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Media & Communications in Emergencies

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Presentation on media and communications in humanitarian response. Presented at Fordham University's International Diploma in Humanitarian Assistance course (IDHA), Berlin, Germany, March 2013.

Presentation on media and communications in humanitarian response. Presented at Fordham University's International Diploma in Humanitarian Assistance course (IDHA), Berlin, Germany, March 2013.

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Media & Communications in Emergencies Media & Communications in Emergencies Presentation Transcript

  • Media and Communications inEmergencies Oxfam  video  about  hygiene  promo5on  in   northern  Hai5,  2010 March  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 1
  • Who is “the media”? Journalist  in  Aleppo,  Syria.  Photo:  AFPMarch  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 2
  • These are journalists… The  Commi)ee  to  Protect  Journalists  (CPJ)  reports  that  in  2012: 67  journalists  died  because  they  were  journalists -­‐  32  were  murdered -­‐  12  were  on  dangerous  assignments -­‐  25  were  caught  in  the  crossfire  or  in  combat 232  journalists  were  imprisoned  for  their  profession  in  2012.March  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 3
  • CPJ report continued - Syria  was  by  far  the  deadliest  country  in  2012,  with  28   journalists  killed  in  combat  or  targeted  for  murder  by   government  or  opposi?on  forces.  In  addi?on,  a  journalist   covering  the  Syrian  conflict  was  killed  just  over  the  border  in   Lebanon.    With  internaConal  journalists  blocked  and  tradiConal   domesCc  media  under  state  control,  ciCzen  journalists   picked  up  cameras  and  notepads  to  document  the  conflict —and  at  least  13  of  them  paid  the  ulCmate  price.   One,  Anas  al-­‐Tarsha,  was  only  17  years  old.  At  least  five  of   the  ci?zen  journalists  worked  for  Damascus-­‐based  Shaam   News  Network,  whose  videos  have  been  used  extensively  by   interna?onal  news  organiza?ons. hGp://cpj.org/2013/02/aGacks-­‐on-­‐the-­‐press-­‐in-­‐2012.php  March  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 4
  • This is also a member of themedia: Glenn  Beck,  formerly  of  Fox  News,  USAMarch  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 5
  • What is the media?   The  media  is  a  means  to  an  end,  not  an  end  in   itself.  It  is  a  channel  for  communicaQng   informaQon  –  whether  biased  or  unbiased  –  to   a  chosen  audience.  March  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 6
  • Means for communicating Print  (newspapers,  magazines,  etc) Television Radio On  the  Internet: • Social  media  (Facebook,  TwiGer) • Email  (newsleGer) • Dedicated  website  (example:  Huffington  Post) • Blogs Flickr,  NS  NewsflashMarch  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 7
  • Some questions to ask yourselfabout media outlets: Who  makes  the  decisions  about  what  they   report? What  is  their  bias? Who  funds  them  and  how  much? Who  is  their  audience?March  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 8
  • To work with the media… You  have  to   understand  them. You  can’t  just   reflexively   scapegoat  them. Have  a  posiQve  but   cauQous  aftude. AnQ-­‐corrupQon  acQvist  gives  an  interview  on   Austrian  radio,  2012 March  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 9
  • What is communications inemergencies? Communica5ons  in  emergencies   isn’t  always  as  ‘glamorous’  as  this!March  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 10
  • Communication is advocacyMarch  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 11
  • Ways to reach the public Through  the   channel  of  the   media Speak  directly  to   the  public Pakistan  Red  Crescent/IFRC  public  communica5ons   ini5a5ve  in  Pakistan,  2010 hIp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1gvgnBlvf8 March  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 12
  • Who are you trying to reach? The  people  you’re  trying  to   communicate  with  are   called  your  “targets” Who  your  targets  are  will   be  determined  by  your   objecQve  for  a  given   communicaQons  acQvityMarch  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 13
  • Potential targets: in the disasterarea People  affected  by  the  emergency People  receiving  assistance  from  your   organizaQon  (beneficiaries) Decision-­‐makers  (community  leaders,  local   authoriQes,  naQonal  authoriQes) InternaQonal  community  (representaQves  in   the  disaster  area) Donors  (in  the  disaster  area)March  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 14
  • Potential targets: external The  general  public  (awareness-­‐raising,  pressure   group  on  decision-­‐makers) Donors Decision-­‐makers  (foreign  governments,  UN) ExisQng  supporters  (for  grassroots  acQvism,   pressure  group  on  decision-­‐makers)March  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 15
  • What are your objectives? Will  vary  by  your  targets But  generally,  they  are: • Inform  people  about  the  situaQon • Seek  to  influence  people  to  take  acQon  or  make  a   certain  decision  that  will  affect  the  situaQon • Raise  funds  for  your  programs   • Strengthen  your  organizaQonal  brand o a  strong  brand  facilitates  all  of  the  aboveMarch  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 16
  • Interviews: the good… Oxfam’s  Marcel  Stoessel  speaks  to  al-­‐Jazeera  television  from  Kinshasa  in  2010.  The   video  quality  is  poor,  but  Stoessel  delivers  a  basic  but  compelling  message  with  a   strong  voice.  hIp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=30_3ll233mMMarch  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 17
  • Interviews: the bad (and ugly) In  this  30-­‐minute  al-­‐ Jazeera  documentary  on   Hai5  six  months  aZer   the  2010  earthquake,   several  officials  show   what  not  to  do  in  an   interview:  flat-­‐out  denial   before  the  ques5on  is   fully  posed;  lack  of   sympathy  for  vic5ms;   lack  of  demonstrated   understanding  of  the   situa5on. hIp:// www.youtube.com/ watch?v=rx2EQxZ7MXQMarch  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 18
  • What would you do? Prac5ce  scenarios  for  break-­‐out  groups,  followed  by  group  discussion 1.  Youre  a  nurse  in  a  cholera  treatment  center  and  youre  tending  to  pa?ents  in   urgent  need  of  IVs.  Suddenly  you  see  several  people  enter  with  cameras,  and  they   have  badges  to  show  theyre  from  the  Associated  Press.  Theyre  walking  around   the  clinic  taking  pictures  of  the  pa?ents.  What  do  you  do? 2.  Figh?ng  in  the  countryside  has  caused  150,000  IDPs  to  flee  to  the  main  city.  Just  as   theyre  arriving  a  huge  rainstorm  hits.  The  newspaper  The  Bangkok  Post  calls  and   asks  whats  happening  to  the  IDPs  and  what  your  organiza?on  is  doing  about  it.   What  do  you  say? 3.  Youre  a  doctor  with  the  Red  Cross  and  youve  had  to  temporarily  close  your  clinic   because  there  are  poli?cal  riots  and  neither  your  healthcare  workers  nor  pa?ents   can  access  the  clinic  (riots  are  blocking  roads).  Al-­‐Jazeera  calls  and  wants  to  have   your  comment  about  the  clinic  closure  and  the  poli?cal  violence.  What  do  you   say? 4.  Youre  out  in  rural  Kenya,  mee?ng  community  leaders  about  a  project  your   organiza?on  is  shu]ng  down.  Your  phone  rings  and  its  the  BBC  in  London,  calling   to  ask  for  your  comment  about  reports  theyve  received  that  your  country   director  is  embezzling  funds.  Youve  never  heard  of  this  before.  What  do  you  say   to  the  person  on  the  phone?  What  do  you  a^er  you  get  off  the  phone?March  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 19
  • If you have an interview request… First,  find  out  as  many  details  as  you  can  about  the   interviewer  and  the  interview. Do  not  agree  immediately  to  the  interview  if   you’re  not  authorized  to  speak  to  the  press,  or   unsure  if  you  should. Before  agreeing,  you  must  seek  approval  from  your   organizaQon  (unless  you  are  already  authorized). Ask  yourself:  do  you  have  a  media  or   communicaQons  officer  on  your  team? • Yes?  Terrific!  Speak  with  him/her  immediately. • No?  Get  prepared.March  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 20
  • Yes! I have a media officer on myteam Your  media  officer  will  help  you: o Determine  if  you  should  do  an  interview o Learn  some  basic  media  skills o Communicate  your  organiza?ons  key  messages o Avoid  crossing  red  lines o Understand  the  journalist  and  media  organiza?on  youll   be  speaking  with o Understand  basic  "rules  of  play”  of  interviews  (on-­‐the-­‐ record/off-­‐the-­‐record,  etc)March  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 21
  • You don’t have a media officer? Do  you  want  to  do  this  interview? Does  your  organizaQon  want  you  do  this   interview? Can  you  do  this  interview  well? Is  this  interview  worthwhile? Will  you  get  too  nervous  in  the  studio?March  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 22
  • If you do the interview… Some  things  to  consider  before  the  interview: • Familiarize  yourself  with  the  terms  of  the  interview   (on  or  off  the  record,  when  is  publicaQon,  etc) • Develop  a  few  key  messages • Look  up  the  right  words,  pracQce  pronunciaQon • Know  your  red  lines  (what  won’t  you  say?) • PracQce  your  key  messages • Think  about  what  youll  wear  and  your  body   language  (be  comfortable,  project  a  good  image)March  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 23
  • During the interview Don’t  feel  rushed Be  passionate Talk  to  your  nice  Aunt   Jane   • i.e.,  somebody  who  has   natural  human  empathy   and  is  smart,  but  is  not  an   expert  on  the  subject A  Red  Cross  delegate  speaks  with  a   journalist,  Hai5,  2010 Talk  about  PEOPLE!March  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 24
  • What can a media officer do forme? Informs  and  influences  to  create  posiQve  change Creates  appropriate  preparatory  material Excellent  understanding  of  situaQon  and  context A  good  trainer  and  supporQve  coach Knows  target  audiences  and  explains  them  to  you Monitors  the  media  and  shares  analysis Builds  capacity  of  local  staff;  strong  understanding   of  local  media Supports  the  program  and  the  people  you’re   assis<ng!March  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 25
  • The state of the media today Journalism  rules  and  ethics • Yes,  they  exist.  E.g.:  hGp://www.spj.org/ ethicscode.asp Cut  budgets  -­‐-­‐>  diminished  coverage Mindless  fill?:  the  24-­‐hour  news  cycle Sponsored  media  visits/media  imbeds • Big  coverage,  quesQonable  ethics? The  future:  mobile  devices,  the  Internet,  ciQzen   journalism   hGp://sm4good.com/2013/03/19/presentaQon-­‐social-­‐media-­‐emergency-­‐response-­‐operaQons/March  2013 Influence for Good -- influenceforgood.org 26