The Texas Examinations of Educator Standards (TExES) are the examinations that teachers must pass to obtain a Texas teaching certificate.
The TExES exams are based on new Texas educator standards that were developed by the State Board for Educator Certification (SBEC), which describe the essential knowledge and skills that beginning teachers should possess.
These standards were developed to more closely align with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), the state-mandated curricular guidelines that specify the knowledge and skills that must be taught in each content area and at each grade level in the Texas public schools.
The Second Exam that must be taken and passed is a content exam.
Those seeking elementary certification in Early Childhood through Grade 4 (EC-4)
T ake a test that assesses, their general knowledge of the basic content areas that are taught in the elementary classroom: English Language Arts and Reading, Mathematics, Social Studies, Science, Fine Arts, Health and physical Education .
Which Exams Are Required for Certification? The Second Exam that must be taken and passed is a content exam.
Those seeking middle school certification Grades 4-8
Take a generalist or content exams covering material taught in in English Language Arts and Reading, Mathematics, Social Studies, & Science
Those seeking secondary certification for Grades 8-12 Take a, comprehensive exam designed to measure in-depth knowledge in their field of specialization (e.g., Mathematics, Science, Social Studies, English Language etc).
The PPR is divided into four different categories: EC-4 (which is required for those of you who are certifying at the early childhood through Grade 4 level),
4-8 (which is required for those of you who are certifying at the middle school level, (Grades 4-8),
8-12 (which is required for those of you who are certifying at the high school level, Grades 8-12), and
EC-12 (which is required for those of you who are certifying in an area that will to teach in Grades K-12, such as All Level Music, Art, or Physical Education, as well as, those taking the EC-12 Special Education Test)…. You need to take the PPR that corresponds with the grade level range of the subject area test you have taken or will be taking.
The competencies: for the old ExCET PD were arranged under three main headings, called domains, while the competencies for the new TExES PPR are arraigned under FOUR Domains.
When scores are reported, you will receive an overall score, then a breakdown by domain indicating how many items you got correct out of the number of items that were in that particular domain. Your score report will also let you know how many items you got correct out of the number of items that measured each competency under each domain.
Each PPR exam contains 80 scorable items. The actual exam will probably contain 90-92 items, because there will be 10-12 field test items embedded randomly within the test. Those 10-12 items are not scorable.
The old ExCET exam scores were reported on a scale of 1-100.
The TExES exam scores range are from 100-300. Therefore, you will be receiving a score on the TExES PPR and other TExES exams, that will be a three-digit number.
The passing score on TExES is 240 , which is equivalent to the ExCET passing score of 70
DOMAIN I: Designing Instruction and Assessment to Promote Student Learning
Domain I represents approximately 31% of the test, (Domain III also represents 31% of the test) As you plan study time, these two domains should be your priorities.
Domain I 31% Domain III 31% Domain IV 23% Domain II 15%
Standards and Competencies Assessed Domain I is titled Designing Instruction and Assessment to Promote Student Learning .
Standard I in Domain I states: “ The teacher designs instruction appropriate for all students that reflects an understanding of relevant content and is based on continuous and appropriate assessment. ”
Domain's sub-areas, called competencies, help us understand the type of knowledge that will assist in answering the questions
Competency 001: The teacher understands human development processes and applies this knowledge to take instruction and ongoing assessment that motivate students and are responsive to their developmental characteristics and needs.
This competency requires beginning teachers to have in-depth knowledge of the stages of human growth and development, specifically in the areas of cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development, for students in EC through Grade 12. Review should include the theories of Piaget, Erikson, Vygotsky, and Kohlberg.
It is critical that you know the stages of development described by these different theorists, and that you can apply the theories to questions that require a knowledge of the typical stage of development for a particular age or grade-level student.
Competency 002: The teacher understands student diversity and knows how to plan learning Experiences and design assessments that are responsive to differences among students and that promote all students’ learning
This competency focuses on the range of diversity represented by the students in a typical classroom. Diversity exists in regard to gender, ethnicity, language background, cultural identity, and academic backgrounds. Your teacher preparation should have helped you to realize that diversity is a good thing in the classroom.
We need to embrace, celebrate, and respect the diverse natures of our students. You should be able to plan and adapt lessons that meet the needs of your students based on their diverse characteristics. Keeping these things in mind will help you successfully answer the test questions that deal with diversity.
The rule of inclusion is important in achieving competency, as teachers must learn to adapt lessons to address the varied backgrounds, skills, interests, and learning needs of all students.
Competency 003: The teacher understands procedures for designing effective and coherent instruction and assessment based on appropriate learning goals and objectives
Knowledge of how to prepare and write lesson plans and appropriately assess the learning that students are expected to acquire is needed to answer questions that address this competency-You may want to review the steps of the lesson plan cycle to help you answer questions that address this area. Three basic questions to ask when designing a lesson are:
· Where are your students going?'
· How are they going to get there?
· How will you know when they have arrived?
Anyone who walks into a classroom to observe should be able to see that there is a method to the madness. They should be able to see a logical progression in the lesson activities .
Competency 004: The teacher understands Learning processes and factors that impact student learning and demonstrates this knowledge by planning effective, engaging instruction and appropriate assessments
This competency can be seen as a summary of the first three competencies. Questions that address this area will combine your knowledge of human growth and development, diversity, and planning for instruction and assessment by asking you to apply it to various classroom situations.
You should be able to apply learning theory to instructional practices to better facilitate student learning. Examples include connecting new information to prior knowledge and making learning meaningful to students' lives.
You should be able to design activities that address your students’ different learning styles, as well as their cognitive, social, and emotional needs.
1. Tiffany is a third–grade student who is having some difficulty with math concepts. While monitoring her work on math problems, you notice that she can easily add 3 to 4 to get 7, but struggles when she needs to subtract 4 from 7 to get 3. Based on your observation, the best assessment of Tiffany’s math abilities demonstrates that she is:
A Exhibiting signs of cognitive delay and should be referred for special education testing.
B Not yet able to grasp the concept of object permanence
C Limited in her ability to apply metacognitive strategies to classroom activities.
D Having difficulty applying the concept of reversibility.
On returning to school after a holiday vacation, Jeremy, a high school senior, tells his teacher that he spent the holiday working with his older brother on a construction project. He further explains that he could make $25 per hour by quitting school and joining his brother’s construction crew. In preparing to discuss this issue with Jeremy, the teacher should realize that Jeremy’s comments show evidence that many students of this age:
A Have not yet developed the reasoning skills necessary to help make responsible decisions.
B Tend to focus on the present rather than long-term consequences.
C Have difficulty grasping abstract concepts and need concrete experiences to help them make decisions.
D Tend to rebel against the authority of adults and societal norms.
Sample clustered- Item Questions Use the information below to answer the two questions that follow.
Third-grade teacher Marjorie Fleming is planning a unit designed to strengthen student’s skills in reading and critical thinking. Throughout the unit students will read a variety of material related to the theme of helping others. Mrs. Fleming plans to use whole-class activities, cooperative learning groups, and independent reading as part of the instruction of this unit.
1. As part of the initial planning process, Mrs. Fleming’s first step in developing her lesson plans for the unit should be to:
A Select appropriate instructional strategies for improving reading and critical thinking
B Design a system for evaluating student work that will give equal weight to reading and critical thinking.
C Determine students’ general areas of strength and need in reading and critical thinking.
D Decide which resources to use for cooperative learning activities in reading and critical thinking
2. Several days into the unit, while working in a cooperative learning group, a boy announces, “I don’t want to work in a group with girls. Girls don’t work as good as boys. “The most important first step for Mrs. Fleming to take in dealing with this incident would be to:
A Ensure that she does not model behaviors or attitudes that reflect unconscious gender stereotyping.
B Meet separately with the boys and girls to discuss the incident that occurred in the classroom.
C Review all textbooks to make sure they do not contain gender stereotyping.
D Attend a workshop to learn how to promote gender equity in the classroom.
Domain II, Creating a Positive, Productive Classroom Environment
Domain Weight Domain II represents 15 % of the test.
PPR Standard II The teacher creates a classroom environment of respect and rapport that fosters a positive climate for learning, equity, and excellence
from Domain II: “ The teacher knows how to establish a classroom climate that fosters learning, equity, and excellence and uses this knowledge to create a physical and emotional environment that is safe and productive “
Competency 005: The teacher knows how to establish a classroom climate that fosters learning equity, and excellence and uses this knowledge to create a physical and emotional environment that is safe and productive
This competency establishes what the beginning teacher needs to know and understand to build an environment and rapport to meet each child's unique needs. Each teacher accepts the responsibility of shaping this classroom climate that will allow students to function cooperatively or individually in a productive manner. Creating the classroom environment is the beginning teacher's way to communicate enthusiasm for learning and communicating his or her high expectations for student learning.
Kay Frances Tolliver (2003), a Harlem, New York teacher, said, “Classrooms have to be alive! Because, if we turn the students off, well lose them for life.”
Competency 006.- The teacher understands strategies for an organized and productive learning environment and for managing student behavior.
The importance of establishing classroom routines, procedures, and cooperative learning and managing time and materials are another part of what is tested in Standard II Competency 006. It covers managing student behavior so that the beginning teacher understands what to do to set appropriate behavior standards and expectations. The beginning teacher must know district guidelines and policies on discipline-management, how to model respectful behavior, how to set behavior expectations, and how to manage physical space to provide a safe and productive learning environment.
In her book Two Parts Textbook, One Part Love , Louanne Johnson (1998) said, "In order to maintain control in my classroom, I must concentrate on controlling the environment (which is possible), and not concentrate on controlling the students (which is not possible unless they agree to permit it)"
The following are sample single-item questions that may help you understand what is being tested in Standard II, Competencies 005 and 006. Use the strategies you’ve found most effective for you to determine the correct answer for each of the following:
Manny is a third-grade student struggling in several areas. Which of the following instructional strategies might best communicate the teacher’s high expectations for Manny?
A Ensure that the student has the opportunity to work often in heterogeneously mixed groups.
B Focus on the student’s academic strengths and focus less on tasks that are challenging for him.
C Ensure that Manny receives frequent and meaningful rewards, even if his academic performance is below expectations
D Assist Manny in setting learning goals that are challenging and provide assistance when necessary.
A seventh-grade Texas History teacher knows that students in his classes bring very wide ranges of prior knowledge and experience to the class. Students also have varying levels of knowledge and skills. This teacher can best build a positive and supportive learning environment for each and every student by using an assessment system in which:
A Quizzes and tests given throughout the year include questions of varying difficulty.
B Peer assessment and teacher assessment provide the basis of feedback given to students.
C Different standards are used to determine grades for different groups of students.
D Process and progress as well as the product are considered in determining each student’s grade.
Mrs. Elsa Acosta is a first-year teacher in a fourth-grade class in a low socio-economic area in San Antonio. She is halfway through the school year and is reflecting on what she needs to do the second half of the year to improve student success and classroom climate.
1 In evaluating classroom climate, Mrs. Acosta might ask herself which of the following questions?
A Do my lessons encourage intellectual involvement and active engagement on the part of all students?
B Do my planning and reflect clear and consistent educational philosophy?
C Does every student have the opportunity to take part in a variety of learning experiences?
D Are strategies in place to make certain that ongoing assessment of each student occurs regularly?
2 Mrs. Acosta has struggled with the behavior patterns of a 9-year-old boy in the classroom. He frequently disrupts the class and ignores the rules and responsibilities she has set forth for the class. After getting suggestions from the principal, Mrs. Acosta has documented the following actions; she has met with the student individually, she has called parents, and she has sent notes home. His behavior continues to be disruptive although he tells Mrs. Acosta he wants to do better. Which would be the most effective next step for her to employ?
A Let the parents know that she is referring him for special education services.
B Request that the school counselor meet with him, then provide her feedback.
C Send him into another teacher’s classroom for a time-out when he becomes too disruptive
D Arrange for him to go to the assistant principal’s office for a discipline referral.
Ms. Myra Cohen, a first year teacher, has been hired to replace a retiring teacher in the middle of the school year. Ms. Cohen anticipates a difficult transition because of the developmental stage of the students- about six years old. She understands that the students had formed a strong attachment to the teacher who is leaving. Ms Cohen has planned to initiate a number of concepts and strategies she learned and experienced in her university coursework and field experiences. She understands that these changes will be an additional transition for the students in her class. They have been set in straight rows; walls have been decorated with lists of rules and consequences and commercially prepared teaching materials. The departing teacher will be taking all her materials with her when she leaves. Ms. Cohen will have to December break to bring in her materials. She was able to spend the last two days prior to the break as an observer in the classroom. During this time, she made notes of students’ characteristics, likes, dislikes, and so forth. She plans to use this in helping her know the students when the new semester begins.
1 In planning her classroom arrangement and creating a physical and emotional environment that will meet the needs of students of this age, Ms. Cohen should include which of the following in her plan?
A. Areas that allow the students space to run and play when they are finished with their worksheet pages.
B. A homework station where students will turn in their homework each morning as they come in.
C. A carpeted area next to bookshelves where she will keep a variety of quality children’s literature for students to self-select.
D. A cleanup area for washing hands and so forth after students complete projects.
2 Ms. Cohen’s favorite things are hot-air balloons and Dalmatian dogs. She plans to utilize both of these preferences in the décor she establishes in her classroom and plan learning activities around both subject areas. This high-lights Ms. Cohen’s understanding that:
A. Students will respond to learning that communicates the teacher’s enthusiasm for learning.
B. Students will learn to like the same things she likes.
C. Students will enjoy being in a brightly decorate classroom.
D. Students will benefit from learning about new types of pets.
Domain III Implementing Effective, Responsive Instruction and Assessment.
Domain Weight Domain III Represents 31% of the test.
This domain cover two primary categories. The first category includes PPR Standard I which focuses on integrating instruction and assessment, and PPR Standard III, which focuses on promoting student learning. The second category comprises Technology Applications Standards I-V, which focus on integrating multimedia technology in the curriculum
Each competency is composed of two major parts:
(1) the competency statement , which broadly defines what an entry-level educator in Texas public schools should know and be able to do, and (2) the descriptive statements , which describe in greater detail the knowledge and skills eligible for testing
Domain III Competencies- Instruction and Effective Assessment Standards
Competency 007: The teacher understands and applies principles and strategies for communicating effectively in varied teaching and learning contexts
Effective oral written, and nonverbal communication is essential for educators. We must be able to provide clear and accurate information to all students-no matter their age, interest, or background. You may be an EC teacher who works with preschoolers most of the day, however, mixed-age students are in the hallways, playground, cafeteria, and many other places around the school. Teachers do not communicate with only their individual students. We are part of a school community. Communicating directions, explanations, and procedures will be a regular part of your daily life as a teacher.
Within the classroom we must be skilled at questioning and leading effective student discussions. This includes allowing sufficient wait time and productive follow-up questioning. These activities engage students in exploring content; extend their knowledge; and foster active inquiry, higher order thinking, and problem solving.
Interpersonal communication skills may involve speaking, listening, writing, using electronic communication, and sometimes just giving the "teacher look” to stop off-task behavior.
Competency 008- The teacher provides appropriate instruction that actively engages students in the learning process.
This competency is the heart of teachers' work. Our primary task is to employ instructional techniques (e.g., discussion, inquiry, problem solving, direct instruction, read-alouds) that Promote intellectual involvement and active student learning. To do this we sometimes vary teacher and student roles in the process. Not all teaching must be done by the teacher; in fact, peers are often highly effective teachers. Reciprocal teaching and collaborative activities benefit all students. We often learn something best when we need to explain or teach it to another.
Variety is not only the spice of life, it is an absolute essential in the classroom. Establishing routines and rituals are important to provide structure and security to the day, but a bit of change spices up the day and prevents boredom. So by applying various strategies, we are more likely to promote student engagement and learning. Ways to accomplish this include: structuring lessons effectively (following a quiet activity like silent reading with an opportunity to move around while doing a science experiment), using flexible instructional groupings (staying in the same reading or math group all year can be as tedious as having the same meal for dinner every night), pacing lessons flexibly in response to student needs, including wait time (think about being in class with a professor who moves so quickly you can't keep up, or one who drones on and on until you feel drowsy-neither is responsive to student learning needs
Competency 009: The teacher incorporates the effective use of technology to plan, organize, deliver, and evaluate instruction for all students
In this information age, all teachers must know technology-related terms, concepts, data-input strategies, and ethical practices to make informed decisions about current technologies and their applications. For more than 150 years, school tools were mostly chalk, pencils and paper, and books. Today, many 5-year-olds arrive at kindergarten comfortable selecting and using videos, DVDS, CD-ROMS, and a variety of multimedia technologies that some teachers are just learning to use.
Understanding issues related to appropriate use of technology and following guidelines for the legal and ethical use of technology and digital information (e.g, copyright, fair use) is just as important as understanding legal and ethical use of books and other traditional intellectual properties.
Competency 010: The teacher monitors student performance and achievement; provides students with timely, high-quality feed-back; and responds flexibly to promote learning for all students
Assessment is an integral part of and informs instruction. Teachers are knowledgeable of the advantages and limitations of various formal and informal assessment methods, including technology-based testing. We create assessments that are congruent with lesson objectives. We hold high expectations for student achievement, and we communicate clearly both the high expectation and the standards by which they will be assessed to students and other education stakeholders, like parents.
An important part of the assessment process is enabling students to use the feedback we provide in positive ways. just as important is enabling students to become adept at self-assessment.
As with everything else related to teaching we respond flexibly. If assessment shows lack of understanding, we re-teach. That is, for example, if we see a blank look on a student's face, we respond to that student's confusion. ff we give a performance based assessment following a mathematics project and a large number of the students do not succeed, we redesign and re-teach that project. Conversely, if it becomes dear that students have already mastered a skill or knowledge, we move on (even if our lesson plans were developed to spend a week on that particular skill or knowledge base).
1 A high school history teacher has students read about current events from various sources with the objective of having them critically analyze and evaluate the reports. An appropriate assessment to determine the degree to which they analyzed and evaluated the assigned readings critically is:
A A multiple choice test.
B A written retelling.
C A report or essay related specifically to the topic
D A read-aloud
2 Which of the following should be the most important consideration for a high school composition teacher with regard to student’s use of research sources from the internet?
A Many Web sites are not maintained to keep the information up-to-date.
B Students do not always know the most effective search engine or data-base index to use to begin a search.
C Students are sometimes attracted by snappy graphics and animations rather than the quality of information at a site.
D It is difficult to determine which sites contain information that have been validated by knowledgeable persons in the field and which have not.
Ms. Chung teaches advanced placement physics to seniors. She is evaluating the effectiveness of a class discussion of neutrinos.
The first questions measures your understanding of Competency 007: The teacher understands and applies principles and strategies for communicating effectively in varied teaching and learning contexts.
1. Which of the following observations should Ms. Chung be most concerned about?
A. Students were so busy thinking of their next response that they did not listen to their classmates.
B. Students talked directly to one another, often in small conversation groups, not to Ms. Chung.
C. Students did not raise their hands before speaking.
D. Students argued and never came to consensus about how physicists should study solar neutrinos.
The second and third questions in this clustered set measure your understanding of Competency 008: The teacher provides appropriate instruction that actively engages students in the learning process , and also Competency 009: The teacher incorporates the effective use of technology to plan, organize, deliver and evaluate instruction for all students.
2 After the class discussion, Ms. Chung arranges a field trip to a nearby university where students will have the opportunity to talk with astrophysics professors. She asks the students to work in small groups to develop questions they would ask the professors. Which of the following is the greatest benefit of this strategy?
A It will save time on the day of the field trip because students will have prepared questions in advance
B It helps ensure that all students have an opportunity to participate in the questioning process.
C It makes it more likely that students will get the answers they are looking for
D It facilitates students’ development of conceptual understanding.
3 After with the astrophysicists, students have many questions about how the sun generate its power. Ms. Chung suggests they divide into teams to do a literature and Web search and prepare research reports that address their questions. She reminds them to identify any text or Web site on the Internet in the report. Which of the following is the most important reason for asking the students to do this?
A It will help the students understand that citing sources allows others to find and use those sources as well as giving credit to the author
B It will aid the teacher in compiling a list of resources to use the next time she teaches this unit.
C It will allow the teacher to check the sources to verify that students really went to the internet to search.
Mrs. freeman and Mr. Henry are team-teaching an integrated humanities project with their sixth-grade classes. The project will center around family stories. The teacher introduce the project by reading aloud several pages from Mi Familia/My Family, Written by Texas artist and author Carmen Lomas Garza. Students comment on the full-page illustrations, noting family activities which are similar to their own families’.
Mrs. Freeman, the reading-language arts teacher, explains that as part of the month-long project, students will talk with family members and collect stories/ They will develop the oral histories and stories into written narratives. They may illustrate them with photographs, paintings. Drawings, or other artwork. At the same time they will be available- to get ideas and models on which to develop their stories.
Mr. Henry, the social studies teacher, reminds the students that, just a Garza’s books and paintings reflect her cultural background and experiences as well. As they interview family members, it will be natural to discuss favorite holidays, foods, vacations, songs, religious celebrations, games and so forth. He tells them they will work in groups to research and produce a multimedia project related to one of those topics. He suggests they begin a preliminary brainstorming activity at their table groups using a K-W-L chart what they WANT to learn about those foods, sports, games, and celebrations. The completed multimedia project and illustrated family narrative will help them tell the class what they LEARNED about the topic.
In excitement, the sixth graders begin to talk at their table groups about favorite family foods, games, and so on. The teachers circulate among the groups, listening, observing, and making notes to guide instruction as the project proceeds.
1 The primary role the teachers have taken in the instructional process so far has been to:
A Motivate and encourage students to generate ideas about topics that are meaningful to them
B Facilitate student’s use of recall and memory in real-world context.
C Communicate respect for diversity.
D Provide students with clear instructions for the project activities.
2 The teachers’ use of K-W-L charts indicates that an instructional objective for the project is:
A To provide a graphic structure for the entire multimedia project.
B To scaffold students’ learning by activating schema and background knowledge and to develop a beginning structure for note taking that will inform the project.
C To provide seatwork that will engage students until the end of the period and will result in a finished paper that can be graded.
D To prompt students to assess their own understanding of instructional content .
Domain IV Fulfilling Professional Roles & Responsibilities
Domain Weight Domain IV is approximately 23% of the test
Standards and Competencies Assessed
To do well on this portion of the test , you must have a thorough understanding of your professional roles and responsibilities as a teacher. That is, you must know what it means to develop an identity as a professional and what it means to develop a personal commitment to continuous Professional growth that is aligned with students, campus, district, and state needs. As a professional, You must move beyond the classroom in your teaching to connect with families and the larger community- You must also develop collegial relationships and professional growth activities and begin developing as a leader among your peers. Another important role is to develop a supportive and nurturing teaming environment for students from a variety of cultures and backgrounds.
You must also be knowledgeable about your responsibility to adhere to legal and ethical requirements of the profession. These are important roles and responsibilities for all teachers, and you are expected to know and practice them.
Domain IV Fulfilling Professional Roles & Responsibilities
PPR Standard IV The teacher fulfills professional roles and responsibilities and adheres to legal and ethical requirements of the profession. This is an important role for teachers.
Competency 011: The teacher understands the importance of family involvement in children’s education and knows how to interact and communicate effectively with families
It is important that you understand that parents play a key role in student learning and development. When parents are involved in educational partnerships with their children's teachers, the results are positive, including better grades and test scores for students, consistent school attendance and. performance, positive attitudes about school, appropriate school behaviors, and stronger academic programs (Burns, U.S. Department of Education, 1994). Thus, it is important for you to communicate effectively with families to promote, support, and encourage their involvement.
Keep in mind that adults in the home environment are children's first teachers and the continuing models for all of your students. Parents are the key that connects the worlds of the home and your classroom. As a teacher, your responsibility is to engage those families, parents and guardians, in the educational program of the school. Parents can work in classrooms in many ways that involve direct relationships with students. The presence of parents in the classroom can provide a sense of refuge and belonging for all children, particularly the culturally and linguistically diverse students. The following is an example of how one of my graduate students, a fourth-grade teacher, involves parents in her classroom to support student learning.
Domain IV Fulfilling Professional Roles & Responsibilities
Competency 012: The teacher enhances professional knowledge and skills by effectively interacting with other members of the educational community and participating various types of professional activities.
Recent research (Council on School Performance, 1997; Darling-Hammond, 1997; National Commission on Excellence in Elementary Teacher Preparation for Reading instruction, 2003) and conventional wisdom indicate that the quality of the classroom teacher is the most important ingredient for student learning. Our schools need highly skilled, committed and caring professionals. Thus, teachers must be committed to student learning through a personal growth plan that includes professional development that focuses on interacting with other professionals m the school community. This includes collaborating and engaging in dialogue and reflection with colleagues about topics that support student learning. Whether it's through vertical teaming horizontal learning, team teaching and mentoring or study groups, teachers must be engaged in the exchange of ideas with colleagues to improve professional practice.
Remember that learning to teach is a lifelong process. As a teacher you must have a comprehensive plan for sustained professional development. You must allocate time and resources to support that growth. You must plan for and profit from relevant Teaming opportunities, including staff development provided by your school district, continuing education courses, and professional development leading to a higher degree.
As professionals, teachers must also recognize the characteristics, goals, and procedures associated with the Professional Development Appraisal System (PDAS) and use the appraisal results to improve their teaching skills.
Competency 013: The teacher understands and adheres to legal & ethical requirements for educators and is knowledgeable of the structure of education in Texas.
Teachers must understand and exhibit the highest standard of professionalism and base their decisions on ethical principles. Conducting ourselves in an ethical manner is an essential part of being a professional. To do that, all teachers must know the legal requirements for educators, including those related to special education, students‘ and families rights, student discipline, equity, and child abuse. Teachers must also adhere to legal guidelines in education-related situations.
You must be familiar with the litigation that has impacted special education law. Such as Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka ( 1954), Mills V. Board of Education of the District of Columbia (1972), and the Pennsylvania Association of Retarded Children [PARC] v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1972) all impacted enactment of the 1975 Education of all Handicapped Children Act (EHA), Renamed in 1990 and is currently known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA). This specific piece of legislation impacts all children w/ disabilities 0-21 yrs of age. IDEA was reauthorized maintaining the following 6 basic principles:
1. Zero Reject : No child can be denied a free appropriate public education (FAPE).
2. Least Restrictive Environment (LRE): Students with disabilities should be educated alongside their non-disabled peers for the maximum extent possible.
3. Individual Educational Plan (IEP):, Every child identified with a disability and determined to have an educational need will have an IEP developed that addresses individual goals and objectives, related services (when needed), and instructional settings. The IEP is developed by a team that must include- the parent(s), a school administrator, a special education teacher, a general education teacher working with the student, and the student when appropriate. other related el is also considered a member of the IEP committee. The IEP must be reviewed at least annually and revaluated every three years. in the state of Texas, the meeting in which the IEP is developed; called the Annual Review & Dismissal (ARD) meeting
4. Nondiscriminatory Evaluation : Any person who may have a concern regarding the educational needs of a student can initiate a referral for evaluation. This referral process actually begins with screening (includes vision and hearing state testing and any evaluation process that is used for the whole student population). Prior to a formal evaluation, pre-referral interventions must be tried to prevent over-referrals to special education. The formal individual evaluation must be conducted in the dominant language of the student and nonbiased instruments must be selected. Continued next slide
5. Parental student involvement: Parental involvement is critical at every stage of identification and services provided by special education. involvement is meant to go beyond providing consent for testing and placement. involvement is intended to mean that parents are seen as professionals who play an important role in determining educational decisions related to their child.
6. Due Process: To protect the rights of parents, students, and educators, IDEA provides a legal framework that allows stakeholders procedural safeguards when special education services are not being provided to the student as determined by the IEP
You must know that students and families have rights under federal law and the Texas Education Code. Study the content of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), Several things are important for you to know.
1. Guarantees parents and legal guardians proper access to their children's educational records;
2. Provides access to student's records to district personnel with “legitimate educational interest,” such as teachers, counselors, and principals;
3. Allows for parental requests pertaining to access to the educational records of their children to be properly met within a reasonable time;
4. Requires that school district employees maintain the strict confidentiality of student educational records. (www.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/fpco/ferpd/index.html)
Discipline and classroom management issues are usually of concern to teachers, particularly to new teachers. remember that you have options in dealing with student behavior. These include temporary removal of the student, removal of the student and refusal of student's return to the classroom, in-school suspension (ISS), or an alternative education placement (AEP).
Domain IV Fulfilling Professional Roles & Responsibilities
As a professional, you must also know and adhere to legal and ethical requirements regarding the use of educational resources and technologies. This includes copyright, fair use, data security, privacy, and acceptable use policies. These are all part of your ethical responsibilities.
By law, you are required to report child abuse or neglect orally or in writing within 48 hours if you have any reason to believe that either is occurring. You can make your report to one of several places, including: (a) a local or state law enforcement agency; (b) the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services (CPS); (c) a local office of CPS; or (d) the state agency that operates, licenses, certifies, or registers the facility in which the alleged abuse or neglect occurred. You may also call the Texas Abuse Hotline of the Texas Department of Protective and Regulatory Services, 1-800-252-5400, to report child abuse. Teachers can be criminally prosecuted for not reporting suspected child abuse.
TSTA has a Proposed Code of Ethics and Standard Practices for Texas Educators. Those include references to standard practices for Texas educators and includes the following:
1. Be truthful and do not distort facts.
2. Do not falsify records or encourage others to do so.
3. Treat all students with dignity and respect, abiding by all discrimination laws.
4. Abide by all terms of a contract, including board policy and state and federal law.
Read up on this subject and become familiar with other standard practices included in this document.
You must also know the importance of adhering to required procedures for administering state- and district-mandated assessments. You must know that encouraging or helping another person engage in security violations is prohibited by Texas law. Failure to report persons who have engaged in security violations is also prohibited by Texas law. To read more about ethical and unethical practices, check out the SBEC Web site professional ethics: www.sbec.state.tx.us.
Sample questions to help you understand what is being tested in Standard IV, Competencies 011-013. Use strategies & determine the correct answer for the following.
1 Mrs. Aguilar’s class includes several students with special needs. The students spend several hours three times a week in the resource room. In planning instruction for these students with special needs:
A Are grouped together with other students with similar needs.
B A re not isolated from the rest of their peers.
C Have time to engage in activities set up in learning centers that are geared toward their strengths and ability levels.
D Are paired with higher achieving students and encourage them to work together
2 Mrs. Smith’s class includes students from different cultural backgrounds. Several of the students don’t get along and insist on seating arrangements that separate students along ethnic backgrounds, and often make derogatory remarks. How can the teacher best respond to these tensions?
A Have students work in groups with peers that reflect their preferences.
B Reward those students who exhibit positive behavior toward their peers to show other students what is expected behavior.
C Have students work on a set of guidelines that reflects the expected behavior in the classroom, including positive interactions with all students, and insist that all students adhere to the guidelines.
D Base student’s grades for group work on group-based collaboration.
3 A second-grade beginning teacher requests assessment results from the previous year for those students assigned to her for a variety of purposes. Which is the most appropriate way to use the information?
A Determine if this is the best assessment to use with students in her class
B Determine which students need more support from the resource teacher in the school
C Determine group assignments for the various types of learning activities.
D Plan instruction according to the strengths and need of the students
4 A sixth-grade teacher has been preparing a lesson about earthquakes and downloads photos from a Web site on the Internet to illustrate a number of important concepts. She plans to display these photos using a bulletin board in the hallway right outside her classroom. Which of the following is the lost important reason for the teacher to identify the Web site for each photo before placing the pictures on the bulletin board?
A The teacher is modeling the importance of citing sources for someone else’s work
B Other people interested in similar photos can find the Web site easily and refer to it.
C It will identify interesting Web sites for other teachers in the building to use in their classes.
D The teacher will remember where the photos came from for the following year
Domain IV Fulfilling Professional Roles & Responsibilities
Teachers must also know information related to the concept of equity. Equity refers to the educational policies, practices, and programs necessary to eliminate educational barriers based on gender, race-ethnicity, national origin, color, disability, age, or other protected group status. It also refers to the concept of providing equal educational opportunities to ensure that historically underserved or underrepresented populations meet the same rigorous standards for academic performance expected of all children and youth.
This chapter 19 is the final one addressing the TExES EC-12 PPR Chapter 20 is recommended not only for those pursuing special education certification, but also for anyone who will be taking a TExES PPR, because the in-depth information provided will help prepare you for the questions from Domain IV as well as the special needs students In your future classroom.
Additional Practice Questions
Answer Key may be found in the resource section
Additional practice questions are also available at www.prenhall.com/hurley