Design Principles and Practices 2 – 4 February 2011 Developing a Visual Language to Enhance Knowledge Transfer in the Desi...
Contents <ul><li>Background – The project, the active ageing and smart clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical perspective <...
Part 1- Background – The project, the active ageing and smart clothes
Design for Ageing Well, part of the New Dynamics of Ageing Programme <ul><li>One of 12 JRC funded projects in UK from NDA ...
Active ageing <ul><li>The process of optimising opportunities for health, participation and security in order to enhance t...
Walking is good <ul><li>There is gathering evidence that walking is the best exercise for the over 65s in order to mitigat...
Part 2 - Theoretical perspective
Personal history <ul><li>late 1980s </li></ul>cross disciplinary product design agency  14 years as creative director hard...
Aim of the research <ul><li>Develop a design focused cross disciplinary communications methodology in a language that is e...
Positioning this research Societal Issues Technical Issues Design Issues User Issues
Diverse expertise and knowledge
Positioning this research
T shaped research <ul><li>Reference: Adapted from McKinseys T Shaped people. </li></ul>Societal Issues Technical Issues De...
Communication challenge in the co-design process for the active ageing Tech Possibilities User Needs User Wants Describing...
Part 3 – Pictograms and iconography
Ancient but familiar view <ul><li>Describe function and processes intuitively and visually with no need for words. </li></...
A predecessor to modern pictograms? <ul><li>In context can be seen as signs recognisable by the reader </li></ul><ul><li>N...
Modernist interpretation <ul><li>Images: www.olympic-museum.de </li></ul>1936 - Berlin 1948 - London 1972 – Munich ( Otl A...
Part 4 – Interactive visual language
First key developments 1984 1998 mid 1990s Early - mid 1990s
Pictograms and the smart phone <ul><li>Images: IBM Simon photo licensed to public domain by Wikimedia Commons user bcos47,...
Evolution <ul><li>Image: cellphones.about.com,  www.berryreview.co , blog.chakravarthi.co.inm,  www.mobiledia.com , www.ca...
Embedded in the DfAW project
Potential for confusion <ul><li>Numbers of Smart Phones and Feature Phones in UK </li></ul>Network / price plan Pay  Month...
Part 5 – Descriptive visual language
Brand independent technical clothing terms Breathable Hydrostatic Head Hard Shell Laminated Waterproof Water Resistant Win...
Non customer contact brands and their fabrics <ul><li>Source:  www.gore.com ,  www.polartec.com , www.pertex.com </li></ul...
Customer contact brands and their fabrics <ul><li>Source: uk.thenorthface.com,  www.rohan.co.uk , www.landsend.co.uk  </li...
The problems of the active ageing customers shopping experience <ul><li>Vision declines, typically viewing distances lengt...
Swing ticketing Clear Unclear
Technical clothing terms labeling Customer Contact Brand Non Customer Contact Brand
Performance codes from Premier Visions <ul><li>Source: www.premierevision.fr </li></ul>
Confused already? <ul><li>Big challenge for the Active Ageing to be able to see through the “noise” associated with perfor...
Part 6 – Concluding Thoughts
Back to some theory <ul><li>Gunther Kress argued that Gutenberg’s revolution made written language central to understandin...
Design considerations for the creation of a visual language <ul><li>References:  (11) Mealing and Yazdani, 1990. </li></ul...
Interesting to see directions choose to go in for Design for Ageing Well? <ul><li>Descriptive visual language –  Revisit t...
Thanks & Questions <ul><li>Contact: </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
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Developing a visual language to enhance knowledge transfer in the design of smart clothes and wearable technology for the active ageing

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Design has a rich iconographic based tradition of information transfer with its roots stretching back many millennia. This topic is evolving into a new on and off screen visual language embedded in our daily interaction with an ever-expanding range of physical and virtual tools. There is a need to be able to interpret the information presented through this new language with the result that vital meaning can be “lost in translation” between the conceptual development of the product and the amalgamation of technical functionality and needs of the end user. This is particularly important in emerging disciplines such as Smart Clothes and Wearable Technology, bringing together a wide range of cross-disciplinary skills and technical expertise. The challenge is particularly evident when attempting to create an understanding of potentially complex technical functions and benefits within the smart clothes space when addressing niche vertical markets such as the active ageing, where the “end user” may not be familiar with either the terminology or the emerging visual language.

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  • The term “Active Ageing” was coined by the WHO in 2002 to be The process of optimising opportunities for health, participation and security in order to enhance the quality of life as people age Which is an important idea because the population demographic is changing With a predicted growth from 11.8 to 15.3 million in the number of over 65s by 2031, when 24% of the UK population will be over 65 The big idea is that SCWT may be able to help the Active Ageing to remain more active and potentially reduce the strain on the system.
  • My background is in graphic design, but ive always involved in cross disciplinary design practice. First job in late 80s was with one of the UK first cross disciplinary product design consultancies – product stylists, industrial designers, engineers, software developers and hardware designers Later on in 1994 (along with two EDI experts) set up the first web design agency in Wales – the idea was that we were going to develop Internet Business Solutions. In 14 years as the Creative Director, most time was spent at the centre of the multi discipinary team, working with the clients, the interface and IA designers and the software developers – created a real sense of participative design process.
  • Develop a design focused cross disciplinary communications methodology in a language that is easily understood • Can inform the work of cross disciplinary teams • Provide a ‘gateway to understanding’ for the target end user (Active Ageing)
  • Developing a visual language to enhance knowledge transfer in the design of smart clothes and wearable technology for the active ageing

    1. 1. Design Principles and Practices 2 – 4 February 2011 Developing a Visual Language to Enhance Knowledge Transfer in the Design of Smart Clothes and Wearable Technology for the Active Ageing David Taylor Smart Clothes and Wearable Technology Research Centre. University of Wales Newport.
    2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Background – The project, the active ageing and smart clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Pictograms and iconography </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive visual language </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive visual language </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
    3. 3. Part 1- Background – The project, the active ageing and smart clothes
    4. 4. Design for Ageing Well, part of the New Dynamics of Ageing Programme <ul><li>One of 12 JRC funded projects in UK from NDA </li></ul><ul><li>Project is investigating how we can develop wearable technology enabled smart clothes with the potential to contribute to an increase in the wellbeing of the active ageing, with a focus on walking as an activity . </li></ul>
    5. 5. Active ageing <ul><li>The process of optimising opportunities for health, participation and security in order to enhance the quality of life as people age 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Predicted growth from 11.8 to 15.3 million in the number of over 65s by 2031, when 24% of the UK population will be over 65 2 </li></ul><ul><li>References: (1) WHO, 2002. (2) ONS, 2009. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Walking is good <ul><li>There is gathering evidence that walking is the best exercise for the over 65s in order to mitigate the occurrence of falls 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Research being undertaken into the effects of dementia suggests that anything that is good for the circulation is also good for the brain - including activity, in particular walking and having less fat on the body 3 </li></ul><ul><li>References: (3) Williams, 2010 </li></ul>
    7. 7. Part 2 - Theoretical perspective
    8. 8. Personal history <ul><li>late 1980s </li></ul>cross disciplinary product design agency 14 years as creative director hardware engineers internet business solutions first web development agency in Wales graphic designer multi-disciplinary team 1994 software engineers product stylists PhD study brings design background into focus
    9. 9. Aim of the research <ul><li>Develop a design focused cross disciplinary communications methodology in a language that is easily understood, and: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can inform the work of cross disciplinary teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a ‘gateway to understanding’ for the target end user (Active Ageing) </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Positioning this research Societal Issues Technical Issues Design Issues User Issues
    11. 11. Diverse expertise and knowledge
    12. 12. Positioning this research
    13. 13. T shaped research <ul><li>Reference: Adapted from McKinseys T Shaped people. </li></ul>Societal Issues Technical Issues Design Issues User Issues
    14. 14. Communication challenge in the co-design process for the active ageing Tech Possibilities User Needs User Wants Describing Functionality Describing Benefits Actual Functionality Fabrics Design Features Electronics CO-DESIGN PROCESS DESCRIPTIVE INTERACTIVE
    15. 15. Part 3 – Pictograms and iconography
    16. 16. Ancient but familiar view <ul><li>Describe function and processes intuitively and visually with no need for words. </li></ul><ul><li>Described by Gaur as supporting memory. (4) </li></ul><ul><li>Familiar, and have been around a long time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest examples from 35,000BC (5) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First pictorial signs appearing around 30,000BC – Chauvet Cave, France. (5) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>References: (4) Gaur. 1997. (5) Harris, 1986. Image: visual-aarts-cork.com </li></ul>
    17. 17. A predecessor to modern pictograms? <ul><li>In context can be seen as signs recognisable by the reader </li></ul><ul><li>Not fully a pictogram – as can combine phonetically to represent sound of language (6) </li></ul><ul><li>References: (6) Abdullahh and Huber. Image: www.artisansofleisuretraveler.com </li></ul>
    18. 18. Modernist interpretation <ul><li>Images: www.olympic-museum.de </li></ul>1936 - Berlin 1948 - London 1972 – Munich ( Otl Aicher)
    19. 19. Part 4 – Interactive visual language
    20. 20. First key developments 1984 1998 mid 1990s Early - mid 1990s
    21. 21. Pictograms and the smart phone <ul><li>Images: IBM Simon photo licensed to public domain by Wikimedia Commons user bcos47, 15 October 2009. Nokia 9000 photo from www.seekingalpha.com </li></ul>1993 1996
    22. 22. Evolution <ul><li>Image: cellphones.about.com, www.berryreview.co , blog.chakravarthi.co.inm, www.mobiledia.com , www.cameraphonesplaza.com </li></ul>2001 Current Smart Phones Feature Phones
    23. 23. Embedded in the DfAW project
    24. 24. Potential for confusion <ul><li>Numbers of Smart Phones and Feature Phones in UK </li></ul>Network / price plan Pay Monthly Pay as You Go T-Mobile 24 22 Vodafone 23 10 Orange 28 28 O2 47 47
    25. 25. Part 5 – Descriptive visual language
    26. 26. Brand independent technical clothing terms Breathable Hydrostatic Head Hard Shell Laminated Waterproof Water Resistant Windproof Ripstop Microporous Hydrophobic Hydrophylic Wicking One Way Stretch Two Way Stretch Four Way Stretch Wind Resistant DWR Knitted Woven Taped Seams Bonded Pit Zips Two Way Zip Drop Liner Mesh Liner Membrane 2 Layer 2.5 Layer 3 layer Coil Zip Body Mapped Soft Shell
    27. 27. Non customer contact brands and their fabrics <ul><li>Source: www.gore.com , www.polartec.com , www.pertex.com </li></ul>Gore Polartec Pertex Performance Shell Power Stretch Quantum Paclite Shell Power Dry Microlight Soft Shell Pure Wool Classic Pro Shell Classic Endurance XCR Thermal Pro Equilibrium X-TRAFIT Thermal Pro Hi Loft Shield 2 in 1 Polar Fleece Heat Wind Pro Wind Block Power Shield Power Shield o2 Power Shield Pro Neoshell
    28. 28. Customer contact brands and their fabrics <ul><li>Source: uk.thenorthface.com, www.rohan.co.uk , www.landsend.co.uk </li></ul>Technical Consumer / High Street TNF Rohan Landsend Hyvent Barricade WindCheck Apex Permanent Water Repellency (PWR) Thermolite Summit Series Seamless Own Brand Polyester ThermaCheck-100 TKA 100 Own Brand Polymide ThermaCheck-200 Windwall Own Brand Fleece ThermaCheck-300 Vaporwick Own Brand Merino ThermaCheck Flex UPF PolarThin
    29. 29. The problems of the active ageing customers shopping experience <ul><li>Vision declines, typically viewing distances lengthen with age (7) </li></ul><ul><li>All becomes more difficult to read: shop labels, printed catalogues, web page content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended text sizes increase to 12 or 14 pt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web pages have a maximum average dwell time of 10seconds (8) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increases the importance of Pictograms and Icons to describe complex function </li></ul><ul><li>References: (7) Grandjean, (8) Fahmy. </li></ul>8cm @ 10 yrs 50cm @ 50 yrs 100cm @ 60 yrs
    30. 30. Swing ticketing Clear Unclear
    31. 31. Technical clothing terms labeling Customer Contact Brand Non Customer Contact Brand
    32. 32. Performance codes from Premier Visions <ul><li>Source: www.premierevision.fr </li></ul>
    33. 33. Confused already? <ul><li>Big challenge for the Active Ageing to be able to see through the “noise” associated with performance apparel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies doing their own thing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of pictograms and symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of overlap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusing marketing and functional information </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Part 6 – Concluding Thoughts
    35. 35. Back to some theory <ul><li>Gunther Kress argued that Gutenberg’s revolution made written language central to understanding (9) </li></ul><ul><li>(Then) Screen based revolution was taking us backwards and forwards into hieroglyphics </li></ul><ul><li>Since then, have we lost sight of the key considerations for visual language? </li></ul><ul><li>Reference: Kress (1995). </li></ul>
    36. 36. Design considerations for the creation of a visual language <ul><li>References: (11) Mealing and Yazdani, 1990. </li></ul>Mealing and Yazdani’s Key Considerations (11) Graphically Clear Semantically unambiguous Have no linguistic bias Adaptable (modifiable to express shades of meaning) Simple (keeping a small grid footprint) Isotype rules Superimosition Conjunction Concatenation Transformation Inheritance Duplication
    37. 37. Interesting to see directions choose to go in for Design for Ageing Well? <ul><li>Descriptive visual language – Revisit the ideals of Neurath’s ISOTYPE ? </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive visual language – Move towards a personalisation of pictograms and icons in technology products? </li></ul><ul><li>ISOTYPE: (International System of Typographic Picture Education) </li></ul><ul><li>ISOTYPE image Source: www.math.yorku.ca </li></ul>
    38. 38. Thanks & Questions <ul><li>Contact: </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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