1. Behavioral ManagementThe ABCs of Behavior (Operant Conditioning) The “Setting Event” or the thing that sets the Antecedent stage for behavior to occur The performance or behavior – what a person Behavior does (anything a dead person cannot do) The “Reaction” – a state or act resulting from Consequence the behavior
2. Behavioral ManagementReinforcement: The Four Consequences Positive Reinforcement Most Effective • Get something good (desired) Increase Negative Reinforcement Behavior • Avoid something bad (desired) Improving Organizational Penalty Performance • Lose something good (undesired) Decrease Punishment Behavior • Get something bad (undesired) Least Effective For more information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operant_conditioning
3. Behavioral ManagementReinforcement: ExtinctionExtinction is the eradication of a behavior. You can extinguish abehavior by: Using consistent punishment or penalty Not providing any reinforcement (ignoring)Notes: Behaviors being extinguished generally flare stronger prior to stopping People may be receiving consequences or reinforcements from other sources or intrinsically, so ignoring may not always extinguish Unfortunately, in the absence of intrinsic rewards, you can inadvertently extinguish desired behaviors by ignoring them
4. Behavioral ManagementReinforcement: Three Dimensions of Consequence How compelling is the consequence? Does the performer consider the consequence Perspective Positive or Negative positive (desired) or negative (undesired)? Does the consequence occur directly after the Timing Immediate or Future behavior, or sometime later? What is the likelihood that the consequence will Probability Certain or Uncertain occur? The most compelling = PIC The least compelling = NFU
5. Behavioral ManagementReinforcement: The Six Personal Needs To motivate, choose consequences based on personal needs Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs The Six Personal Needs Order Physiological: food water shelter Safety Needs Safety and security Order Become Belonging Affiliation Motivators Esteem Recognition Power Self-actualization Power Achievement
6. Behavioral ManagementTips for Consequence Management Positive reinforcement has been proven to encourage discretionary effort – it makes people work harder than before Negative reinforcement increases behavior but encourages only compliance or minimum performance (those who get negative reinforcement do only what is necessary to escape punishment) Punishment and Penalty must be used sparingly on behaviors you want to extinguish – they do not encourage or shape positive behavior at any level Whether or not a consequence is motivating is determined by the individual Make consequences and action plans personal… tie to personal needs and motivators Extinction occurs when someone does something and nothing happens. If your people do good work and you say nothing, you’re decreasing the chances that it will happen again.
7. Behavioral ManagementSome Recommended Reading Daniels: Bringing Out The Best In People Daniels: Performance Management Fournies: Coaching For improved Work Performance Fournies: Why Employee Don’t Do What They’re Supposed To Do