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Migration History Seminar Aug 2013


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Presentation by Jenny Gregory, 24 Aug 2013

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
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Migration History Seminar Aug 2013

  1. 1. Migration Experiences W/PROFESSOR JENNY GREGORY AUCUST 2013
  2. 2. The University of Western Australia OVERVIEW & AIMS 1. to introduce Year 10 Australian Curriculum – History – Curriculum focus – depth studies — 3. migration 2. to provide an understanding of Migration Experiences – Land of Immigrants – Post war Immigration – Assimilation to Multiculturalism
  3. 3. The University of Western Australia Year 10 Curriculum focus: Australia and world history 1. Historical understanding through range of disciplinary concepts i. Evidence – use of sources, analysis, interpretation ii. continuity and change iii. cause and effect iv. significance v. empathy vi. perspectives and contestability 2. opportunity to engage students through contexts and through debates, past and present
  4. 4. The University of Western Australia Year 10 Depth Studies 1. WWII (1939-45) 2. Rights and freedoms (1945- present) 3. Globalising world — social and cultural influences • Popular Culture • Migration experiences (1945 – present) • Environment movement (1960s – present)
  5. 5. The University of Western Australia Year 10 Depth Study 3 Impact on the Australian way of life of MIGRATION  waves of post-World War II migration to Australia, including the influence of significant world events  impact of changing government policies on Australia‘s migration patterns, including abolition of the White Australia Policy, ‗Populate or Perish‘  impact of at least ONE world event or development and its significance for Australia, such as the Vietnam War and Indochinese refugees  contribution of migration to Australia‘s changing identity as a nation and to its international relationships
  6. 6. The University of Western Australia MIGRATION EXPERIENCES - OVERVIEW 1. LAND OF IMMIGRANTS Migration exercise 1 (who do you think you are?) 2. POST WAR IMMIGRATION Migration exercise 2 (SS MISR Controversy) Migration exercise 3 (camp) 3. ASSIMILATION TO MULTI-CULTURALISM Migration exercise 4 (definitions) Migration exercise 5 (cultural changes)
  7. 7. The University of Western Australia 1. LAND OF IMMIGRANTS British Group Settlers Kentdale WA 1924
  8. 8. The University of Western Australia Where Australians have come from Countries of birth 2006
  9. 9. The University of Western Australia Countries of birth 2011
  10. 10. The University of Western Australia Migration Exercise 1 Who do you think you are? (10 mins)  Where were your parents and grandparents born?  Did they or any of your ancestors come to Australia from another country?  When did they come?  Why did they come?  How did they get here?  Where did they live when they first arrived?  What did they bring with them?
  11. 11. The University of Western Australia 2. POST WAR IMMIGRATION  White Australia Policy 1901–72  ‗Populate or Perish‘  Post WWII – Displaced persons (DPs) and refugees • Migration Exercise 2 (SS MISR)  Migrant camps • Migration Exercise 3 (Camp life)  Post war reconstruction  Immigration agreements with UK/Europe  Ten Pound Poms 1945-72  Assisted passages Italy, Greece, Netherlands, Germany  Changing composition of population 1933 & 1966 • Migration Exercise 4 (Food)
  12. 12. The University of Western Australia White Australia Policy 1901-72 1901 Immigration Restriction Act (White Australia Policy)  exclusion of non-European people via dictation test  50-word dictation test in any European language  1902-03 administered 805 times – 46 people passed  1904-09 — 554 times – 6 people passed.  People who failed were refused entry or deported.
  13. 13. The University of Western Australia Post WWII - Displaced people and refugees Bavaria 1945 Berlin 1945 Refugees Danzig 1945
  14. 14. The University of Western Australia Populate or Perish  Context WWII • Suspicion of Asia • Post war reconstruction  1947 Arthur Caldwell, 1st Minister for Immigration • ‘We must populate or we will perish. We must fill this country or we will lose it. We need to protect ourselves against the yellow peril from the north. Our current population of 7,391,000 (about one person per square mile) leave a land as vast as Australia under-protected.’ • Mass immigration
  15. 15. The University of Western Australia Migration Exercise 2 MS Misr Controversy (15 mins) Caldwell meeting migrants on MS Misr 1947 683 passengers 27 different nationalities Complaints Conditions on ship Nationality of passengers Govt report Who wrote documents? Who published? Why? What were their sources? Are sources identified? What does the controversy reveal about immigration and attitudes to immigration?
  16. 16. The University of Western Australia Australian Government poster displayed in migrant reception centres overseas and in Australia 1949-51
  17. 17. The University of Western Australia German, 1952 Dutch, 1954 Latvian, Fairsea 1949  Blond blue-eyed  push–pull factors
  18. 18. The University of Western Australia Major migrant camps 1949
  19. 19. The University of Western Australia Migration Exercise 3 Northam Camp 1950
  20. 20. The University of Western Australia Adult education class Northam camp 1950
  21. 21. The University of Western Australia Post war reconstruction  migration fuelled expansion of manufacturing  Drove down unskilled and semi-skilled wages  eg 1950s motor vehicle companies used mass recruitment of southern European labour to prevent increase in rates for production line workers.
  22. 22. The University of Western Australia Snowy Mountains Hydro-electricity Scheme 1958 Ford Motor Plant Geelong 1956 Bob Csillag, later a psychiatrist in the Dept of Psychiatry at UWA, came to Australia as displaced person in 1950. The war prevented him from completing his medical training at the University of Vienna. He spoke no English and was required to undertake hard physical work felling timber for the Forestry Commission for two years
  23. 23. The University of Western Australia Ten Pound Poms Archie (my husband) and I applied to Australia House in 1948. We were living in a small flat with our four children. Housing was very tight because of the bombing during the war…So we went to Australia House to explain it was our living conditions that made us want to migrate. They told us how much better off we would be in WA. The Government would pay our fares and give my husband a job for two years. We would stay in Point Walter Camp for two days, then have a state flat for six months, and finally a state house. So we decided to come. SS Orontes, March 1958
  24. 24. The University of Western Australia We were allotted one room with three beds in it, one each for my husband and myself, which we pushed together, and one for Brian, our six year old son. This left little room for the baby we were expecting. The bed bases were criss-crossed wire, the mattresses thin army issue palliasses… I remember lying back in the bed, watching the insects coming up through the floorboards, thinking, ‗What the hell have we done‘. Nissan huts Graylands Hostel
  25. 25. The University of Western Australia Italian immigration  WWII – Italians interned as enemy aliens  Post war – Italian govt – safety valve  Mainly Southern Italians  Chain migration  Male migrants – sponsored families ‗It was hard because there were lots of people [in Italy] and no work, no space. There was just that bit of work in the countryside. You worked the land but at the end of the year you earned nothing… So I thought, ―It‘s better I go to Australia where there is gold in the streets.‖ That‘s what they said in those days.‘
  26. 26. The University of Western Australia Greek immigration From Epiros to Sydney Melbourne – largest Greek city outside Greece
  27. 27. The University of Western Australia German and Dutch Immigrants Johan van Oldenbarnevelt poster, 1950 Intergovernmental Agreements
  28. 28. The University of Western Australia Changing composition of population
  29. 29. The University of Western Australia 3. ASSIMILATION TO MULTICULTURALISM  Assimilation  Integration  Abolition White Australia Policy 1966–72  Racial Discrimination Act 1975  Multiculturalism  Vietnamese Refugees  Cultural changes
  30. 30. The University of Western Australia Vietnamese Refugees MECA HO: I can remember when I was on a boat, Mum was carrying me. And my grandma was holding my hand and she was crying as the boat started quietly moving, slowly drifting away. I see a lot of people on the boat. But they‘re always cramped in just one boat and underneath of the boat. Darwin 1977 Vietnam War 1962–72
  31. 31. The University of Western Australia Migration Exercise 4 Definitions  Asylum seeker  Refugee  Illegal immigrant
  32. 32. The University of Western Australia Migration exercise 5 Cultural changes • List the food you have eaten this week – Breakfast, lunch, dinner • What is the origin of these foods/recipes? • How did they come to Australia?
  33. 33. The University of Western Australia Summary Immigration patterns in Australia have changed Pre WW II British immigrants dominated Post war waves of immigrants • displaced people from war torn Europe • immigrants from Britain and Europe • refugees from Indo-China and other parts of the world • immigrants with skills needed in Australian economy Policy issues • White Australia policy • ‗populate or perish‘ • push pull factors • Assimilation • Multiculturalism Australia now • one of the most multicultural countries in the world • many ethnicities contribute to national identity • link the nation to global society
  34. 34. The University of Western Australia Further information Reginald Appleyard and John N Yiannakis, 'Greek Pioneers in Western Australia, Crawley, UWA Press, 2003 Collins, Jock; Gibson, Katherine; Alcorso, Caroline; Castles, Stephen; and Tait, David A., Shop Full of Dreams - Ethnic Small Business in Australia, Sydney, Pluto Press Australia, 1995 James Hammerton and Alistair Thomson, Ten Pound Poms: Australia's Invisible Migrants, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2005 Susanna Iuliano, Vite Italiane: Italian Lives in Western Australia, Crawley, UWA Publishing, 2010 James Jupp, The Australian People: an encyclopedia of the nation, its people and their origins, Cambridge University Pess, 2001 James Jupp, The English in Australia, Cambridge University Press, 2004 Nonja Peters, Milk and Honey — but no Gold: Postwar Migration to Western Australia 1945–1964, Crawley, UWA Press, 2001
  35. 35. The University of Western Australia Glenda Sluga, Bonegilla: 'A Place of No Hope', Parkville, University of Melbourne, 1988 Anastasios Tamis, The Greeks in Australia, Cambridge University Press, 2005 Jürgen Tampke, The Germans in Australia, Cambridge University Press, 2007 Gwenda Tavan, The Long Slow Death of White Australia, Carlton, Scribe, 2005 Northbridge History Project
  36. 36. The University of Western Australia Scootle on line resources Asylum seekers 1990s -2000s 13 digital curriculum resources focus on the arrival of asylum seekers in Australia in the 1990s and early 2000s. It is organised into six categories - reasons for seeking asylum; reaching Australia; Australian reactions; detention centres; assessing refugee status; and living and working in the community. The collection includes documentary and feature film footage, an audio interview, cartoons and poetry. Immigration: fill it or lose it, 1992 video clip looks at the political forces and propaganda campaigns that tried to fill Australia with 'pure white' immigrants. 'Immigration: fill it or lose it' is an excerpt from the documentary 'Admission impossible' (54 min), produced in 1992. SS Orama pamphlet for Port Said, 1939 details information for passengers about the Orient Line ship SS Orama's arrival in Port Said, Egypt, in June 1939 en route to Australia from Europe. It lists everyday tasks National treasures, 2004: Cuc Lam's suitcase Fiona Chiu: Chinese family tree