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  1. 1.  It refers to the determination of a course of action to achieve a desired result It is a process rather than behavior at a given point of time It is primarily concerned with looking into future It involves selection of suitable course of action It provides the framework within which coordinating, motivating and controlling can be under taken Planning is in fact prerequisite to effective management
  2. 2. o Planning may be broadly defined as a concept of executive action that embodies the skills of anticipating, influencing and controlling the nature and direction of change.o “Planning is deciding in advance what to do how to do it, where to do and who is to do it. Planning bridges the gap from where we want to go. It makes it possible for things to occur while would not otherwise open” -Koontz and O’Donnel ......continued
  3. 3. o “Planning is fundamentally a mental predisposition to do things in an orderly way, to think before and to act in the light of the fact rather than guesses”. -L.F. Urwicko “The plan of action is, at one end and at the same time the result envisaged, the line of action to be followed, the stages to go through and the methods to use” -Henri Fayol
  4. 4.  Helps Organisation a right path Making Objectives Clear It reduces risk and uncertainty It improves efficiency of operations Provides the basis of control Facilitates decision making Offers effective & better co-ordination Encourages innovations and creativity Planning leads to Economy in operation
  5. 5. PlansStanding Plans Single Use PlansObjectives Programmes Policies BudgetsStrategies Schedules ProjectProcedures Rules
  6. 6.  On the basis of time dimension, planning isgenerally divided into long range and shortrange planning a. Long-range Planning sets long terms goals for the enterprise and then proceeds to formulate specific plans for attaining these goals. b. Short-range Planning is concerned with the determination of short term activities to accomplish long term activities. ....... continued
  7. 7.  On the basis of nature or level of planning, there can be following types of planning a. Strategic Planning concerns long term survival and development, it’s objective is on future profit. b. Operational Planning is planning that covers functional areas like production, marketing, finance and purchasing. c. Functional Planning is prepared for various functional areas of business like production planning, marketing planning, financial planning and manpower planning.
  8. 8. i. Setting Objectivesii. Establishing Planning Premisesiii. Identify alternativesiv. Evaluation and choicev. Formulating derivative plansvi. securing cooperationvii. Follow up of plans
  9. 9.  Planning Premises may not be fully reliable Dynamic condition act as a limitation of planning Availability of time is a limiting factor of planning Cost involved in planning is also a limiting factor Mental attitude of a management Capital invested in fixed assets may be limitation to planning
  10. 10.  The planning premise is a set of assumptions made about the environment during a planning process. Planning Premises means systematic and logical estimate for the future factors affecting planning • Internal and External Premises • Tangible and Intangible Premises • Controllable and Uncontrollable Premises
  11. 11. THANK YOU presented by:- (GROUP ONE) Manish Ranjan Singh Manish Chaudhary Manibhushan Manika Suyal