Plan601E Session 3 Presentation

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  • 1. WHAT IS VISUAL REASONING?PLAN601E VERBAL AND VISUAL: INFORMATION GRAPHICS (SESSION 3)
  • 2. Let’s test out our graphic design vocabulary: LAYERS, HIERARCHY, COLOR, SCALE, BALANCE.NAPOLEON’S MARCH “Probably the best statistical graphic ever drawn.”CHARLES JOSEPH MINARD
  • 3. “When information is stacked in time, it isdifficult to understand context and evaluaterelationships. Visual reasoning usuallyworks more effectively when the relevantinformation is shown adjacent in space withinour eyespan. This is especially the casefor statistical data, where the fundamentalanalytical act is to make comparisons.” (4)THE COGNITIVE STYLEOF POWERPOINT
  • 4. THE COGNITIVE STYLE John Graunt, “Bills of Mortality” (1662)OF POWERPOINT
  • 5. “Information architectures mimic the hierarchicalstructure of the bureaucracy producing thosearchitectures. Indeed, the report of the ColumbiaAccident Investigation Board suggests that thedistinctive cognitive style of PowerPoint reinforcedhierarchical filtering and biases of the NASAbureaucracy during the crucial period when theColumbia was injured but still alive... The choice ofheadings, arrangement of information, and size ofbullets on the key chart served to highlight whatmanagement already believed.” (10)THE COGNITIVE STYLEOF POWERPOINT
  • 6. “Yet in visual reasoning, art, typography,cartography, even sculpture, the quantity ofdetail is an issue completely separate fromthe difficulty of reading. Indeed, at times, themore intense the detail, the greater the clarityand understanding – because meaning andreasoning are contextual. Less is a bore.” (12)THE COGNITIVE STYLEOF POWERPOINT
  • 7. “A better metaphor for presentations isgood teaching. Teachers seek to explainsomething with credibility, which is whatmany presentations are trying to do. The coreideas of teaching – explanation, reasoning,finding things out, questioning, content,evidence, credible authority not patronizingauthoritarianism – are contrary to thehierarchical market-pitch approach.” (13)THE COGNITIVE STYLEOF POWERPOINT
  • 8. “It is helpful to provide audience members with at leastone mode of information that allows them to control theorder and pace of learning... Paper handouts for talkswill help provide a permanent record for review – againunlike projected images and talk. Another way to breakfree of low-resolution temporal comparisons is to showmultiple slides, several images at once within the commonview. Spatial parallelism takes advantage of our notablecapacity to reason about multiple images that appearsimultaneously within our eyespan. We are able to select,sort, edit, reconnoiter, review – ways of seeing quickened andsharpened by direct spatial adjacency of evidence.” (23)THE COGNITIVE STYLEOF POWERPOINT