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Migration History Seminar Aug 2013

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Presentation by Jenny Gregory, 24 Aug 2013

Presentation by Jenny Gregory, 24 Aug 2013

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine

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  • key plank of Federation in 1901Set tone for immigration for most of 20th Cstill informs many popular attitudes to immigrationOriginally to prevent Chinese from entering Australiafear of cultural difference (different language, different religious beliefs, different activites. looking different – visible attributes – not ‘white’, wearing different clotheseconomic success (goldfields) market gardens, restricted occupations (laundries)Built on state laws of restrictionDictation test often set in Gaelic
  • Chink in Australia’s armourDisplaced people and refugees from war torn EuropeGermans returning home from invaded countriesHomeless people in bombed citiesPeople escaping from countries taken over by Soviet UnionArmy camp accommodation
  • Fair-haired blue-eyed MairaKalnins with her parents and little brother on board the Fairsea in 1949. They had fled from Latvia during the Soviet occupationMany Dutch were all too willing to emigrate. The war and the Nazi occupation, had left many cities devastated. Mass unemployment, industrial stagnation and fear of overpopulation followed the war and the Dutch Government encouraged its people to emigrate. The massive floods of 1953 were a further blow to the hope of a good future in their homeland.Generally the Dutch and German came from a society with high standards of education, so that even unskilled workers could aspire to becoming self-employed in Australia. Many became taxi drivers, operated a milk round or became contract cleaners, ran small grocery stores, grew flowers or fruit or vegetables or ran dairy cattle.had an easier time on arrival in Australia than had southern Europeans. Although they too met with a degree of prejudice, most northern Europeans were fair-skinned and were able to merge into white Australian society more easily than their olive-skinned neighbours from southern Europe.
  • In the immediate post war years Calwell had declared that he hoped that for every ‘foreign migrant’ there would be ten migrants from Britain. It remained the source of about 50 per cent of migrants. Over one million British migrants were assisted to come to Australia between 1945 and 1972. They were known as ‘Ten Pound Poms’ and adult migrants had to pay only £10 each to travel to Australia. Children travelled free. They needed to be in good health, under the age of 45 years, and were required to stay in Australia for two years or refund their passage if they returned to Britain. People from other parts of the Commonwealth were also eligible, although under the ‘White Australia’ policy people from mixed race backgrounds found it very difficult to take advantage of the scheme. There were initially no skill restrictions, though mainly tradesmen and semi-skilled labour was sought from Britain. Those who arrived before 1951 had to be sponsored
  • Julia Gillard emigrated with her family from Wales, as a Ten PoundPom, in 1966 when she was four years old, after her parents were advised that her health would improve if they lived in a warmer climate.
  • They’re a Weird MobThe lives of Italian immigrants were sent up by John O’Grady in his best-selling novel, They’re a Weird Mob (1957) later made into a popular film. O’Grady wrote under the pseudonym, Nino Culotta, the narrator of the book. Nino is a journalist who immigrates to Australia from Italy and gets a job as a brickie’slabourer in Sydney. He is portrayed as a naïve but lovable Italian immigrant who has learnt English from a textbook and struggles to understand colloquial English, slang, as spoken by workers of the 1950s and ‘60s. He soon learns that a ‘schooner’ is not a sailing ship and a ‘shout’ is not a yell. His triumph is to be able to roar in a near perfect Aussie accent, "Howyergoinmateorright?" The book encouraged Australians to laugh at themselves, but at the expense of New Australians, and it pushed the assimilation line for the tens of thousands of New Australians who were arriving. It promoted assimilation with the ideal migrant merging and becoming indistinguishable from the host community.Toni Fini migrated to Australia in 1951, working in labouring jobs, digging potatoes and laying concrete, until he got a job in the building industry as a plasterer and bricklayer. In 1956, he started his own business, Fini Homes. It became a large construction and property development company and he became a multi-millionaire. Not all Italian immigrants fared so well, but his story typifies the archetypal rags to riches post-war success story.
  • After World War II, large numbers of Greeks were displaced as a result of enemy occupation and civil war and in 1952 they too became eligible for assisted passages to Australia. Those sponsored by relatives had arrived in small but increasing numbers since the late 1940s. Over 160,000 Greeks immigrated to Australia in the postwar years, mostly to Victoria, where many found work in factories and farms.Ken Michael
  • Intergovernmental agreementsGermans fledDutch encouraged to immigrateCities devastated, Mass unemployment, industrial stagnation, fear of overpopulation, floodsFair skinned, merged more easily into Anglo-Saxon communityTradesmen sought after
  • By the late 1960s attitudes towards non-British immigrants were slowly beginning to change. British, Irish and New Zealanders still made up the largest groups of ‘New Australians’, as the government called the immigrant communities. But there was a slow intermingling of cultures and ‘old’ Australians were becoming accustomed to the millions of post-war immigrants that were part of Australian society. Despite this many people still thought that immigrants should try harder to become assimilated into the Australian way of life. Name-calling was still common and many Australians were still suspicious of newcomers. Public opinion surveys, like those undertaken in Melbourne in 1971, suggested that up to 90 per cent of Australians were opposed to multicultural ideas.
  • The war cost the lives of 500 Australian soldiers and wounded 3000. But millions of Vietnamese had lost their lives and millions more were made refugees.1975 first main group of Vietnamese refugees,mostly well-to-do Vietnamese, Chinese Businessmen and Catholics who faced reprisals from the new government. 1976–78 and comprised a gradually increasing flow of refugees from camps outside Viet Nam. 1978, mainly owners of private businesses that had been closed by the Viet Nam Government and other businessmen, especially Chinese, who had been expelled by the government. so-called ‘economic refugees’, mainly small traders, urban and rural workers and unemployed, who had made their way to refugee camps in Indonesia and Hong Kong and were seeking a permanent home.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Migration Experiences W/PROFESSOR JENNY GREGORY AUCUST 2013
    • 2. The University of Western Australia OVERVIEW & AIMS 1. to introduce Year 10 Australian Curriculum – History – Curriculum focus – depth studies — 3. migration 2. to provide an understanding of Migration Experiences – Land of Immigrants – Post war Immigration – Assimilation to Multiculturalism
    • 3. The University of Western Australia Year 10 Curriculum focus: Australia and world history 1. Historical understanding through range of disciplinary concepts i. Evidence – use of sources, analysis, interpretation ii. continuity and change iii. cause and effect iv. significance v. empathy vi. perspectives and contestability 2. opportunity to engage students through contexts and through debates, past and present
    • 4. The University of Western Australia Year 10 Depth Studies 1. WWII (1939-45) 2. Rights and freedoms (1945- present) 3. Globalising world — social and cultural influences • Popular Culture • Migration experiences (1945 – present) • Environment movement (1960s – present)
    • 5. The University of Western Australia Year 10 Depth Study 3 Impact on the Australian way of life of MIGRATION  waves of post-World War II migration to Australia, including the influence of significant world events  impact of changing government policies on Australia‘s migration patterns, including abolition of the White Australia Policy, ‗Populate or Perish‘  impact of at least ONE world event or development and its significance for Australia, such as the Vietnam War and Indochinese refugees  contribution of migration to Australia‘s changing identity as a nation and to its international relationships
    • 6. The University of Western Australia MIGRATION EXPERIENCES - OVERVIEW 1. LAND OF IMMIGRANTS Migration exercise 1 (who do you think you are?) 2. POST WAR IMMIGRATION Migration exercise 2 (SS MISR Controversy) Migration exercise 3 (camp) 3. ASSIMILATION TO MULTI-CULTURALISM Migration exercise 4 (definitions) Migration exercise 5 (cultural changes)
    • 7. The University of Western Australia 1. LAND OF IMMIGRANTS British Group Settlers Kentdale WA 1924
    • 8. The University of Western Australia Where Australians have come from Countries of birth 2006
    • 9. The University of Western Australia Countries of birth 2011
    • 10. The University of Western Australia Migration Exercise 1 Who do you think you are? (10 mins)  Where were your parents and grandparents born?  Did they or any of your ancestors come to Australia from another country?  When did they come?  Why did they come?  How did they get here?  Where did they live when they first arrived?  What did they bring with them?
    • 11. The University of Western Australia 2. POST WAR IMMIGRATION  White Australia Policy 1901–72  ‗Populate or Perish‘  Post WWII – Displaced persons (DPs) and refugees • Migration Exercise 2 (SS MISR)  Migrant camps • Migration Exercise 3 (Camp life)  Post war reconstruction  Immigration agreements with UK/Europe  Ten Pound Poms 1945-72  Assisted passages Italy, Greece, Netherlands, Germany  Changing composition of population 1933 & 1966 • Migration Exercise 4 (Food)
    • 12. The University of Western Australia White Australia Policy 1901-72 1901 Immigration Restriction Act (White Australia Policy)  exclusion of non-European people via dictation test  50-word dictation test in any European language  1902-03 administered 805 times – 46 people passed  1904-09 — 554 times – 6 people passed.  People who failed were refused entry or deported.
    • 13. The University of Western Australia Post WWII - Displaced people and refugees Bavaria 1945 Berlin 1945 Refugees Danzig 1945
    • 14. The University of Western Australia Populate or Perish  Context WWII • Suspicion of Asia • Post war reconstruction  1947 Arthur Caldwell, 1st Minister for Immigration • ‘We must populate or we will perish. We must fill this country or we will lose it. We need to protect ourselves against the yellow peril from the north. Our current population of 7,391,000 (about one person per square mile) leave a land as vast as Australia under-protected.’ • Mass immigration
    • 15. The University of Western Australia Migration Exercise 2 MS Misr Controversy (15 mins) Caldwell meeting migrants on MS Misr 1947 683 passengers 27 different nationalities Complaints Conditions on ship Nationality of passengers Govt report Who wrote documents? Who published? Why? What were their sources? Are sources identified? What does the controversy reveal about immigration and attitudes to immigration?
    • 16. The University of Western Australia Australian Government poster displayed in migrant reception centres overseas and in Australia 1949-51
    • 17. The University of Western Australia German, 1952 Dutch, 1954 Latvian, Fairsea 1949  Blond blue-eyed  push–pull factors
    • 18. The University of Western Australia Major migrant camps 1949
    • 19. The University of Western Australia Migration Exercise 3 Northam Camp 1950
    • 20. The University of Western Australia Adult education class Northam camp 1950
    • 21. The University of Western Australia Post war reconstruction  migration fuelled expansion of manufacturing  Drove down unskilled and semi-skilled wages  eg 1950s motor vehicle companies used mass recruitment of southern European labour to prevent increase in rates for production line workers.
    • 22. The University of Western Australia Snowy Mountains Hydro-electricity Scheme 1958 Ford Motor Plant Geelong 1956 Bob Csillag, later a psychiatrist in the Dept of Psychiatry at UWA, came to Australia as displaced person in 1950. The war prevented him from completing his medical training at the University of Vienna. He spoke no English and was required to undertake hard physical work felling timber for the Forestry Commission for two years
    • 23. The University of Western Australia Ten Pound Poms Archie (my husband) and I applied to Australia House in 1948. We were living in a small flat with our four children. Housing was very tight because of the bombing during the war…So we went to Australia House to explain it was our living conditions that made us want to migrate. They told us how much better off we would be in WA. The Government would pay our fares and give my husband a job for two years. We would stay in Point Walter Camp for two days, then have a state flat for six months, and finally a state house. So we decided to come. SS Orontes, March 1958
    • 24. The University of Western Australia We were allotted one room with three beds in it, one each for my husband and myself, which we pushed together, and one for Brian, our six year old son. This left little room for the baby we were expecting. The bed bases were criss-crossed wire, the mattresses thin army issue palliasses… I remember lying back in the bed, watching the insects coming up through the floorboards, thinking, ‗What the hell have we done‘. Nissan huts Graylands Hostel
    • 25. The University of Western Australia Italian immigration  WWII – Italians interned as enemy aliens  Post war – Italian govt – safety valve  Mainly Southern Italians  Chain migration  Male migrants – sponsored families ‗It was hard because there were lots of people [in Italy] and no work, no space. There was just that bit of work in the countryside. You worked the land but at the end of the year you earned nothing… So I thought, ―It‘s better I go to Australia where there is gold in the streets.‖ That‘s what they said in those days.‘
    • 26. The University of Western Australia Greek immigration From Epiros to Sydney Melbourne – largest Greek city outside Greece
    • 27. The University of Western Australia German and Dutch Immigrants Johan van Oldenbarnevelt poster, 1950 Intergovernmental Agreements
    • 28. The University of Western Australia Changing composition of population
    • 29. The University of Western Australia 3. ASSIMILATION TO MULTICULTURALISM  Assimilation  Integration  Abolition White Australia Policy 1966–72  Racial Discrimination Act 1975  Multiculturalism  Vietnamese Refugees  Cultural changes
    • 30. The University of Western Australia Vietnamese Refugees MECA HO: I can remember when I was on a boat, Mum was carrying me. And my grandma was holding my hand and she was crying as the boat started quietly moving, slowly drifting away. I see a lot of people on the boat. But they‘re always cramped in just one boat and underneath of the boat. Darwin 1977 Vietnam War 1962–72
    • 31. The University of Western Australia Migration Exercise 4 Definitions  Asylum seeker  Refugee  Illegal immigrant
    • 32. The University of Western Australia Migration exercise 5 Cultural changes • List the food you have eaten this week – Breakfast, lunch, dinner • What is the origin of these foods/recipes? • How did they come to Australia?
    • 33. The University of Western Australia Summary Immigration patterns in Australia have changed Pre WW II British immigrants dominated Post war waves of immigrants • displaced people from war torn Europe • immigrants from Britain and Europe • refugees from Indo-China and other parts of the world • immigrants with skills needed in Australian economy Policy issues • White Australia policy • ‗populate or perish‘ • push pull factors • Assimilation • Multiculturalism Australia now • one of the most multicultural countries in the world • many ethnicities contribute to national identity • link the nation to global society
    • 34. The University of Western Australia Further information Reginald Appleyard and John N Yiannakis, 'Greek Pioneers in Western Australia, Crawley, UWA Press, 2003 Collins, Jock; Gibson, Katherine; Alcorso, Caroline; Castles, Stephen; and Tait, David A., Shop Full of Dreams - Ethnic Small Business in Australia, Sydney, Pluto Press Australia, 1995 James Hammerton and Alistair Thomson, Ten Pound Poms: Australia's Invisible Migrants, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2005 Susanna Iuliano, Vite Italiane: Italian Lives in Western Australia, Crawley, UWA Publishing, 2010 James Jupp, The Australian People: an encyclopedia of the nation, its people and their origins, Cambridge University Pess, 2001 James Jupp, The English in Australia, Cambridge University Press, 2004 Nonja Peters, Milk and Honey — but no Gold: Postwar Migration to Western Australia 1945–1964, Crawley, UWA Press, 2001
    • 35. The University of Western Australia Glenda Sluga, Bonegilla: 'A Place of No Hope', Parkville, University of Melbourne, 1988 Anastasios Tamis, The Greeks in Australia, Cambridge University Press, 2005 Jürgen Tampke, The Germans in Australia, Cambridge University Press, 2007 Gwenda Tavan, The Long Slow Death of White Australia, Carlton, Scribe, 2005 http://museumvictoria.com.au/immigrationmuseum/ http://migrationheritage.nsw.gov.au/exhibitions/somuchsky/ http://northamarmycamp.org.au/storylines/migrant/living/ http://migrationheritage.nsw.gov.au/exhibitions/goldandsilver/journey/ http://vietnam-war.commemoration.gov.au/aftermath/ http://www.yale.edu/cgp/ http://www.immi.gov.au/media/fact-sheets/ http://www.multiculturalaustralia.edu.au Northbridge History Project
    • 36. The University of Western Australia Scootle on line resources Asylum seekers 1990s -2000s 13 digital curriculum resources focus on the arrival of asylum seekers in Australia in the 1990s and early 2000s. It is organised into six categories - reasons for seeking asylum; reaching Australia; Australian reactions; detention centres; assessing refugee status; and living and working in the community. The collection includes documentary and feature film footage, an audio interview, cartoons and poetry. Immigration: fill it or lose it, 1992 video clip looks at the political forces and propaganda campaigns that tried to fill Australia with 'pure white' immigrants. 'Immigration: fill it or lose it' is an excerpt from the documentary 'Admission impossible' (54 min), produced in 1992. SS Orama pamphlet for Port Said, 1939 details information for passengers about the Orient Line ship SS Orama's arrival in Port Said, Egypt, in June 1939 en route to Australia from Europe. It lists everyday tasks National treasures, 2004: Cuc Lam's suitcase Fiona Chiu: Chinese family tree

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