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Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation
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Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation

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Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation …

Developing Scales for Product Creativity and Organisational Innovation

ECCIXII – Panel 4 – Creativity and Innovation Measures

Associate Professor David Cropley
david.cropley@unisa.edu.au

Published in: Technology, Business
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  • 1. ECCIXII – Panel 4 – Creativity and Innovation MeasuresDeveloping Scales for ProductCreativity and Organisational Innovation Associate Professor David Cropley david.cropley@unisa.edu.au
  • 2. IntroductionCreativity: the ability to produce outcomesthat are novel, high in quality andappropriate to the task.Outcomes = products, services, systems,processes.Creative products drive innovation.How do we measure creativity in products?How do we measure an organisation’sinnovation?
  • 3. Generic Innovation Process Idea ? Generation Opportunity Recognition? Development Idea Evaluation Commercialization Invention (creativity) Exploitation Based on Luecke & Katz, 2003, Managing Creativity and Innovation, Harvard Business School Press
  • 4. Measuring Product CreativityIndirect measurement, globaljudgement/criterion-based measurement.Can be domain-general or domain-specific.Rating Scales: Creative Product Semantic Scale (CPSS) Student Product Assessment Form (SPAF)Expert Judgement: Consensual Assessment Technique (CAT)
  • 5. Indicators of CreativityWhat observable characteristics of productsexist?“Novelty”, “effectiveness”, “elegance” areconstructs, in the same sense as“intelligence”.What do we actually measure, and how, thattell us something about these constructs?Indicators = observable characteristics.
  • 6. Indicators of CreativityThere are a variety of existing models,scales and other “measures” of creativity.Our research draws on a cross-section ofthese to find indicators for the fourcharacteristics: effectiveness, novelty,elegance and genesis.
  • 7. Criterion of Creativity Kind of Solution Property of the Solution Indicator CORRECTNESS (the solution accurately reflects conventional knowledge and/or techniques)Relevance & Effectiveness Routine Solution displays knowledge of existing PERFORMANCE (the solution does what it is supposed to do) facts and principles and satisfies the APPROPRIATENESS (the solution fits within task constraints) requirement in the problem statement OPERABILITY (the solution is easy to use) SAFETY (the solution is safe to use) DURABILITY (the solution is reasonably strong) DIAGNOSIS (the solution draws attention to shortcomings in other existing solutions) Novelty Original Problematization (solution draws PRESCRIPTION (the solution shows how existing solutions could be improved) attention to problems in what already PROGNOSIS (the solution helps the beholder to anticipate likely effects exists) of changes) REPLICATION (the solution uses existing knowledge to generate novelty) Solution adds to existing knowledge COMBINATION (the solution makes use of new mixture(s) of existing elements) INCREMENTATION (the solution extends the known in an existing direction) REDIRECTION (the solution shows how to extend the known in a new direction) Solution develops new knowledge RECONSTRUCTION (the solution shows that an approach previously abandoned is still useful) REINITIATION (the solution indicates a radically new approach) REDEFINITION (the solution helps the beholder see new and different ways of using the solution) GENERATION (the solution offers a fundamentally new perspective on possible solutions) RECOGNITION (the beholder sees at once that the solution “makes sense”) Elegance Elegant Solution strikes observers as beautiful CONVINCINGNESS (the beholder sees the solution as skillfully (external elegance) executed, well-finished) PLEASINGNESS (the beholder finds the solution neat, well done) COMPLETENESS (the solution is well worked out and “rounded”) Solution is well worked out and hangs GRACEFULNESS (the solution well-proportioned, nicely formed) together (internal elegance) HARMONIOUSNESS (the elements of the solution fit together in a consistent way) SUSTAINABILITY (the solution is environmentally friendly) FOUNDATIONALITY (the solution suggests a novel basis for further work) Genesis Innovative Ideas in the solution go beyond the TRANSFERABILITY (the solution offers ideas for solving apparently immediate situation unrelated problems) GERMINALITY (the solution suggests new ways of looking at existing problems) SEMINALITY (the solution draws attention to previously unnoticed problems) VISION (the solution suggests new norms for judging other solutions- existing or new) PATHFINDING (the solution opens up a new conceptualization of the issues)
  • 8. Recognising CreativityRegardless of the indicators chosen, andtheir theoretical basis, a key point is thatthey need to be recognisable to observers.In other words, if I define “incrementation”(the solution extends the known in anexisting direction) as an indicator ofnovelty, can a person recognise that qualityin a product?
  • 9. Recognising CreativityThere are several ways that we candetermine if these indicators arerecognisable by observers. Obvious is: give them to people and ask them to use them.Over the last 12 months my research hasshown that the CSDS scale is highly reliableand valid measure of product creativity.
  • 10. Why Measure Product Creativity?What benefits derive from an ability tomeasure the creativity of products?What advantages does the CSDS have overother less differentiated measures?
  • 11. Measuring Organisational InnovationOrganisational Innovation occurs across aseries of phases.What happens in each phase is determinedby at least six cognitive, social andpsychological dimensions.If we put these together, we have a model ofthe innovation process.
  • 12. Innovation Phase Model Invention Exploitation Phase Preparation Activation Generation Illumination Verification Communication Validation Knowledge, Problem Many A few promising A single optimal A working prototype A successful problem definition, candidate solutions solution ‘product’ Dimension Poles recognition refinement solutions Convergent Convergent Convergent Convergent Convergent Process vs MixedThinking Style Divergent Divergent Divergent Reactive Reactive Reactive Motivation vs Mixed Mixed Proactive Proactive Proactive Proactive Adaptive Adaptive Adaptive Adaptive Adaptive Personal vs Properties Innovative Innovative Innovative Innovative Conserving Conserving Conserving Conserving Conserving Feelings vs Generative Generative Generative Generative Routine Routine Routine Routine Routine Product vs Phase output Creative Creative Creative Creative High High High High Press High DemandOrganisational vs climate Low Demand Low Low Low
  • 13. Innovation Phase ModelA key feature of this model thatdistinguishes it from other models ofinnovation is the dynamic pattern ofdimensions that facilitate innovation in anygiven phase.What’s good for innovation in one phasemay actually inhibit innovation in anotherphase.
  • 14. Innovation Phase Model Invention Exploitation Phase Preparation Activation Generation Illumination Verification Communication Validation Knowledge, Problem Many A few promising A single optimal A working prototype A successful problem definition, candidate solutions solution ‘product’ Dimension Poles recognition refinement solutions Convergent Convergent Convergent Convergent Convergent Process vs MixedThinking Style Divergent Divergent Divergent Reactive Reactive Reactive Motivation vs Mixed Mixed Proactive Proactive Proactive Proactive Adaptive Adaptive Adaptive Adaptive Adaptive Personal vs Properties Innovative Innovative Innovative Innovative Conserving Conserving Conserving Conserving Conserving Feelings vs Generative Generative Generative Generative Routine Routine Routine Routine Routine Product vs Phase output Creative Creative Creative Creative High High High High Press High DemandOrganisational vs climate Low Demand Low Low Low
  • 15. The Innovation Phase Assessment Instrument (IPAI)The IPAI is an instrument that is based onthe Innovation Phase Model presented here.Currently uses 168 questions (7 phases, 6dimensions, and 4 questions per node) toassess an organisation’s profile.Strengths and weaknesses identified andserve as the basis for fostering andimproving organisational innovation.
  • 16. IPAIThe questions are all preceded by the stem “Inthis organisation...” “... staff avoid novel solutions to problems.” “... staff produce lots of ideas.”Each question is compared to the theoretical“ideal” answer.This results in a score /168. The higher, themore aligned is the organisation to the idealprofile for facilitating innovation in allphases.
  • 17. IPAI Output Example lo 19.01 17.68 16.34 hi 19.01 17.68 16.34 Prep Act Gen Illm Veri Comm Val S O T W Process 2.59 2.88 1.88 2.59 3.12 1.94 2.35 17.35 Motivation 2.29 3.24 2.65 3.35 3.82 3.35 1.41 20.12 Pers Props 2.59 1.82 2.12 2.41 2.41 3.24 2.76 17.35 Feelings 2.06 2.65 2.94 2.00 2.94 2.71 2.06 17.35 Products 2.18 2.65 2.24 2.82 2.82 3.47 1.65 17.82relative SWOT Press 2.24 2.24 1.41 2.18 2.35 2.94 2.71 16.06 17.68 col avg lo hi 13.94 15.47 13.24 15.35 17.47 17.65 12.94 15.15 106.06 total 17.06 S row avg 15.15 17.06 O 13.25 15.15 T 13.25 W Std dev Row 1.90 st dev col 1.34
  • 18. IPAI AnalysisThe IPAI allows us to examine anorganisation, or a unit with an organisation,at one of four levels: Overall profile – e.g. IPAI score = 110/168 By phase – e.g. Verification strong, but Generation weak (in relative terms). By dimension – e.g. Motivation strong, but Press weak. By node – e.g. Gen/Press node weak, Ver/Mot node strong.
  • 19. IPAI AnalysisWe can then tailor diagnostic advice andremedial action on the basis of theorganisation’s IPAI profile, resources andobjectives.Let’s look again at the example…
  • 20. IPAI Output Example lo 19.01 17.68 16.34 hi 19.01 17.68 16.34 Prep Act Gen Illm Veri Comm Val S O T W Process 2.59 2.88 1.88 2.59 3.12 1.94 2.35 17.35 Motivation 2.29 3.24 2.65 3.35 3.82 3.35 1.41 20.12 Pers Props 2.59 1.82 2.12 2.41 2.41 3.24 2.76 17.35 Feelings 2.06 2.65 2.94 2.00 2.94 2.71 2.06 17.35 Products 2.18 2.65 2.24 2.82 2.82 3.47 1.65 17.82relative SWOT Press 2.24 2.24 1.41 2.18 2.35 2.94 2.71 16.06 17.68 col avg lo hi 13.94 15.47 13.24 15.35 17.47 17.65 12.94 15.15 106.06 total 17.06 S row avg 15.15 17.06 O 13.25 15.15 T 13.25 W Std dev Row 1.90 st dev col 1.34
  • 21. IPAI AnalysisOverall profile (106/168): “X” is moderately well-aligned to an ideal innovation profile. There is considerable room for improvement in a number of phases and dimensions, but…By phase: X has distinct relative weaknesses in two phases: Generation and Validation. The ideal constellations for these two phases are almost diametrically opposite, suggesting that X must improve its ability to recognise which phase is active, at any given time, and adapt accordingly.
  • 22. IPAI AnalysisBy dimension: X’s greatest weakness is its organisational environment (Press). This appears to be particularly weak in the generation phase, which is consistent with the identified phase weakness. To improve organisational environment across the board, the following actions are recommended…By node: X presents several individual nodes which stand out as blocks to effective innovation. The intersection of Generation/Press stands out as a weak node. Remedial action to address this weakness could… 22
  • 23. Why Measure Org Innovation?Improve outcomes.Tailor/streamline activities to suit strengths.Remedial action to address weaknesses.Clarify goals and objectives.

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