Absorption of drug from non per oral route

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this will help in understanding absorption of drug other than oral route

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Absorption of drug from non per oral route

  1. 1. DIPAK KUMAR DASH M.PHARMPHARMACEUTICS 2
  2. 2.  The majority of drug areadministered generally orally.But in some cases it is not good routeof administration.For reason like patient noncompliance, first passeffect, immediate drug action etc.In that cases other route arepreferable. EX-Intramuscular 3
  3. 3. 1. BUCCAL/SUBLINGUAL2. TOPICAL3. INTRAMUSCULAR4. SUBCUTANEOUS5. RECTAL6. PULMONARY7. INTRANASAL8. INTRAOCULAR9. VAGINAL10. INTRA VEINOUS 4
  4. 4.  Drug places between tongue incaseof sublingual.Drug places between cheek and gumin case of buccal.Barrier to drug absorption in thisroute is epithelium of oral mucosa. 5
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  6. 6. Lipophilicity of drugSalivary secretionPh of salivaBinding to oral mucosaStorage compartmentThickness of oral epithelium 7
  7. 7.  As self-contained discrete dosage form which whenapplied to the intact skin deliver the drugs through theskin, at controlled rate to the systemic circulation.SKIN is the largest organ in body.Principal barrier is stratum corneum. 8
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  9. 9. STRATUM CAPILLARY LAYERCORNEUM BLOOD CIRCULATION DRUGS UPTAKE PERMEATION Epidermis Dermis Sub dermal tissue A MULTI LAYER SKIN MODEL SHOWING THE SEQUENCE OF TRANSDERMAL PERMEATION OF DRUG 10
  10. 10. Thickness of stratum corneum.Presence of hair folicleTraumaHydration of skinAgeGroomingVehicle or baseEnvironmental humidity andtemperature 11
  11. 11. Absorption of drug from intramuscularrelatively rapid.Factor to consideroVascularity of injection siteoLipid solubilityoMolecular sizeoVolume of injectionoViscosity of injection vehicle 12
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  14. 14. Absorption of drug from subcutaneous siteslower than the intramuscular site.Rate of absorption from this site canincrease by.1. Enhancing blood flow to the injection site2. Increasing drug tissue contact area 15
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  16. 16. Diminished popularity due to psychology.Important route for children and older person.Drug given as suppositories or solution.Absorption from solution is better.Presence of fecal matter in rectum retardabsorption of drug. 17
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  18. 18. Drugs intended for systemic effect can beadminister by inhalation.Rapid exchange of gases between blood andinspired air occur.Drug administer as gases and aerosol.As large surface area of alveoli and richperfusion permit extremely rapid absorption.Particle size of drop let should small 0.6 micron. 19
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  20. 20. Drug absorption from nasal mucosa is rapid asobserve after parenteral administration.Route also treat local symptoms like nasalcongestion , rhinitis.Absorption depend upon drug lipophilicity. factor to be consider pH and pathologicalcondition.EX-ANTIHISTAMINS 21
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  22. 22. Drug applied in conjunctival sac.Barrier is cornea.Higher ph decrease tear promoteabsorption.Eye can hold 10micro liter of fluid. 23
  23. 23. Drug given for contraception, for bacterialand fungal infection.Vaginal duct is 7.5-9cm long.Mechanism of transport is passive diffusion.Example of drug-steroidal drug. 24
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  26. 26. By dissolution study.Types of apparatus1. Paddle type2. Basket typeMethod of dissolution• Rotating basket method• Paddle method• Reciprocating cylinder method• Flow through cell method• Paddle open disc method• Cylinder method• Reciprocating disc method 27
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  30. 30. 22-44Milo Glibaldi Biopharmaceutics andClinical Pharmaceutics, Reprint 2006 , 4thEdnpublished by Pharma book syndicateHydrabad, page number 24-32Robert E.Notari Biopharmaceutics andclinical Pharmaceutics, Second Indian reprint2008, CBS Publisher and distributors NewDelhi, Page no.Leon Shargel /Andrew B.C. YU.Biopharmaceutics and Pharmaceutics, 4thEdn 1999, Published by McGraw-Hillcompanies New York, page no. 99-108 31
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