PROFILINGVULNERABILITYNEW JERSEY INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYJANUARY 28, 2013
TWO SIDES OF VULNERABILITY SOCIAL-ECONOMIC RISKS AND STRESSES CONDITIONS How and why people are What factors influence exposed to negative capacity to respond?* impacts of climate change and disaster? * KEYWORDS: “Adaptive capacity” / “Contextual conditions”
FOUR AREAS OF VULNERABILITY Social Groups Systems / Sectors Spatial Areas Infrastructure* Age Communications Economic activities / Coastal areas Gender Energy Livelihoods Steep slopes Family structure Transportation Governance Density Disabilities Water Areas of Income Waste informal housing Land tenure Areas lacking basic services Socially excluded groups Language * KEYWORDS: “Critical Infrastructure” (NPCC): Diminished functioning would havedebilitating impact on public safety or economic security.
“BUNDLES OF STRESSES” Across Multiple Coupling Causation / scales sources Correlation B A B A CA3 BA2 B AA1 A C D
SOURCES OF DATAQuantitative QualitativeDemographic data Structured and unstructured interviewsSurvey data • Social networks • Economic activityGeographic Information Systems • Family structure • Perceptions• Topography • Hydrology Observational mapping• Soils • Flood areas • Building materials • Social spaces• Vegetative cover • Buildings • MobilityClimate data (precipitation, sea-level, etc.)
WE BELIEVE IN ENABLINGCITIZENS AND GOVERNMENTOFFICIALS ALIKE TO UNDERSTANDTHE COMPLEXITIES OF THE BUILTENVIRONMENT SO THEY CANBETTER TAKE ON THE PROBLEMSAND OPPORTUNITIES THAT COMEWITH RAMPANT URBANIZATION.
SKK TEAM RIFAI IAN DINAMICHAEL FOUNDER (SOLO) FACILITATOR (SOLO) DESIGNER (UNS)FOUNDER (NYC) ALICE ALYKHAN JOHN STEPHEN DESIGNER (MIT) BIMA PLANNER (GSD) FOUNDER DESIGNER (MIT) DESIGNER (UNS) (JAKARTA)
KOTA – CITY Indonesia gov’t collects basic demographic data.KECAMATAN – DISTRICT No data collection.KELURAHAN – NEIGHBORHOOD Indonesia gov’t collects basic demographic data.RT – RW Social and physical indicators tracked by RT-leaders.
PADANGHOUSE BY HOUSEMERCY CORPSPOST-DISASTER HOUSING AND VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT
Purus PADANG CITYIndian Ocean Parak Laweh Pasa Gadang Pangilun Hill Indarung Hill 0 0.5 1 km.
The Recovery CycleSource: Adapted from Bill Morrish, “After the Storm” EMERGENCY RESTORE REBUILD RECONSTRUCT Emergency Over Lights On Back to Normal Resilient CityCoping Capacity 10 Days 1 Month 1 Year 10 Years Length of Phase
What kind of housing?What level of poverty?How many dependents?How close to the coast?
Purus Habitat Map Purus Circulation DiagramSources: BAPPEDA, Google Earth, Mercy Corps Survey, March 2010 Sources: BAPPEDA, Google Earth, Mercy Corps Survey, March 2010 Bandar Kanal Bandar Kanal JL JL . IR . IR Danau Danau .H .H Buatan Buatan .J .J UA UA ND ND A A JL. PURUS 6 JL. PURUS 6 JL. PURUS 5 JL. PURUS 5 JL. PURUS 4 JL. PURUS 4 Indian Ocean Indian Ocean JL. PURUS 3 JL. PURUS 3 JL. SAMUDRA JL. SAMUDRA JL. PURUS 2 JL. PURUS 2 JL. PURUS 1 JL. PURUS 1 JL. OLO LADANG JL. OLO LADANG Neighborhood Center School Trees Connection to City Barrier Bridge Masjid Hospital 0 100 200 m. Internal Street Isolated Area Dead-end 0 100 200 m.
Confined Masonry Semi- and Non-Permanent Load Bearing “Rumah Toko”
Permanent MasonryPermanent RCSemi-permanentFerrocementNon-permanentNo Data Purus Construction Types Purus Recovery Activity Confined Masonry Ferrocement No Activity Rebuilt Load Bearing Masonry Non-permanent Demolished In Progress Semi-permanent
TOP OCCUPATIONS % HH in POVERTY POPULATION DENSITY (People per Hectare) Laborers Private Company 2 – 25% 50 – 75% 60 – 150 250 – 350 Employees Fishermen 25 – 50% 150 – 250 350 – 438
202 1,453 PURUS CHILDREN Laborers% OUT SCHOOL = 14% 28 160 LABORER CHILDREN% OUT SCHOOL = 18% Fishermen 75 395 % OUT OF SCHOOL 0 – 14% 25 – 45%FISHERMEN CHILDREN 14 – 25%% OUT SCHOOL = 19%
Areas at Risk of FloodingSources: BAPPEDA, Google Earth, Mercy Corps Survey, March 2010 Bandar Kanal JL . IR Danau .H Buatan .J UA RD A JL. PURUS 6 JL. PURUS 5 JL. PURUS 4 Indian Ocean JL. PURUS 3 JL. SANNDRA JL. PURUS 2 JL. PURUS 1 JL. OLO LADANG 15 m. Buffer House at Risk of Flooding 0 100 200 m.
Unur Area UNUR AREA Gandan Monastery 1 km +4 km PEACE AVENUE Sukhbaatar Square Tuul River Floodplain
Areas of Flooding (since 1990) Central Ger Areas Middle Ger Areas Peri-urban Ger Areas Major Road(Source: CCCI Scoping Team) UNUR AREA
Unur Area Boundary Khoroo Boundary Ger Unur Area Khashaas Fence Boundary Building in Ger-area Building Container Unpaved Road Khoroo 12 Paved Road Gulley / Drainage Canal Formal Open Space Khoroo 14 Khoroo 16 Khoroo 13 Khoroo 17 Khoroo 15 ARD AYUSH AVENUE Khoroo 16 Drainage Canal ZALUUS STRE BARILGACHIN ET STREET UE PEACE AVENUNUR AREA SITE PLANSource: Google Earth, December 2010 0 100 200 m. N
Unur Area Boundary Khoroo Boundary Gulley / Drainage Canal Unur Area Flood Area Identified by Boundary Community Members Khoroo 12 Khoroo 14 Khoroo 16 Khoroo 13 Khoroo 17 Khoroo 15 ARD AYUSH AVENUE Khoroo 16 Drainage Canal ZALUUS STRE BARILGACHIN ET STREET UE PEACE AVENFLOOD AREA COMMUNITY MAPPINGSource: CCCI Scoping Study Team GIS, Workshop Participant Input 0 100 200 m. N
Catchment Area Boundary Flood water in gullyTerrain Contour Storm water run-off SLOW LANES FAST LANES Before there was development in Unur, Today, there is less vegetation to absorb water, vegetation on the ground absorbed storm so more storm water reaches the gully. Since water before it reached the gully. 50% of the catchment area is developed with khashaas, run-off has increased by 5% to 10%.
A Section A – Steep slope B Extended Plot Section B – Flat area N 0 25 50 m. 0 5 10 m.WHY SOME AREAS FLOODWhere the gully is narrow and the slopes steep, the gully has enough space to carryflood water, but where the gully is wide and flat, the flood water spreads out. These flatareas are usually where khashaas owners have extended their plots.
EXISTING CONDITIONVehicles and people share an unpaved road located in a gully.
DO # 1 –Do allow water to absorb into the ground at the khashaaslevel by creating a trench filled with boulders and pebbles.
MIMIC ROLE OF VEGETATION ON KHASHAAS PLOTBy digging a trench and filling it with boulders, pebbles, or other coursematerials, khashaas owners can capture as much storm water on the plot aswould be retained by vegetation if the ground were in a natural condition.
DOS # 2 & 3 –Do make storm drains along roads with repaving.Do make culverts at places where road crosses storm waterdrainage and at khashaas entrances.
GABION WALL Stone and tires can be used MANY RESOURCES for gabion walls, but khashaas owners may be unwilling to give up land and the working season is very short. NATURAL EDGE HOUSING SETBACK Creating “green gullies” can reduce The high level of community organization stormwater and also improve the image will help to enforce a housing setback, of the community, but residents are but first people have to understand the unsure about the costs of maintaining benefits of adjusting their khashaas. vegetation in the gullies. EARLY WARNING SYSTEM Everyone has mobile phones, so an STREET DRAINS early warning system can easily provide Residents have man power and information to residents, but residents are skills to construct street drains, unsure about the costs of the system. but the costs are very high for coordinating this with street paving.LOW PRIORITY HIGH PRIORITY HOME ELEVATION Stones and tires available in the PUBLIC AWARENESS CAMPAIGN khoroos could also be used to elevate Residents think that many of the other tools will homes, but this may go against the work only after the community understands the traditional mind-set of constructing gers benefits, but they are unsure whether they have so residents may not understand the resources to craft their own awareness campaign; benefits; also, elevating homes means also, there are few recognized public spaces in the people may still live in vulnerable areas. Unur area to distribute information. RESETTLEMENT There already is a municipal policy for resettling residents away from vulnerable FEW RESOURCES areas, but the available land is far from the city center and lacks basic infrastructure, so the current policy doesn’t work for residents.HOW TO READ THIS MAP. . .This map interprets and summarizes participants’ discussion of resources and barriersfor implementing the toolkit. Residents thought, for example, that they already possessresources for the tools in the upper right quadrant, so these are the highest priorities.This map can help evaluate solutions, but is not the only decision-making tool.
FORUM.ANGONETDEVELOPMENT WORKSHOPADVOCACY PLANNING AND DATA VISUALIZATION
CAZENGA ATLAS December 2012INTRODUCTION 4 HOUSING 12WATER 6 EDUCATION 14 FORUM CAZENGASANITATION 8 HEALTH 16 CAZENGA ATLAS – DECMEBER 2012SOLID WASTE 10 HOW TO PARTICIPATE 18
Solid Waste: Waste collection ACCESS TO SANITITION BY PROPORTION OF HOUSEHOLDScomes to residents % HH with Weekly or Daily Rubbish Collection 98% of HHPUBLIC SPACES FREE OF waste collection has CAZENGAHOUSEHOLD WASTE especially beneﬁtted LUANDA 0% 25 % 50 % 75 % 100 % children who can now 81% of HHMecias is 23 years old and has a job driving play where there werea tractor throughout to collect household rubbish piles blocking % HH that Think the Neighborhood is Dirtywaste with crews of municipal workers. roads and paths. 55% of HHMecias has lived his entire life in Cazenga “Instead of peopleand recently started this job. “It’s my having to go to whereresponsibility to my people. I’ve been sent the waste collection is, we go to the waste!” CAZENGA 0% 25 % 50 % 75 % 100 %to the community to do my part,” he says. Mecias says.He’s proud to make this contribution andfeels that by removing waste, his team is The waste collection program is beingmaking the bairro cleaner and healthier. piloted throughout Cazenga. Tractors are essential for driving over Cazenga’s rugged,“You can breathe pure air now,” one narrow lanes. CAZENGA IS DOING BETTERof Mecia’s neighbors said. Household THAN LUANDA AS A WHOLE SOLUTION: RUBBISH COLLECTION IN TERMS OF REGULAR SOLID WASTE COLLECTION. LOCAL WASTE COLLECTION IS A MUNICIPAL SERVICE THAT AIMS TO IMPROVE HEALTH CONDITIONS IN CAZENGA BY REMOVING RUBBISH FROM AREAS THAT ATTRACT RODENTS AND INSECTS. THE PROGRAM ALSO FREES BREAKING THE CYCLE OF PUBLIC SPACES FROM WASTE, WHICH INDUSTRY WASTE IN THE PUBLIC REALM IMPROVES MOBILITY. Regular waste collection in Cazenga is MARKET HOUSEHOLD helping to break the cycle of inadequate ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES RESIDENTS CAN PARTICIPATE IN waste disposal in public spaces, which Sources of Waste creates health and safety risks. When THE PROGRAM BY PUTTING WASTE waste accumulates in public spaces, it OUTSIDE OF THEIR HOUSE ON THE creates health issues which also impact NO WASTE WASTE DESIGNATED DAYS OF THE WEEK. THE COLLECTION COLLECTION homes, work-places, and markets. PROGRAM ALSO CREATES EMPLOYMENT Impacts on public OPPORTUNITIES IN CAZENGA BY HIRING spaces, health, and services RESIDENTS TO WORK ON THE WASTE COLLECTION TEAMS. PILES OF WASTE LANDFILL CONTAMINATED INSECTS WATER OPEN FIRES RECYCLING FORUM CAZENGA | 2012 ATLAS 1110 FORUM CAZENGA | 2012 ATLAS
Housing: Incremental building OVERCROWDING NUMBER OF PEOPLE PER HOUSEHOLDcreates ﬂexibility to saveSTEP BY STEP CONSTRUCTION kids,” says Manuel. “It wasn’t enough for theManuel Antonio is 32 years old. Even though three of us to live in onehe has lived in Cazenga his entire life, he has bedroom. So my wifealways been working on building his house. and I earned money Luanda = 7.5 People / HH Cazenga = 9.3 People / HH and started to enlarge“Construction of a house is a process. First the house.”I built one room, after that I built a living PHYSICAL VULNERABILTYroom. Slowly but surely I’ve been adding Building houses over More residents are exposed tomore rooms,” Manuel says. Incremental time means families can be ﬂexible about ﬂoods and other physical risks each year as more people move intoconstruction is practiced by many in how they save money and how they invest Cazenga, which creates pressure toCazenga because it allows people to build in their home. Staying in one place also build housing on land near streamshouses based on their needs and ﬁnancial means they beneﬁt in the long-term from and lagoons. In 2010, there wereresources – which are always changing. their family networks and proximity 13,600 residents in 1,950 houses YEAR: 2001 YEAR: 2005 YEAR: 2011 living in vulnerable areas such as to employment. this one in Hoji ya Henda.“There was a need to enlarge the housewhen I got married and started to have ENCROACHMENT ON LAGOONS PHYSICAL VULNERABILITY OF HOUSING SOLUTION: KIXICASA MICROFINANCE “THE POPULATION HAS “THERE ARE ALWAYS THE KIXICASA MICRO-FINANCE INCREASED, IT DOESN’T NEW PEOPLE.” “EVERYONE STOP GROWING” PROGRAM PROVIDES FAMILIES IN WANTS TO LIVE IN A BETTER HOUSE.” HUAMBO WITH THE OPPORTUNITY TO ACCESS SMALL LOANS TO IMPROVE THEIR HOUSES BY UTILIZING THE “SOLIDARITY GROUP” LENDING METHOD. Housing Set-back from Flooded Area KIXICASA MAKES THESE LOANS AVAILABLE TO ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE POOR FAMILIES SO THAT THEY CAN PURCHASE BRICKS, CONCRETE, AND ROOF MATERIALS. THE LOANS HAVE A Housing Built in Lagoons 10-MONTH REPAYMENT PERIOD AND and Areas that Flood ENABLE FAMILIES TO EXPAND AND IMPROVE THEIR HOMES WHEN THEY CAN AFFORD IT. The are 1,950 houses constructed in or near streams, gullies, and lagoons in Cazenga – that means 13,600 people are living in vulnerable areas.12 FORUM CAZENGA | 2012 ATLAS FORUM CAZENGA | 2012 ATLAS 13
Viana POPULATION GROWTH Luanda Population Cazenga BETWEEN 2008 & 2010 1,355,256 Cazenga is growing everyday as people move to Luanda and come to the area to Population Cacuaco 980,259 CAZENGA Kilamba Kiaxi 1,042,120 find housing. The arrival of so many new Population estimates of 837,438 Samba Atlas Cazenga differ. For example, Maianga 698,419 TOTAL MUNICIPALITY people influences what kinds of housing POPULATION IN 2010 628,278 the official estimation of Sambizanga are available, what streets are like, and Cazenga’s population is 668,000. Ingombota 353,195 434,510 whether people face physical risks. These differences have major Rangel 195,392 implications in regards to the levels of basic services that need to be provided. 8% 6% 4% 2% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% HEALTH Cazenga has a “youth bulge” since 85 – 89 over one-third of residents are 80 – 84 THE CAZENGA MOSQUITO NET under the age of 24. “WE STILL NEED DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM LAUNCHED IN 75 – 79 BASIC SANITATION APRIL 2012. IT IS COORDINATED BY THE 70 – 74 AND WATER.” MINISTRY OF HEALTH WITH THE HELP OF 65 – 69 LOCAL HEALTH FACILITIES AND CRÈCHES. 60 – 64 SANITATION 55 – 59 LATRINES WERE INSTALLED BY LOCAL 50 – 54 GOVERNMENT AND NGOS ACROSS CAZENGA FOR THE COMMUNITY LATRINE 45 – 49 PROGRAM BETWEEN 2004 AND 2006. 40 – 44 35 – 39 30 – 34 25 – 29 “THERE ARE 20 – 24 ALWAYS NEW 15 – 19 EDUCATION PEOPLE.” 10 – 14 CRÈCHES ARE COMMUNITY-DRIVEN 5–9 EDUCATION PROGRAMS THAT PREPARE CHILDREN TO QUALIFY FOR ENTRANCE TO 0–4 PUBLIC ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AT AGE SIX. Cazenga Age Pyramid Age “EVERYONE WANTS TO LIVE IN A BETTER HOUSE.” “IMPROVED! NOW WATER IS NOT LACKING FROM THE STANDPIPE LIKE BEFORE.” “ITS BAD DUE TO THE POOR DRAINAGE AND LACK OF SANITATION.” HOUSING THE KIXICASA MICRO-FINANCE PROGRAM PROVIDES FAMILIES IN HUAMBO WITH THE OPPORTUNITY TO ACCESS SMALL LOANS TO IMPROVE THEIR HOUSES. WATER SOLID WASTE AMOGECS ARE RESIDENT COMMITTEES WHO VOLUNTEER TO SUPPORT WATER Survey Results LOCAL WASTE COLLECTION IS A MUNICIPAL SERVICE THAT AIMS TO IMPROVE HEALTH CONDITIONS IN DISTRIBUTION FOR THEIR BAIRROS. In 2012, the Forum surveyed over 3,000 households about CAZENGA BY REMOVING RUBBISH WITH basic services and conditions in Cazenga. The result of the TRACTORS OPERATED BY RESIDENTS. survey are presented in the Cazenza Atlas along with other data collected by Development Workshop. The atlas can be downloaded at http://cazenga.forum.angonet.org. Water Sanitation Solid WasteGaps in public services % HH without Public Water Service Lack of sanitation facilities in Cazenga leads to More households report weekly rubbish collection inresult in high prices for high levels of waterborne disease. Only 21% of Cazenga than in Luanda as a whole.water for residents. Only 14% households have a connection to a sewer system. % HH with Weekly or Daily Rubbish Collection14% of residents have SERVICE 98% of HHpublic water service NO SERVICE % HH with Connection to Sewer System (Cazenga) % HH with Connection to Sewer System (Luanda)in Cazenga. 86% CAZENGA LUANDA 0% 25 % 50 % 75 % 100 % 21 % 29 % 81% of HH HH WITH SEWER CONNECTION Price Paid per 20 Liter Container by Proportion of Population % HH that Think the Neighborhood is Dirty HH WITHOUT SEWER CONNECTION 95% of HH 55% of HH 79 % 71 % CAZENGA 0% 25 % 50 % 75 % 100 % Kz. 0 10 20 30 40 50 Housing Education HealthAs more people move to Cazenga, physical Inadequate provision of schools in Cazenga today There are only nine public health facilities invulnerabilities that result from overcrowding means that it will be even more challenging to meet Cazenga to serve over 1 million residents. Thisin housing and living in areas near lagoons and the needs of future children. results in very high incidences of diseases, especiallygullies increases. among children. % HH with Malaria % HH with Diarrhea % HH with Respitory (Cazenga) (Cazenga) (Cazenga) = 20,000 CHILDREN CHILDREN OF SCHOOL GOING AGE (OFFICIAL) CHILDREN OUT CHILDREN OF SCHOOL- OF SCHOOL GOING AGE (SURVEY) 9% 5% 30 % 70 % 91 % 95 % Luanda = 7.5 People / HH Luanda = 9.3 People / HH CAZENGA 0 71,890 267,448 829,200 # Out of # School-going # School-going School Age (Official) Age (Survey) AFFECTED NOT AFFECTEDCREATED BY THE CAZENGA FORUMIN COLLABORATION WITH