M7 A2 Review Paper Ppt Miller C
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  • My interest in military service connected PTSD developed from being in the military and working at the Philadelphia VA Medical Center’s Behavioral Health and Social Work Services Office. The objective of this paper is partly to explore the disorder and partly identify new directions of research and exposing further potentials.
  • The overwhelming focus is on the environmental stimuli that can trigger PTSD symptoms. Atkinson, M., Guetz, A., and Wein, L. (2009) suggests that deployment schedules are a predictive environmental condition, as well as the rate of recuperation. Similarly, environmental conditions argued by Costa, D., and Kahn, M. (2010) cause cognitive, behavioral and physiological responses from which stress hormones are released and those stress hormones can be a catalyst for psychiatric disorders, including PTSD. PTSD is approached from the view that the trauma combined with persistent environmental conditions in turn develop PTSD.
  • Atkinson, M., Guetz, A., and Wein, L. (2009) conducted this military research study. Again with studies of this type the focus is on the environment. The exposure to stress and the frequency that stress is encountered. The exposure to stress in conjunction with a traumatic event may be a necessary condition for the onset of PTSD, but determining if these environmental influences are the only necessary condition is vital. We must first acknowledge that multiple people can be exposed to the same or nearly same environment, but they will not all result in cases of PTSD. To establish this we need to look beyond the environment.
  • Exploring who develops PTSD and why could be more important than what environmental conditions trigger it. Adding cultural context to the debate Hoge, C., Castro, C. A., Hotopf, M., and Fear, N. (2006) begin to contrast the persistence and prevalence of cases of PTSD between U.S. and U.K. forces having fought in Iraq.While comparing the percentage rates of combat related traumas and the organizational structural differences that may impact resilience and stress factors, combat related traumas are found to be more significant.
  • Iversen, A. C., Fear, N. T., Ehlers, A., Hacker H. J., Hull, L., Earnshaw, M., Greenberg, N., Rona R., Wessely, S. and Hotopf, M. (2008) continue the debate of the resilience and environment exploring the contrast between U.K. Military personnel mental health and non-military occupations susceptible to psychological trauma. However, the positions addressing the environment are more in moving toward the cognitive perspective addressing the thought processes.
  • There are also problems associated with studying only the environmental factors surrounding PTSD, Particularly when studying military groups. Considerations such as lower IQ, lower education levels, marital status and lower ranks were associated with higher rates of PTSD, but these may be factors of circumstance that place these demographics in a military positions more likely to encounter combat (i.e. infantry).The ASVAB placement test may place lower IQs in higher proximity to combat thereby skewing the results of a study, but further investigation is warranted into the concept. These studies may be perpetuating or even creating inaccurate stigmas around PTSD.
  • People in the same combat environment with a multitude of environmental similarities experience PTSD at differing rates of prevalence. Friedman, M. J., and Harris, W. W. also argue that similar methods of research, specifically work with brain banks developed for schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, alcoholism, mood and a variety of other neurological disorders, which can be comorbid with PTSD, already exist even though the prevalence of PTSD is currently greater than the other disorders except for depression.
  • People in the same combat environment with a multitude of environmental similarities experience PTSD at differing rates of prevalence. Friedman, M. J., and Harris, W. W. also argue that similar methods of research, specifically work with brain banks developed for schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, alcoholism, mood and a variety of other neurological disorders, which can be comorbid with PTSD, already exist even though the prevalence of PTSD is currently greater than the other disorders except for depression.
  • People in the same combat environment with a multitude of environmental similarities experience PTSD at differing rates of prevalence. Friedman, M. J., and Harris, W. W. also argue that similar methods of research, specifically work with brain banks developed for schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, alcoholism, mood and a variety of other neurological disorders, which can be comorbid with PTSD, already exist even though the prevalence of PTSD is currently greater than the other disorders except for depression.

M7 A2 Review Paper Ppt Miller C M7 A2 Review Paper Ppt Miller C Presentation Transcript

  • A NewEnvironment for PTSDChristopher A. MillerAdvanced General PsychologyInstructor: Dr. Darcel HarrisOctober 15, 2011
  • Table of Contents •Abstract1 •The Current Environment •Deployment Tempo and Recuperation 2 •Military Studies and Cultural Context 3 •Occupationally linked Trauma 4 •Preparedness and Occupational Familiarity 5 •Combating Stigmas and Coping 6 •Concerns 7 •Conclusion
  • AbstractThe scientific approach towards PTSD today appears to be basedaround the environmental factors that make someone susceptible tothe traumatic events, or environmental conditions that cause thesystems of PTSD to exhibit in an individual. To better understandthe disorder there is a need to incorporate and expand research intothe disorder using other psychological perspectives beyondenvironmental factors. The Current Environment  Research into the prevention and treatment of the disorder drastically favors an environmental approach.  The environmental perspective is often favored due to the fact that the onset of the symptoms is triggered by extreme and sudden stimulus from the environment.
  • Deployment Tempo andRecuperationEnvironmental  deployment schedules are claimed as predictive Factors environmental conditions  environmental conditions cause cognitive, behavioral and physiologicalConditions responses that can be a catalyst for psychiatricand Stimuli disorders, including PTSD Reaction and Processing PTSD of Trauma
  • Military Studies and CulturalContext cumulative stressors and the rates of recuperations are calculated as factors corresponding to a Poisson dose-response function and threshold distribution lag time between the onset of symptoms and when the individuals self-report the symptoms of PTSD lag time was independent of the amount of combat time limits the models analysis to two factors of analysis: combat stress and deployment tempo,
  • Occupationally linkedTrauma organizational structural differences may impact resilience and stress factors, combat related traumas are found to be more significant high-risk groups
  • Preparedness andOccupational Familiarity  the familiarity of an individual’s role during a trauma  personal perceptions of threat to life during trauma  coping advice was found to reduce prevalence
  • Combating Stigmas andCoping lower IQ lower education levels marital status lower ranks“conservative critics of psychotherapy have calledptsd [sic], in part , a political artifact of the antiwarmovement, a way to portray Vietnam veterans aspsychiatric victims of an unjust war” Dworkin, R.(2010).
  • Concerns“Osuch and colleagues mention many of theplaces where we need to look including:crytoarchitectonics, neurotransmitters, andreceptors, neuropeptides, enzymesynthesis, neurotropic factors, synapticproteins, signal transduction pathways, markers ofinflammation or infections as well as neuronalregeneration and apoptosis” Friedman, M., &Harris, W (2004). Conclusion To better understand this disorder future investigators need to incorporate and expand research perspectives using other psychological perspectives beyond external environmental factors.
  • Concerns“Osuch and colleagues mention many of theplaces where we need to look including:crytoarchitectonics, neurotransmitters, andreceptors, neuropeptides, enzymesynthesis, neurotropic factors, synapticproteins, signal transduction pathways, markers ofinflammation or infections as well as neuronalregeneration and apoptosis” Friedman, M., &Harris, W (2004). Conclusion To better understand this disorder future investigators need to incorporate and expand research perspectives using other psychological perspectives beyond external environmental factors.
  • ReferencesAtkinson, M. P., Guetz, A., & Wein, L. M. (2009). A dynamic model for posttraumatic stress disorderamong U.S. troops in operation Iraqi freedom. Management Science, 55(9), 1454-1454-1468. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/213269767? accountid=34899Costa, D. L., & Kahn, M. E. (2010). Health, wartime stress, and unit cohesion: Evidence from union army veterans*. Demography, 47(1), 45-45-66. Retrieved from http:// search.proquest.com/docview/222819735?accountid=34899Dworkin, R. W. (2010). The rise of the caring industry. Policy Review, (161), 45-45-59. Retrievedfrom http://search.proquest.com/docview/609957271?accountid=34899Friedman, M. J., & Harris, W. W. (2004). Commentary on "brain environment interactions: Stress, posttraumatic stress disorder, and the need for a postmortem brain collection": Toward a national PTSD brain bank. Psychiatry, 67(4), 384-384-390. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/220668332?accountid=34899Hoge, C. W., Castro, C. A., Hotopf, M., & Fear, N. (2006). Post-traumatic stress disorder in UK and US forces deployed to Iraq/Authors reply. The Lancet, 368(9538), 837-837; author reply 837. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/199058983? accountid=34899Iversen, A. C., Fear, N. T., Ehlers, A., Hacker H. J., Hull, L., Earnshaw, M., . . . .Hotopf, M. (2008). Riskfactors for post-traumatic stress disorder among UK armed forces personnel. Psychological Medicine, 38(4), 511-511-22. doi:10.1017/S0033291708002778Marx, B. P., Doron-Lamarca, S., Proctor, S. P., & Vasterling, J. J. (2009). The influence of pre-deployment neurocognitive functioning on post-deployment PTSD symptom outcomes among Iraq-deployed army soldiers. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS, 15(6), 840-840-52. doi:10.1017/S1355617709990488Polusny, M. A., Erbes, C. R., Murdoch, M., Arbisi, P. A., Thuras, P., & Rath, M. B. (2011). Prospectiverisk factors for new-onset post-traumatic stress disorder in national guard soldiers deployed to Iraq.Psychological Medicine, 41(4), 687-687-698. doi:10.1017/S0033291710002047Sundin, J., Fear, N. T., Iversen, A., Rona, R. J., & Wessely, S. (2010). PTSD after deployment to Iraq: Conflicting rates, conflicting claims. Psychological Medicine, 40(3), 367-367-82. doi:10.1017/S0033291709990791Wells, T. S., LeardMann, C. A., Fortuna, S. O., Smith, B., Smith, T. C., Ryan, M. A., . . . Blazer, D. (2010). Aprospective study of depression following combat deployment in support of the wars inIraq and Afghanistan. American Journal of Public Health, 100(1), 90-90-9. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/215085621?accountid=34899