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HERANA Higher Education Research & Advocacy Network in Africa RESEARCH ADVOCACYHigher Education and Development The HERANA GatewayInvestigating the complex relationships An internet portal to research on higherbetween higher education and economic education in Africadevelopment, and student democraticattitudes in AfricaThe Research-Policy Nexus University World News (Africa)Investigating the relationship between Current news and in-depth investigationsresearch evidence and policy-making in into higher education in Africaselected public policy sectors in SouthAfricaNordic Masters in Africa (NOMA)Collaborative research training by theUniversities of Oslo, Makerere, WesternCape and CHET FUNDERS Carnegie, Ford, Rockefeller, Kresge, DFID, Norad 2
Project team• Higher Education Studies – Peter Maassen (Oslo), Nico Cloete (CHET & UWC)• Development Economist – Pundy Pillay (UWC)• Sociology of Knowledge – Jo Muller (UCT), Johann Mouton (US)• Data analysis - Ian Bunting (DoE), Charles Sheppard (NMMU)• Researchers – Tracey Bailey (CHET), Gerald Ouma (Kenya & UWC), Rumolo Phinero (Oslo), Patricia Langa (Mozambique & UCT), Samuel Fongwa (Cameroon)• Higher Education Research and Advocacy Network (HERANA)• Funded by: Ford foundation, Carnegie Corporation, Rockefeller, Kresge Foundation• NORAD funds masters in HES (Oslo, Makerere, UWC)
• Three successful (OECD) systems investigated: ◦ Finland (Europe), South Korea (Asia), North Carolina (US)• Africa ◦ Botswana – University of Botswana ◦ Ghana – University of Ghana ◦ Kenya – University of Nairobi ◦ Mauritius – University of Mauritius ◦ Mozambique – Eduardo Mondlane ◦ South Africa – Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University ◦ Tanzania – University of Dar es Salaam ◦ Uganda – Makerere University 4
The overall research questions• What are the key elements characterising the regional contexts within which the regional universities operate?• What is the nature and level of the relationship between the universities and their surrounding environment(s)?• How are the immediate needs of the region reflected in the missions and core activities of the universities?• What types of formal and/or informal institutional arrangements regarding regional development initiatives have been created over time?• What key factors (internal/external) have acted as enablers and/or constraints to reaching the proposed developmental objectives?• How were regional development initiatives related to the primary activities of the universities – teaching, research and service – institutionalised? What role was played in this by individual institutional actors?• How can institutional (university) behaviour (e.g. active, passive), in light of regional development needs and initiatives, be characterised and understood? 5
Higher education’s role in and contribution to development is dependent onthree inter-related factors:1. The nature of the pact between the university leadership, political authorities, and society at large2. The nature, strength and continuity of the academic core3. The nature and management of the coordination/ connectedness between the university and external projects 6
Analytical propositions (1)• Proposition 1: The stronger the pact between universities, university leadership, national authorities and society at large, the better the universities will be able to make a significant, sustained contribution to development.• Assumption 1: The development and maintenance of the pact relies on effective governance, effective leadership, and co- ordination between the key actors, amongst the national authorities, and an understanding about the role of the university in development.
Analytical propositions (2)• Proposition 2: The weaker the institutionalisation of externally-funded projects, the weaker the contribution to strengthening the academic core of the university.• Assumption 2a: With weakly institutionalised externally- funded projects the institution has a limited capacity to make a sustainable impact on development.• Assumption 2b: Universities make a more significant and sustained contribution to development when their development-related activities contribute to strengthening the academic core of the institution.
Analytical propositions (3)• Proposition 3: All universities are loosely coupled organisations, implying that academic activities are driven internally.• Assumption 3: Under ideal circumstances loose coupling is a strength of the university, but in cases of a weak pact and a small and weakly institutionalised academic core, loose coupling tends to fragmentation.
Narrative, intent and structures for the Role of HE in developmentVisions and plans (i.e. Tanzania Development Vision (2025)Policies – development, science and technology, higher educationMethods and structures for co-ordination
Government Government departments: Education; Science and Technology; Treasury; Industrial Development; Research Councils Notions and policies Coordination mechanisms Pact, Academic Core, External Coordination, Connectedness UniversityGroupings Funders Leadership/ planning Business FacultiesCommunity Academics 11
Mauritius and Uganda: National visions, policies and structures (1)Indicators 3 2 11. The concept of a knowledge Strong Weak Absent economy features in the Appears in a number of Only mentioned in science Not mentioned at all national development plan policies and technology policy2. A role for higher education in Prevalent Weak Absent development in national policies Clearly mentioned in Only mentioned in higher and plans development policies education policy / plan3. Economic development and Systematic Sporadic Weak higher education planning are Formal structures Clusters / forums Occasional meetings linked Headed by senior minister4. Link between universities and Specific co-ordination Some formal structures but No structures, and political national authorities structures or agencies no meaningful co-ordination rather than professional networks5. Co-ordination and consensus Higher education Intermittent interaction Higher education issues building of government agencies mainstreamed across with ineffective forums limited mainly to one involved in higher education government departments ministry or directorateKey:None Mauritius Uganda Mauritius and Uganda 12
Institutional clusters according to Input and Output Indicators 2.00 INPUT OUTPUT 1.50 1.00 0.50 Cluster Means 0.00 -0.50 -1.00 -1.50 Inverse Res Inc M grad D grad Articles % SET % PG % Staff Stud: per per per per enrol enrol PhD Staff FTE Acad Acad Acad Acad UDSM 0.15 -0.09 0.89 0.52 -0.58 -1.28 -0.68 -0.74 Makerere & NMMU -0.75 -0.67 -0.74 -0.83 -0.45 0.08 -0.37 -0.36 UCT 1.35 1.43 0.59 1.14 1.48 1.11 1.42 1.47
1516 No. of publications % SET Makerere Ghana Dar es Salaam 381 338 232 169 122 129 381 169 198 90 91 89 89 107 45 62Eduardo… 2008 2009 2010 UCT Ghana Nairobi Botswana Dar es Salaam Makerere Mauritius 14