6%). Teachers and principals were asked their gender. Female was the most frequent response (66.2%) and male was the next most frequent response (33.8%). Teachers and principals were asked their experience level in elementary education. More than 10 years was the most frequent to response (54.2%) and less than 10 years of experience was the next most frequent response (45.8%). Teachers and principals were asked about the highest degree they have earned over the years. The most frequent response was a Masters degree (65.6 %) and Bachelors degree was the next most frequent response (25.3%). Teachers and principals were asked in what five year span did they achieve their highest degree. The most frequent response was 1996 to 2001 (30.6%), 1991 to 1995 was the next most frequent response (29.9%). An analysis ofthe data showed the following: 1. There was a significant difference in the overall perceptions ofthe elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers regarding the proficiency ofelementary school principals. There was a significant difference in seven ofthe ten proficiencies measured: leadership skills, communication skills, Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 147. 127 supervising the developmentand implementation ofthe curriculum, supervising instruction, supervising performance, the evaluation process, and organizing the day-to-day functions. There was no evidence to reject hypothesis one. Hypothesis one was accepted. 2. There was no significant difference in the overall perceptions ofthe elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on gender regarding the proficiency ofelementary school principals. There was a significant difference based on gender in two ofthe ten proficiencies measured: leadership skills and management ofthe group process. There was evidence to reject hypothesis two. Hypothesis two was rejected. 3. There was no significant difference in the overall perceptions ofthe elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on years ofexperience in the district regarding the proficiency ofelementary school principals. There was no significant difference in any ofthe ten proficiencies measured. There was evidence to reject hypothesis three. Hypothesis three was rejected. 4. There was no significant difference in the overall perceptions ofthe elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on highest degree earned regarding the proficiency ofelementary school principals. There was no significant difference in any ofthe ten proficiencies measured. There was evidence to reject hypothesis four. Hypothesis four was rejected. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 148. 128 5. There was no significant difference in the overall perceptions of the elementary school administrators and elementary school teachers based on year highest degree was earned regarding the proficiency of elementary school principals. There was no significant difference in any of the ten proficiencies measured. There was evidence to reject hypothesis five. Hypothesis five was rejected. Conclusions 1. Elementary school administrators and teachers have different perceptions ofthe proficiencies ofan effective elementary school principal. 2. The differences in the perceptions were not based on gender, years of experience in the district, highest degree earned, or the yearthe highest degree was earned. Recommendations Many recommendations can be offered to individuals studying leadership and the elementary school principal. The research study and the analysis ofthe data lead to the following recommendations: 1. Elementary school principals should be informed ofproficiencies for principals establish by the National Association ofElementary School Principals and given training in each ofthe proficient areas as part ofa mentorprogram for principal's leadership program. 2. Superintendents, elementary school principals and elementary school teachers should use the literature and previous research on leadership and Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 149. 129 effective schools to guide the development ofa clear. Writtenjob description for elementary school principals that accurately reflects the current perception of leadership, effective schools and proficiencies for effective elementary school principals. 3. Instruments and procedures currently used to evaluate the effectiveness ofelementary school principals should be reviewed to determine ifthey adequately access the performance ofeffective elementary school principals as indicated by current literature and recent research on effective elementary school principals. 4. Personal improvement plans for administrators would be developed by educational administrators programs close the gap in the perceptions ofteachers and administrators. a.) Aspiring principals should study the perceptions ofleadership and the differences between teachers and administrators. b.) Information from this study can be used to update the curriculum used in school administration programs. c.) Workshops can be developed to enable administrators and teachers to compare opinions and identify gaps in proficiency perception at the local level. 5. More research is needed on the perceptions of leadership. Studies of this nature should be periodically conducted in orderto detect shifts in the perceptions. A study might be conducted to define educational leadership as it applies to elementary school principals in specific settings. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 150. APPENDIX A SAINT LOUIS UNIVERSITY The Graduate School Dear Participant: September 18, 2000 This letter is to request your assistance in a research study I am conducting in educational administration at Saint Louis University under the guidance of Dr. Ronald Rebore. This study will seek to determine the level ofagreement between elementary school principals and elementary school teachers regarding leadership proficiencies you perceive to be characteristic ofan effective elementary school principal. Your response to the enclosed survey questionnaire items will provide data to be analyzed. The analysis ofyour response on the questionnaire will be a part ofmy doctoral dissertation. The same questionnaire is being sent to elementary school principals, and elementary school teachers in three public school districts in St. Louis County. I realize it is very difficult to take time out ofyour busy schedule, but! would be most appreciative ifyou would participate in this study. Your participation is very important for me to complete this study which will provide data that will contribute to the existing research relative to leadership proficiencies for elementary school principals. Please complete and return the questionnaire in the self-addressed envelope provided. The questionnaire should not take more than twenty minutes ofyour time. There will be no risks in your participation. All responses will be confidential. Individual responses will not be released and no attempt will be made to identify specific schools, principals or teachers. The code number of the questionnaire is used to allow for follow-up mailings and to supply information regarding the questionnaire ifyou would like it. Only die researcher will be able to match code numbers. The questionnaire will be destroyed once the response has been recorded. Your participation is voluntary and you may withdraw at any time. I hope that you will help me. The knowledge I gain from your responses may be helpful to leaders in the future. I am working under a strict deadline and would like your response within two weeks. Thank you very much for your valuable time and assistance. Sincerely, Mary Ellen Burford 130 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 151. APPENDIX B SAINT LOUIS UNIVERSITY The Graduate School Dear Participant: October 30, 2000 A few weeks time ago I sent you a survey questionnaire concerning your opinion of leadership proficiencies characteristic ofeffective elementary school principals. Your response has not been received. Your opinion is very important to the research I am conducting. You were randomly selected. Not all principals and teachers will have the opportunity to participate in this research, The information obtained from the survey questionnaire will he held in confidence and no identifiable factors will he included in the study. I am in education and realize your busy schedule. Please take a few minutes to complete the survey and return it to me in the stamped self-addressed envelope. I will receive it directly ifyou will complete it and drop it in the nearest mailbox by November 10th. I am under a strict deadline to complete this research. Thank you very much for your help in determining leadership proficiencies characteristic ofeffective elementary school principals. Sincerely, Mary Ellen Burford 131 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 152. APPENDIX B SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Perceptions ofLeadership Proficiencies Characteristic OfEffective Elementary School Principals ELEMENTARY PRINCIPAL: Please write the name ofthe school district you work in Please check gender Male Female. Years ofExperience within the District: Less than 10 years More than 10 years Highest degree earned_________________ Year highest degree was earned_______ ELEMENTARY TEACHER: Please write the name ofthe school district you work in Please check gender Male Female____ Years ofExperience within the District: Less than 10 years More than lOyears Highest degree earned_________________ Year highest degree was earned_______ Please respond to each statement in each category listed in this survey by using the code below. Please use numbers I to 5 to reflect your perceptions of leadership proficiencies characteristic of effective elementary school principals. Please be sure to respond to all items on the questionnaire. CODE:5-Strongly Agree, 4-Agree, 3-Indifferent, 2- Disagree, 1-Strongly Disagree I. To be proficient in leadership skills, the principal must: 1 2 3 4 5 Exercise vision in defining and accomplishing the mission ofdie school 12 3 4 5 Demonstrate a genuine interest in children. 12 3 4 5 Inspire all concerned to join in accomplishing the school's mission. 12 3 4 5 Be highly visible throughout the school. 123 4 5 Apply effective human relation's skills. 12 3 4 5 Encourage the leadership ofothers. 132 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 153. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 n. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 m. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 IV. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 133 Analyze information relative to problems, make decisions, and delegate responsibility as appropriate. Create a strong sense oftogetherness. Apply established principles and strategies ofeffective leadership. Participate as a memberof local, state, and national professional groups. To be proficient in communication skills, the principal must: Model the expected behavior ofothers. Persuasively articulate his or her beliefs and effectively defend his or her decisions. Be trustworthy, conscientious, enthusiastic, and sensitive. Write clearly and concisely so that the intended audience understands the message. Apply facts and data to determine priorities. Be an active listener so as to truly near others. Know his or her verbal and nonverbal communications strengths and weaknesses and their implications. Understand the philosophy, functioning, and practices of mass media. Understand the impact ofhis or her personal image and how to make that image an effective one. To be proficient in management ofgroup processes, the principal must: Identify — with staff- the decision-making procedures the school will follow. Involve others in setting short and long-term goals. Be aware ofvarious decision-making techniques and be able to match the appropriate technique to the particular situation. Applyvalidated principles o fgroup dynamics and facilitation skills. Understand the process ofconsensus building and apply that process both as a leader and as a member ofa group. Achieve intended outcomes through the use ofprinciples of motivation. Maintain disciplinary stability throughout the school. To be proficient in supervising the development and implementation of the curriculum, the principal must: Understand the communities values and goals and what it wants the curriculum to achieve. Seek appropriate resources oftime, money, and materials to supportthe curriculum. Set forth, as a continuum, the skills and concepts the curriculum is designedto provide. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 154. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 V. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 VI. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 vn. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 134 Be familiar with curriculum materials and theirrelationship to program goals and objectives. Monitor the curriculum to ensure that the appropriate content and sequence are followed. Demonstrate multicultural and ethnic understanding. Establish an environment conducive to learning. Analyze standardized test scores and otherstudent performance indicators to identify general strengths and weaknesses in the educational program. To be proficient in supervising instruction, the principals must: Understand and apply effective observation and conferencing skills. Understand and apply principles ofchild growth and development Apply grouping practices that most effectively meet student needs Regularly assess the teaching methods and strategies being used at the school to ensure that they are appropriate and varied. To be proficient in supervising performance, the principal must: Design effective staffand professional development programs that match the goals ofboth the school and ofthe participating individuals. Set high expectations for students, staff, parents, and self Recognize and show concern for personal goals ofstudents and staff Enhance student and staffstrengths and remediate weaknesses. Appropriately match specific learning styles with specific teaching styles. Engage in a program ofcontinuing professional development To be proficient in the evaluation process, the principal must: Inspire oven the most excellentteachers to acquire new competencies and experiences. Bring about the kind ofrapport among students, teachers, staff, parents, and the communitythat fosters constructive suggestions for making the school program even stronger. Use a variety oftechniques and strategies to assess student performance, individual teacher and staffperformance, the achievement ofcurriculum goals, and the effectiveness ofthe total instructional program. Assess progress toward achieving goals established for students, teachers, die principalship, and die involvement ofparents and die Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 155. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Vffl. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 DC. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 X. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 135 community at large. Seek and encourage input from a variety ofsources to improve the school’s program Demonstrate a level ofhuman relations skills that make the evaluation process helpful raterthen destructive. Develop assistance plans and remediation efforts to improve teaching performance To be proficient in organizing the school’s day-to-day functions, the principal must: Develop and implement equitable and effective schedules. Use strategic planning to implement long-range goals. Attract volunteers ana be adept in training them. Manage the operation and maintenance ofthe physical plant Allocate and organize staffin such a way as to assure accomplishment ofthe school’s mission. Know education law, including the implication ofliability, and keep current with developments. Develop and implement administrative procedures consistent with board policy and contractual agreements. To be proficient in fiscal management, the principal must: Manage the school within the allocated resources. Understand the school district budget and its specific implications for his & her school. Plan, prepare,justify, and defend the school budget Use cost control procedures and institute cost-effective practices. Interpret budget priorities and constraints to the staffand the community. To be proficient in political issues, the principal must: Participate in local, state, and federal legislative action programs. Understand the dynamics oflocal, state and national politics. Be accessible to teachers, students, parents and othermembers of the community. Develop plans and strategies for helping attract appropriate financial support ofeducation. Involve the community leaders in the development and support of the school’s program. Identify and apply effective strategies for dealing with political issues and political forces that. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
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  • 162. 142 Bockern, S., Brendtro, L .,& Brokenley, M., (1990). Reclaiming Youth at risk: Our hope for the future. Bloomington: National Education Service. Bogdan, R., & Bilken, S., (1982). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods. Boston: Allyn& Bacon. Borg, W.R., (1989). Educational research: An introduction 51*1ed. New York: Longham. Borg, W. R., (1993). Applying educational research: A practical guide. White Planes, New York: Longman Boyer, E. (1995). The basic school: A community for learning. San Francisco:Jossey-Bass. Chance, D.W. (1992). Visionary leadership in schools. Springfield, EL, Charles C. Thomas. Coleman, C. (1966). Personality dynamics and effective behavior. Chicago: Scott Foresman and Company. Creswell, J. W., (1994). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. California: Sage. Deal, T. E., & Peterson, K. D., (1999). Shaping school culture. Alexandria, VA: National Principal’s Resource Center, National Association of Elementary School Principals. Drake, D i., (1987). School leadership and instructional improvement. New York: Random House. Drucker, P., (1985). Innovations and entrepreneurship. New York: Harper and Row. Drucker, P. (1993). The effective executive. New York: Harper Collins. Drucker, P. (1996). The leader ofthe future. San Francisco:Jossey Bass. Dworirin, M. S., (1959). Dewev on education. New York: Teachers College Press. Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) Resources in education. WashingtonD.C., U.S. Department ofHealth, Education, and Welfare. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 163. 143 Engelking, J. L., (1990). The effective school administrator. Palm Springs, CA: ETC Publications. Fiedler, F. (19671. A theory ofleadership effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill. Fiedler, F.E., (1984). Improving leadership effectiveness: The leader match concept. New York: Wiley. Fowler, F., (1985). Survey research methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. Fullan, M., (1988). Strategies for taking charge in the elementary school principalship. Ontario: OPSTF. Gagne, R. (1974). Principles ofinstructional design. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Gay, L. R., (1996). Educational research competencies for analysis and application. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Gibbs, G.K. (1989). Effective schools research: The principal as in stru ctio n al le arW Unpublished manuscript. Glickman, C.D. (1985). Supervision nfinstruction: A development approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Goodland, J. (1984). A place called school. New York: McGraw-Hill. Granowsky & Weber. (1987). Fearon new school dictionary. Belmont. CA: David S. Lake Publishers. Greenfield, W. (1980). The effective principal: Presoectives on leadership. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Hall, G.E. (1984). Changes in schools: Facilitating the process. New York: Albany State University Press. Hilliard, A., (1988) School success for students at risk. Chicago: Harcourt Brace Javonovich. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 164. 144 Hoy, W. K. (1986). Effective supervision: Theory into practice. New York: Random House. Johnson, D. (1987). Group theory and group skills. Englewood, CA: Prentice-Hall. Kimbrough, R. B., & Burkett, C. W., (1990). The principalship concepts and practices. MA: Allyn & Bacon. Kirst, M. (1984). Who controls our schools: American values in conflict. New York: W. LI. Freeman. Kirst, M. W., (1993). Strengths and weaknesses ofAmerican education. The state ofthe nation’s public schools. Indiana: Phi Delta Kappa Leithwood, K.,& Montgomery, D., (1986). The principal profile. Toronto: OTSE Press. Lipham, J. M., (1981). Effective principal, effective school. Reston Virginia: National Association of Secondary School Principals. Lunenburg, F.C., (1996). Educational administration: Concepts and practices. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Madaus, G. F., & Kellaghan, T., (1980). School effectiveness: A reassessment ofthe evidence. New York: Me Graw - Hill. Madsen, D., (1990). Successful dissertations and theses. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Mallory, A. L., (1987). Guidelines & suggestions for performance based principal evaluation in Missouri schools. (Foreward). Missouri Department of Elementary & Secondary Education, Commissioner ofEducation. Jefferson City, MO. Manasse, A. L., (1992). The effective principal: A research summary Reston, Virginia: National Association of Secondary School Principals. McLeary, L. & Thompson, S. (1979). The senior high school principal. Reston, VA: NASSP. Morris, L., & Fitz-Gibbon, T., (1987). How to analyze data. Newbury Park: Sage. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 165. 145 National Association ofSchool Principals. American Association of School Administrators. (1989). Challenges for school leaders. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators. National Association ofElementary School Principals. (1997). Proficiency standards for elementary school principals Third edition. Alexandra, VA: National Foundation on the Improvement ofEducation. (1986). A blueprint for success. Washington, D.C.: The National Foundation on The Improvement ofEducation. Parkay, F. W. (1992). Sources ofsupport for beginning principals: The challenges ofbeginning leadership. Boston: Aillyn and Bacon. Pfeiffer, I. (1982). Supervising teachers: A guide to supervising instruction. Arizona: Onyx Press. Schlechty, P., (1990). Schools for the 21* century. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline. New York: Double-day. Sergiovanni, T. (1979). Supervision: Human perspectives. NewYork: McGraw-Hill. Sergiovanni, T. (1987). The principalship a reflective practice. Newton, Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon. Shuster, A., & Stewart, D. (1973). The principals and the autonomous elementary school. Ohio: Merrill. Smith, W.F., & Andrews, R.L. (1989) Instructional leadership: How principals make a difference. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Southern Regional Educational Board. (1984). New directions for improving school leadership. Atlanta: Southern Regional Education Board. Tanner, D. (1987). Supervision in education: Problems and practices. New Y orkMacmillian Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 166. 146 Wiersma, W. (1986). Research methods in education: An introduction. BostonrAllyn and Bacon Yukel, G. (1982). Managerial leadership and the effective principal. Reston, VA. DISSERTATIONS Bond, G. (1995). Leadership behaviorJHow personality, stress and gender affect leaderbehavior (Doctoral dissertation, University OfWashington, 1995). Dissertation International Abstracts. 56-07. A4046. Cascadden, D. (1996). Principals as managers and leaders: A qualitative study ofthe perspectives ofselected elementary school principals (Doctoral dissertation, College OfWilliam And Mary, 1996). Dissertation Abstracts International 57-08. A3333. Chirichello, M. (1997). A study ofthe preferred leadership styles of principals and the organizational climates in successful public elementary schools in New Jersey public schools (Doctoral dissertation, Steton Hall University, 1997). Dissertation Abstracts International. 58-03 A0659. Futhey, G. (1991). A study ofprincipal leadership in applying the change research to school improvement efforts at the K-5 level (Elementary school) (Doctoral dissertation, Loyola University.1991VDissertation Abstracts International. 52-04. A1145. Ginty, E. F. (1993). Perceptions ofthe beginning building administrator: The transition from teacher to school administrator. (Doctoral dissertation, 1993) Dissertation Abstracts International. The Unversity ofNorthern Colorado, Greeley. Gould, S. (1998). The perceptions ofelementary school principals regarding their role in helping teachers increase student learning. (Doctoral dissertation, University ofMassachusetts, 1998). Dissertation Abstracts International 59-07. A2267. Gregg, T. R (1997). A descriptive study ofpracticing elementary principal’s perceptions oftheir leadership development needs and effective ways of developing their leadership. (Doctoral dissertation, University ofCincinnati, 1997). Dissertation Abstracts International 58 A2951. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 167. 147 Hannel-Scalzo, M. (1997). Leadership characteristics for collaboration: Perceptions ofelementary school principals. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Dayton, 1997)). Dissertation Abstracts International 59-07, A2269. Hallinger, P. (1983). Assessing the instructional management behavior of principals. Dissertation Abstracts International. 44 1226 A - 1609. Harlow, J. (1994). Educational leadership (Doctoral dissertation, Seattle University, 1994). Dissertation Abstracts International. 55-08. A2227. Matyas, M. (1999). An investigation ofshared leadership traits ofeffective elementary school principals, (Doctoral dissertation, 1999V Dissertation Abstract International 60-02. A0299. McCoy, T. (1999). The top ranking internal and external key components needed to be an effective principal in a Saint Louis suburban school district (Doctoral dissertation, Saint Louis, University, 1999). Dissertation Abstracts International 60-08. A2756. Mccullum, P. (1999). Partnerships in the preparation ofeducational administrators. (Doctoral dissertation, Organizational Collaboration, Professional Associations,University-Association Partnerships, 1999). Dissertations Abstracts International 60-02. A0299. Morrison, M H. (1992). The Lessons ofexperience of successful school Principals: How successful principals develop leadership Skills. Dissertation Abstracts International 36. 92-25. Ricciardi, P. (1996). The professional development needs ofexperienced principals in South Carolina (Doctoral dissertation, University OfSouth Carolina, 1996). Dissertation Abstracts International 57-03. A0960. Riggs, W. (1992). The effective elementary principal: Perceptions ofthe essential skills ofeducational leadership. (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana State University, 1992). Dissertation Abstracts International. Sawyer, L. (1998). Factors which contribute to successful schools for disadvantaged students: An exploratory case study oftwo urban elementary schools in Norfolk, Virginia. (Doctoral dissertation, UrbanEducation-African Americans,1998). Dissertation Abstracts International 60-04. A1020. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 168. 148 Wallace, M. (1999). Student performance and administrative interventions within the successful schools consortium (Doctoral dissertation, Texas, 1999). Dissertation Abstract International. 59-07. A2291. DOCUMENTS A nation at risk: A report to the nation and the secretary ofeducation. (1983). Washington, D. C. U. S. Government Printing Office. Batsis, T. M. (1987). Characteristics ofexcellent principals. New Orleans, LA' The annual meeting ofthe National Catholic Educational Association. (ERIC Document Reproduction ServiceNo. ED 285-265). Beck, J. J. (1987). Profile ofthe principalship, a study ofprincipal’s perceptions. A report. (Eric Documents Reproduction Service No. ED 289-288). Bird, T. & Little, J. W. (1985). Instructional leadership in eight secondary Schools. Washington, D. C. National Institute for Education. (Eric Document Reproduction Service No. 263-694). Carnegie Forum in Education and the Economy, (1986). A nation prepared: Teachers for the 21“ century. New York:Camegie. Clark, D. & Lotto, L. (1982, October). Principals in instructionaily effective schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Department ofEducation, National Institute ofEducation. Coleman, J. (1966). Equality ofeducational opportunity. Washington: United States Government Printing Office. Danforth Program (1987) for the preparation of school principals: Position paper. St Louis: Danforth Foundation. Fullan, M. (1987). Supervising officers in Ontario: Current practices and recommendation for the future. Final report to the Ontario Ministry ofEducation. National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. (Stock no. 065-000-00177-2). Washington, D.C: U. S. Government Printing Office. Sergiovanni, T. (1986). Carnegie forum on education and the economy: A nation prepared: Teachers for the 21“ century. New York: Carnegie. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 169. 149 Snyder, K. & Johnson, W. (1994). Assessing school work culture. American Educational Research Association. New Orleans, LA. United States Department ofEducation (1987). Principal selection guide. Washington, D. C. Office ofEducational Research and Improvement, IS, 87-114. Watson, P. & Crawford, J. (1985, April). The school makes a difference: Analysis ofteacher perceptions oftheir principal and school climate. Paper presented at the annual meeting ofthe American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 170. VTTAAUCTORIS Mary Ellen Burford was bom November25 in Hempstead County, Arkansas where she lived until moving to S t Louis, Missouri as a young girl. She attended elementary and secondary schools in St Louis, Missouri. She attended college at Lincoln University in Jefferson City, Missouri and received a Bachelor of Science Degree in Elementary Education from the University in 1966. Mrs. Burford began her teaching career at Douglass Elementary School in Webster Groves, Missouri. While in Webster Groves, she was a classroom teacher, an elementary school counselor and a reading specialist for the elementary grades. Later she was a reading specialist for the middle grades seven through eighth at Hixson Middle School. She also served as an educational consultant to the mid west region states where she participated in writing a manual for educational goals in Missouri schools. Mrs. Burford studied team teaching and individualized instruction at the University of California in Los Angeles and reading strategies for children, at Washington University in S t Louis. She studied the social sciences at Webster University in Webster Groves, Missouri. She received her graduate degree in education in 1972 from WebsterUniversity. In 1994, Mrs. Burford developed and directed a program for students and parents in Webster Groves, Missouri. The goal ofthe program was to involve ISO Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  • 171. 151 children and their parents in the improvement ofacademic achievement and development and enrichment oftheir community. Mrs. Burford remained in the Webster Groves School District until 1996 when she was offered a position as Assistant Head of Chesterfield Day School, a private independent elementary school, in Chesterfield, Missouri. After the first year she was appointed to the position ofLower School Head ofthe White Road Campus ofChesterfield Day School. In 1998, Mrs. Burford was offered the position ofDirector ofThe Village Academy in St. Louis, Missouri. Presently she is completing requirements for the degree ofDoctor ofPhilosophy in Educational Leadership at Saint Louis University in St. Louis, Missouri. Mrs. Burford is a memberofPhi Delta Kappa ofWashington University, International Training in Communications, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, The Junior League of St. Louis, Toastmasters International and Altrusa International of St. Louis, Missouri. As a member ofthese organizations she participates in civic, educational, volunteer, and social activities which involve individual and community projects. Mrs. Burford is married and is the mother of one son, Todd. She is a member of Saint Alphonsus Catholic Church in S t Louis Missouri. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.