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Servant Songs Isaiah - Introduction

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  • 1. The Servant Songs of Isaiah- Introduction & Background Laindon Bible Study 16th February 2012
  • 2. Our four five studies (God willing)Study 1 Our four studies (God willing) Study 2 Study 3 Study 4 Study 5 What does it take to be God’s servant?16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 2
  • 3. The Prophecy of Isaiah key facts• Isaiah probably prophesied from about 739-680 BC, during reigns of Kings Uzziah790-739 BC, Jotham739-731 BC, Ahaz731-715 BC and Hezekiah715-686 BC16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 3
  • 4. A familiar chronological chart c.60?16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 4
  • 5. The Prophecy of Isaiah key facts• Isaiah probably prophesied from about 739-680 BC, during reigns of Kings Uzziah790-739 BC, Jotham739-731 BC, Ahaz731-715 BC and Hezekiah715-686 BC• He prophesied to the Kingdom of Judah (Southern Tribes)• His name means “Yah/Yahweh has saved” (Strong/BDB)• His book has 66 chapters*, 1,292 verses and 37,044 words, making it the 5th largest book in the Bible (and the 3rd largest prophecy)• He is the most quoted OT prophet in NT (62 of the 110 direct quotes, 103 of the 272 allusions/possible allusions) – Isaiah provides many of the detailed prophecies of the Messiah; e.g. birth (ch. 7), mission (ch. 9), sacrifice (ch. 53) and return (ch. 63)* cp. 66 books of Bible16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 5
  • 6. The four major prophets Earlier Contemporaries Lion? Ox? Man? Eagle?16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 6
  • 7. The Prophecy of Isaiah in outline Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 (chs. 1-35) (chs. 36-39) (chs. 40-66)• Prophecies of • Historical • Prophecies of condemnation content, days of comfort (judgement) Hezekiah (deliverance)16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 7
  • 8. Identifying the Four Songs• First recorded separation was by the German Lutheran theologian Bernhard Lauardus Duhm (October 10, 1847 – November 1, 1928) in his 1892 commentary on Isaiah• Different writing style, standing out in both form and content• Songs 1 and 4 are in 3rd person (he, him, his) and both start with same introductory formula “Behold*,+ my servant”• Songs 2 and 3 are in 1st person (I, me, my) and both acknowledge “the Lord” or “the Lord God”16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 8
  • 9. Locating the Four Songs• Are all contained in Isaiah – Section 3 (ch. 40-66)• Phrase “my servant” appears 12 times in ch. 41-53, compared to only 3 times in the previous 40 chs. (and those 3 are specific – Isaiah, Eliakim, David) ch. 41-53 – A STARK CONTRAST Israel as Individual servant servant More often More often “thee” “thy” “him” “he” “thou” “his” “me” “I” Characterised Characterised by failure by success16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 9
  • 10. Who is the servant? Historical setting The fulfilment Prophet Isaiah? The Lord Jesus Christ? King Hezekiah? The nation of Other prophet or Israel? servant of God?16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 10
  • 11. The importance of being a servant5 Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus:6 Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to beequal with God:7 But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him theform of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: Q. How can we exhibit this mind? A. By referring to places like Isaiah’s Songs!16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 11
  • 12. The importance of being a servant• Jesus refers to a scale for service:42 But Jesus called them to him, and saith unto them, Ye know that they which areaccounted to rule over the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and their great onesexercise authority upon them.43 But so shall it not be among you: but whosoever will be great among you, shall beyour minister:44 And whosoever of you will be the chiefest, shall be servant of all.45 For even the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and togive his life a ransom for many.- attendant - big - first - slave- waiter - significant - foremost - bondservant16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 12
  • 13. The Four Servant Songs table 1 Isaiah Intensity Intensity Intensity Service Servant’s Servant’s God’s Song reference theme situation response provision (minimum) Divinely Not ch. 42 v 1-4 Delighted in One Tone selected discouraged [probably to v7] v 7] –v1 –v1 –v4 ch. 49 v 1-6 Laboured/ Submission Strengthened Two ch. 49 v 1-6 Origin [possibly to v13] spent – v 4 – v 1/55 1/ –v5 Smitten/ Resolve HelpedThree ch. 50 v 4-9 Basis ashamed – v 6 – v 7 – v 7/99 7/ ch. 52 v 13 – Cut off Satisfaction Prolonged Four Results ch. 53 v 12 –v8 – v 11 – v 1016th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 13
  • 14. The Four Servant Songs table 2 Isaiah Direct Song reference quotes in Quotations (minimum) NT ch. 42 v 1-4 One 1 42 v 1-4 cited Matthew 12 v 18-21 [probably to v7] Two ch. 49 v 1-6 1 49 v 6 cited Acts 13 v 47Three ch. 50 v 4-9 Nil No citations 52 v 15 cited Romans 15 v 21; 53 v 1 cited John 12 v 38; 53 v 1 cited Romans 10 v 16; 53 v 4 cited Matthew 8 v 17; ch. 52 v 13 – Four 9 53 v 4-5 cited 1 Peter 2 v 24; ch. 53 v 12 53 v 7-8 cited Acts 8 v 32-33; 53 v 9 cited 1 Peter 2 v 22; 53 v 12 cited Mark 15 v 28; 53 v 12 cited Luke 22 v 37 11 (/ 110 = 10%)16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 14
  • 15. The Fourth Servant Song table 3 Isaiah Direct Part of OT passage particularly drawn onch. 52 / 53 quotation NT 52 v 15 “...that which had not been told them shall they see...” Romans 15 v 21 53 v 1 “Who hath believed our report?” John 12 v 38 53 v 1 “Who hath believed our report?” Romans 10 v 16 53 v 4 “...he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows...” Matthew 8 v 17 53 v 4-5 “...with his stripes we are healed.” 1 Peter 2 v 24 53 v 7-8 “...he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter...” Acts 8 v 32-33 53 v 9 “...he had done no violence, neither... any deceit in... mouth.” 1 Peter 2 v 22 53 v 12 “...he was numbered with the transgressors...” Mark 15 v 28 53 v 12 “...he was numbered with the transgressors...” Luke 22 v 3716th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 15
  • 16. 16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 16
  • 17. Gentle QuietPatient Song 1 – Tone of service EncouragingIsaiah 42 v 1-4 [5-7]1 Behold my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom my souldelighteth; I have put my spirit upon him: he shall bring forth judgment to theGentiles. 2 He shall not cry, nor lift up, nor cause his voice to be heard in thestreet. 3 A bruised reed shall he not break, and the smoking flax shall he notquench: he shall bring forth judgment unto truth. 4 He shall not fail nor bediscouraged, till he have set judgment in the earth: and the isles shall wait forhis law. [5 Thus saith God the Lord, he that created the heavens, andstretched them out; he that spread forth the earth, and that which comethout of it; he that giveth breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to themthat walk therein: 6 I the Lord have called thee in righteousness, and will holdthine hand, and will keep thee, and give thee for a covenant of the people, fora light of the Gentiles; 7 To open the blind eyes, to bring out the prisonersfrom the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison house.]16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 17
  • 18. Word-led SubmissionCooperation Song 2 – Origin of service God’s glory Isaiah 49 v 1-6 1 Listen, O isles, unto me; and hearken, ye people, from far; The Lord hath called me from the womb; from the bowels of my mother hath he made mention of my name. 2 And he hath made my mouth like a sharp sword; in the shadow of his hand hath he hid me, and made me a polished shaft; in his quiver hath he hid me; 3 And said unto me, Thou art my servant, O Israel, in whom I will be glorified. 4 Then I said, I have laboured in vain, I have spent my strength for nought, and in vain: yet surely my judgment is with the Lord, and my work with my God. 5 And now, saith the Lord that formed me from the womb to be his servant, to bring Jacob again to him, Though Israel be not gathered, yet shall I be glorious in the eyes of the Lord, and my God shall be my strength. 6 And he said, It is a light thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel: I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth. 16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 18
  • 19. Teachableness Commitment Trust Song 3 – Basis of service Surrender Isaiah 50 v 4-9 4 The Lord God hath given me the tongue of the learned, that I should know how to speak a word in season to him that is weary: he wakeneth morning by morning, he wakeneth mine ear to hear as the learned. 5 The Lord God hath opened mine ear, and I was not rebellious, neither turned away back. 6 I gave my back to the smiters, and my cheeks to them that plucked off the hair: I hid not my face from shame and spitting. 7 For the Lord God will help me; therefore shall I not be confounded: therefore have I set my face like a flint, and I know that I shall not be ashamed. 8 He is near that justifieth me; who will contend with me? let us stand together: who is mine adversary? let him come near to me. 9 Behold, the Lord God will help me; who is he that shall condemn me? lo, they all shall wax old as a garment; the moth shall eat them up. 16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 19
  • 20. Despised SmittenRejected Song 4 – Results of service Cut offIsaiah 52 v 13-53 v 1213 Behold, my servant shall deal prudently, he shall be exalted and extolled, and be very high. 14 As many wereastonied at thee; his visage was so marred more than any man, and his form more than the sons of men: 15 So shallhe sprinkle many nations; the kings shall shut their mouths at him: for that which had not been told them shall theysee; and that which they had not heard shall they consider. 53v1 Who hath believed our report? and to whom is thearm of the Lord revealed? 2 For he shall grow up before him as a tender plant, and as a root out of a dry ground: hehath no form nor comeliness; and when we shall see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him. 3 He isdespised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces fromhim; he was despised, and we esteemed him not. 4 Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet wedid esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted. 5 But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruisedfor our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. 6 All we likesheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of usall. 7 He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter,and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth. 8 He was taken from prison and fromjudgment: and who shall declare his generation? for he was cut off out of the land of the living: for thetransgression of my people was he stricken. 9 And he made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death;because he had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth. 10 Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him; hehath put him to grief: when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, he shall see his seed, he shall prolong hisdays, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand. 11 He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall besatisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities. 12 Thereforewill I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong; because he hath poured outhis soul unto death: and he was numbered with the transgressors; and he bare the sin of many, and madeintercession for the transgressors.16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 20
  • 21. What does it take to be God’s servant? Tone Origin Basis Results Gentle Word-led Teachableness Despised Patient Cooperation Trust Rejected Quiet Submission Commitment Smitten Encouraging God’s glory Surrender Cut off16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 21
  • 22. Today’s final thought the prospect “Well done, thou good and faithful servant: thou hast been faithful over a few things, I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord.” (Matthew 25 v 21)16th February 2012 The Servant Songs of Isaiah - Introduction / Background 22