Foundations of Ethics: East to West Ronnie Goodin “For it is his dealings with those whom he can easily wrong which reveal a man’s genuine unfeigned reverence for right & wrong.” Plato, The Laws, p. 27 of Book 6 (p. 160)
WHAT IS ETHICS p. 8 C.S. Lewis compared ethics to a fleet of ships & the orders tell the ships 3 things:• How to cooperate with one another = Social ethics.• How to keep each ship afloat = Individual ethics.• What is the ship’s mission = Purpose of life!“Managers draw on all the knowledges & insights of the humanities & thesocial sciences – on psychology, & philosophy, on economics & history,on ethics – as well as the physical sciences.” Peter Drucker, The Essential Drucker, p. 13
RELIGION (& ETHICS) 101• Confucius• Buddhists Max Weber C. Hall, International Business, p. 86-88• Daoism/Taoism Dr. Peter Zhao Xiao Former head of Economic Research Institute CONTRASTING• Western ReligionsCounterpoint: Has ancient law always been seen as righteous?Shall the throne of iniquity have fellowship with thee, which framethmischief by a law. Psalm 94-20
3 POISIONS (BUDDISM) The Dalai Lama & Daniel Goleman, Destructive Emotions, xix • Hatred Counterpoint: “Greed is good” Character Gordon Gecko Movie: Wall Street • Craving Dotlich, Cairo & Rhinesmith, Head, Heart & Guts, p. 93 • DelusionDARK SIDE OF CAPITOLISM: “The more we pursue material improvement, ignoring the contentmentthat comes of inner growth, the faster ethical values disappear fromour communities.” The Dalai Lama & Daniel Goleman, Destructive Emotions, xiv
STATES OF MIND The Dalai Lama & Daniel Goleman, Destructive Emotions, P. 67-68Destructive States of Mind Constructive States of Mind • Low self-esteem • Self-respect • Over confidence • Self-esteem (if deserved) • Harboring negative • Feelings of integrity emotions • Compassion • Jealousy & envy • Benevolence • Lack of compassion • Generosity • Inability to have close • Seeing the true, the personal relations good, the right • Love • Friendship
JUDEO-CHRISTIANITY - DAOISM There is an appointed time for everything. And there is a time for every event under heaven-- • A time to give birth and a time to die; A time to plant and a time to uproot what is planted. • A time to kill and a time to heal; A time to tear down and a time to build up. • A time to weep and a time to laugh; A time to mourn and a time to dance. • A time to throw stones and a time to gather stones; A time to embrace and a time to shun embracing. • A time to search and a time to give up as lost; A time to keep and a time to throw away. • A time to tear apart and a time to sew together; A time to be silent and a time to speak. • A time to love and a time to hate; A time for war and a time for peace. Ecclesiastes 3 by Solomon Appx 900 BC
JUDEO-CHRISTIANITY - DAOISMThere is an appointed time for everything. And there is a time for every event under heaven—A time to give birth and a time to die; A time to plant and a time to uproot what is There is a time for being ahead, planted. a time for being behind;A time to kill and a time to heal; A time to tear down and a time to build up. a time for being in motion,A time to weep and a time to laugh; A time to mourn and a time to dance. a time for being at rest;A time to throw stones and a time to gather stones; A time to embrace and a time to shun a time for being vigorous, embracing.A time to search and a time to give up as lost; a time for being exhausted; A time to keep and a time to throw away.A time to tear apart and a time to sew together; a time for being safe, A time to be silent and a time to speak. a time for being in danger.A time to love and a time to hate; A time for war and a time for peace. Ecclesiastes 3 by Solomon Tao Te Ching by Lao-tzu (551-479 BC) interpreted by Stephen Mitchell Appx 900 BC
CHRISTIANITY – BUDDHISM LAW COMPARISON 10 COMMANDMENTS 5 BUDDHIST STRUGGLES (last 5) AGAINST SIN • Thou shalt not kill. • Abstain from killing. • Thou shalt not commit • Abstain from illicit sex. adultery. • Thou shalt not steal. • Abstain from stealing. • Thou shalt not bear false • Abstain from lying.* witness. • Abstain from intoxication. • Thou shalt not covet. China, John K. Fairbank & Merle Goldman, p. 79 Exodus 20: 13-17*“Do not lie to anyone at all. There are exceptions, when lying can result ingreat benefit to others, but they are rare.” Dalai Lama, How to Practice The Way to a Meaningful Life P. 106 & 112 In the East, “laws were subordinate to morality.” China, John K. Fairbank & Merle Goldman, p. 183
GOLDEN RULE(S)• Christianity - Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.• Judaism – What is hurtful to yourself do not do to your fellow man. That is the whole of the Torah & the remainder is but commentary.• Islam - Do unto all men as you would wish to have done unto you; & reject for others what you would reject for yourselves.
GOLDEN RULE(S)• Buddhism – Hurt not others that which pains yourself.• Confucianism – Tzu-Kung asked, ‘Is there 1 principle upon which one’s whole life may proceed?’ The Master replied, ‘Is not Reciprocity such a principle? – what you do not yourself desire, do not put before others.’• Hinduism – This is the sum of all true righteousness – Treat others, as thou wouldst thyself be treated. Do nothing to thy neighbor, which hereafter thou wouldst not have thy neighbor do to thee.
RIGHTEOUSNESS = INTEGRITY (ETHICS)Fire employees for ethics breech.Packard of HP Collins & Porras, Built to Last, p. 191 VALUE FOUNDATION 2Welch of GE, Winning, p. 161 Fairness trumps integrity Intuitive Beliefs INTEGRITY *Faith Based Positive Peer Pressure Critical Failure Alignment Dalia Lama, Ethics for the New Millennium
Injustice Ignorance Justice Unholiness Wisdom Holiness VIRTUE Cowardice FoolishnessTemperance Courage Is there one thing all citizens must share, if a state is to exist at all? Protagoras & Socrates dialogue In Plato’s Protagoras, p. 56, 64-65.
ARISTOTLE’S GOLDEN MEAN Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle [Richard McKeon] / Also, Plato, The Laws, Book 3, p. 31 (p. 85) VIRTUE EXCESS DEFICITCowardice Courage RecklessnessToo sensitive Temperance Too insensitive (to pleasure & pain) Vanity Proper Pride False humility Western Religion & Buddhism Jim Collins, Good to Great Counterpoint: Thomas Aquinas believes 3 virtues - faith, hope & love is not a mean between 2 extremes. Supplementary Point: Avoid the extremes. Confucius
Philosophy & Religious Pre-Summary• “Euripides, in his last plays, conceded that the mystery of moral evil & of folly could no longer be explained by external cause, by the bite of Ate, as if by a spider, . . Men & women had to confront it as part of their being.”Barbara W. Tuchman, March of Folly, p. 381 – A half millennia later, Jesus’ parable of the harvest teaches the same lesson: good seeds & seeds of weeds grow together in the field because removal of the bad plants damage the roots of the good plants, both grow together till the harvest when the good is only then separated from the bad - one meaning is that good & evil co-exist in a body.
HIRING – INTEGRITY By the Seat of Your Pants, p. 52, Tom Gegax• Everyone has bent or broken a rule at one time or another. What was one of your recent transgressions & what did you learn from it?• Are all rules valid?• If you felt a rule was unfair, what would you do about it?• Have you ever broken a rule to satisfy a customer? If so, how?• Which is more important, customer service or making a profit? Why? Supporting Point - “Ask yourself: How often are brute integrity & explicit communication worth the price of the listener’s goodwill, open-mindedness, & receptivity to change?” Pascale & Athos, The Art of Japanese Management, p. 102
CRACK THE DOOR ENCOURAGING UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR REWARDS Daniel Pink, Drive• “Often rewards inflict collateral damage.” P. 27 “They can give us more of what we don’t want” P. 49• “If someone’s baseline rewards aren’t adequate or equitable, her focus will be on the unfairness of her situation & the anxiety of her circumstance.” P. 35• Carrots & sticks can encourage cheating, shortcuts, & unethical behavior. P. 66• “When the reward is the activity itself – deepening learning, delighting customers, doing one’s best – there are no shortcuts. The only route to the destination is the high road. In some sense, it’s impossible to act unethically because the person who’s disadvantaged isn’t a competitor but yourself.” P. 51 Law firms billing P. 99
DECISION PROCESS The Essential Drucker, Peter Drucker, 242-243 Alfred Sloan• “Clear realization that the problem is generic & could only be solved through a decision that established a rule, a principle.• The definition of the specifications that the answer to the problem had to satisfy, that is, of ‘boundary conditions’.• The thinking through what is right, that is the solution that fully satisfies the specifications before attention is given to compromises. . . needed to make the decision acceptable.• Building into the decision the action to carry it out.• The ‘feedback’ that tests the validity & effectiveness of the decision against the actual course of events.” When Motorola founder, Paul Galvin, faced current industry practice of misrepresenting company financial health, he responded, “Tell them the truth, 1st because it’s the right thing to do. . .” Collins & Porras, Built to Last, p. 82
ETHICS → VISION• “. . . if the edges of the vision are blurred, you don’t know what is ‘risk in pursuit of the vision’ as opposed to ‘risk for risk’s sake’.” Thriving on Chaos, Tom Peters, p. 522• “Yes leadership is about vision . But leadership is equally about creating a climate where the truth is heard & brutal facts confronted. There is a huge difference between the opportunity to ‘have your say’ & the opportunity to be heard.” Good to Great, Jim Collins p. 74 “There are a thousand hacking at the branches of evil to one who is striking at the root, . .” Henry David Thoreau
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS Charles Hill, International Business, 3rd Ed. p. 68-70• Totalitarian countries• Regulations variation between parent company its foreign located organization – Environment – Sweatshops• Corruption – Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (1977) • Bribes “. . . corruption tends to corrupt both – Get a foot-in-the-door the bribe giver & the bribe taker.” p. 70 – Speed up approval process
GRAPPLING WITH ‘RIGHT’ David Dotlich, Peter Cairo & Stephen Rhinesmith, Head, Heart & Guts, p. 203 1 OF 2• Why are you taking a stand on this particular issue? – Has an ideal you hold dear been violated? – Does it seem as if you can’t live with yourself if you don’t take this stand?• Have you examined your motivation for making a decision or taking this action? – Is this really a matter of integrity, or is there an element of self- interest involved?• Are you asked to do things by your boss or follow policies in line with organizational values that you find personally repugnant? – Have you attempted to articulate your feelings about this subject to senior leaders? – Have you looked for alternatives that might make your job more acceptable from a personal values perspective?
GRAPPLING WITH ‘RIGHT’ David Dotlich, Peter Cairo & Stephen Rhinesmith, Head, Heart & Guts, p. 203 1 OF 2• Do you feel your belief in the right or wrong way to do things at work has evolved over time? – Have certain experiences allowed you to adapt & adjust your attitude, or are you so dug in that nothing will move you to consider another definition of what’s right?• Do you distinguish between organizational-legal ethics & personal integrity? – Are there situations in which you act in ways that conform to ethical behavior, as the board might interpret it, but still feel that you’re doing something that goes against your principles?• What are the risks if you take a stand on this issue? – How do you want people to interpret this action? – What is it you are trying to ‘say’? “Counterpoint: “And he who defines his conduct by ethics imprisons his song-bird in a cage.” Kahlil Gibran, The Prophet, p. 77
LEADERSHIP DIAGNOSTICS Henry Cloud, Necessary Endings, p. 119, Ch. 7 THREE TYPES OF PEOPLE Referring to unhealthy conflict: WISE “If you hear no evil, see no evil, & speak no evil, evil will notOf course, each type FOOLISH cease to exist.” John C. Maxwell, Winning with People, p. 111must be dealt with differently. EVILA wise man is cautious & turns away fromevil, but a fool is arrogant & careless. A time to love,Solomon Proverbs 14:16 A time to hate, “Better give your path to a dog, than be bitten Ecclesiastes 3:8 By him in contesting the right. Even Killing the dog would not cure the bite.” “The transparent leader fights evil.” Lincoln, Donald Phillips, Lincoln on Leadership, p. 82 Herb Baum, The Transparent Leader, p. 160
PRE-CONCLUSION Dalai Lama Ethics for the New Millennium Ethical DisciplineEXERCISE RESTRAINT CULTIVATE VIRTUE p. 146p.87• Anger • Love• Hatred • Compassion• Greed • Patience• Pride • Tolerance• Selfishness • Forgiveness “The undisciplined mind is like an elephant. If left to blunder around out of control, it wreaks havoc.” p. 82
ETHICS & THE LAW (CONCLUSION)• Dark side of law according Paul Romans 7: 7-12 What then should we say? That the law is sin? By no means! Yet, if it had not been for the law, I would not have known sin. I would not have known what it is to covet if the law had not said, “You shall not covet.” But sin, seizing an opportunity in the commandment, produced in me all kinds of covetousness. Apart from the law sin lies dead. I was once alive apart from the law, but when the commandment came, sin revived & I died, & the very commandment that promised life proved to be death to me. For sin, seizing an opportunity in the commandment, deceived me & through it killed me. Taoism “ . . . if you need rules to be kind & just . . . this is a sure sign virtue is absent. . .” Lao-tzu Tao Te Ching, 18th verse What is ethics? “Ethics is others” According to John Dalla Costa, author of The Ethical Imperative Leadership from the Inside Out, 2nd Ed., Kevin Cashman, p. 85
ANIMAL KINGDOM MODEL? 1 of 6 Abdullah Yusuf Ali translator Qur’an footnote 427 Ex: Depth of Fear (or Usefulness of Fear) Turkeys Cattle - Cats Prepare for inevitable Squirrels Preempting the undesirable Controlling the controllable Chickens Henry Mintzberg, The Rise & Fall of Strategic Planning, p. 17-18 “. . . there is an innate rightness to the recurring forms of nature.” David Bayles & Ted Orland, Art & Fear, p. 103“I found . . . that applying steady pressure from the rear worked best. Eventually, onewould decide to pass through the gate; & the rest would follow. Press too hard & they’dpanic, scattering in all directions. Slack off entirely & they’d just head back to their oldgrazing spots. That insight was useful throughout my management career.”David Packard, HP Way, p. 69-70
REMEMBERKenneth Lay NY Times Reporter Enron Jayson Blair Ted Kaczynski UnabomberHarvard graduate Martha Stewart
George Harrison Angelina Jolie
Brad Stevens Butler Univ. Tim Tebow • Humility • Passion • Unity Tony Dungy • Servant-hoodLombardi • Thankfulness
President Chester Arthur “I tried so hard to do the right thing.” President Grover Cleveland
Reggie White Steve Young
CO N NC IO LU US SI N CL ONCO At the end, one thing you should not say is. ‘I should have.’“I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith.” Paul S1
• ETHICS’ REFERENCES Ethics for the New Millennium, Dalai Lama• Destructive Emotions, p. 67-68, The Dalai Lama & Daniel Goleman• The Modern Scholar – Ethics, Peter Kreeft• The Republic, Plato• Protagoras, p. 56, 64-65, Plato• Tao Te Ching, Lao-tzu• By the Seat of Your Pants, p. 107-118, Tom Gegax• Head, Heart & Guts, D. Dotlich, P. Cairo & S. Rhinesmith, p. 203• Ecclesiastes, Ch. 3, Solomon• Thriving on Chaos, Tom Peters, p. 519, 522• Built to Last, Jim Collins & Jerry Porras, p. 82• Good to Great, Jim Collins, p. 74• The Divine Conspiracy, Dallas Willard, p.83, 326 1st presented as a tutorial at the International System• Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle [W. D. Ross] Safety Society • The Transparent Leader, Herb Baum