Building codes new building
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  • Modular design

Building codes new building Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Designing scientificfacilities for flexibilityand high chemicalloading whilemaintainingcompliance with firecodesKim Jeskie, MPH-OSHMOperations ManagerDoug FreelsFire Protection EngineeringPhysical Sciences DirectorateOak Ridge National Laboratory
  • 2. Background: Since 1997 ORNL has built more than 30 “new” facilities with more than 1.6 million sq.ft. Chemical limits are clearly defined in the Code(s) of Record including the:  Building Code Companion Fire Code, and Applicable NFPA Codes and Standards Note: Plan and design for your chemical inventories…..2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 3. Code Development related to Hazardous Materials/Chemicals • Pre-1980’s very few requirements – NFPA regulated specific materials (flammable liquids, oxidizers, organic peroxides) – Model building/fire codes limited few materials, primarily flammable & combustible liquids • Mid-1980’s events initiate code changes – Toxic gas (methyl isocyanate) release killed thousands in Bhopal, India (1984) – Semiconductor industry with first regulation of “health hazard” chemicals (1985)4 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 4. Code Development related to Hazardous Material, cont. • 1988 Uniform Fire and Building Codes – Established a “new model codes” comprehensive approach to regulating storage and use of common hazardous materials. – Developed “exempt” amounts and control area concept • 1994-2000 Other national codes join in – The three model code organizations formed a single set of codes (IBC/IFC) for hazardous material limits and controls • 2000-2003 NFPA expanded – NFPA develops building code and re-writes fire code to establish hazardous material limits • 2006-Present: MAQs (limits) in Building Codes and Fire Codes / Standards becoming increasingly similar….5 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 5. Maximum Allowable Quantity IBC Assumes Sprinkler Protection Provided Quantities May be Doubled If In Cabinets 2003 International Building Code Number of Haz Reference Table 414.2.2 Mat Control Flammable Liquid Flammable Gas Areas Per Class IA 60 gal 2000 cubic feet Floor Fourth Floor 7.5 gallons 250 cubic feet 2 HMCAs 12.5% of MAQ ~1 cylinder 2 HMCAs Third Floor 30 gallons 1000 cubic feet 50% of MAQ ~4 cylinders Second Floor 45 gallons 1500 cubic feet 3 HMCAs ~6 cylinders 75% of MAQ 4 HMCAs First Floor 60 gallons 2000 cubic feet ~8 cylinders 100% of MAQ Basement 1500 cubic feet Not Permitted 3 HMCAs ~6 cylinders Contact FPE 75% of MAQ6 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 6. Effect of Infrastructure on Maximum Allowable Quantities 4500N: Constructed to 1950’s Standards Status • Inadequate configuration control and Examples of MAQs for Chem Control Area qualified maintenance of fire barriers. Flammable Gases • Single approved chemical control area 1,500 ft3 (~6 full cylinders); could double if in (CCA) for entire building approved cabinets • 4500N contains several synthetic chemistry Current inventory lists 10,500 ft3 in building (~42 laboratories cylinders, 1 per lab) Highly Toxic Liquids 2 lbs; could double if in approved storage cabinets Current report lists 512 lb in building Formaldehyde: one 500 mL bottle equates to 1.2 lb Renovation of Wing 4 Would have created 4 additional CCAs for that area alone. Essentially, multiplying the above limits by 4. Design Plan created 2 additional areas within the wing where unlimited quantities of highly toxic liquids and/or much greater quantities of flammable gases could be stored.7 Managed by UT-Battelle CCA = Approved Fire Rated for the U.S. Department of Energy CCA, not HMIS Area
  • 7. Effect of Infrastructure on Maximum Allowable Quantities 8600, CNMS: Constructed to 1999 SBC Status • New construction. Fire barriers in place and Examples of MAQs for Chem Control Area maintained Flammable Gases • 10 CCAs, plus higher hazard occupancy storage 1,500 ft3 (~6 full cylinders) for each CCA; could be areas doubled if in approved cabinets • Contains synthetic chemistry labs, clean room Remember this is for 1 CCA. The building has 10. Two- and instrument labs lab modules in some cases equal 1 CCA. Higher hazard bays for chemical storage. Limited only by physical storage space and compatibility Highly Toxic Liquids 2 lbs; could double if in approved storage cabinets Example: one 500 mL bottle of formaldehyde equates to 1.2 lb 8600 inventory in HMIS, but not linked to FUA report. Limits in RSSs and enforced through a combination of purchase reviews and assessment.8 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 8. What are Building/Fire Code Limits? My Definition: The code limit for chemicals / hazardous materials for the corresponding safety envelop 1. Building Use/Activities Determines Occupancy Classification i.e. Business, Industrial, Factory, Hazardous, Assembly, Mixed, etc. 2. Each Occupancy Classification has associated protective features (safety envelope) and code-prescribed chemical limits Purpose…is to prescribe minimum requirements necessary to establish a reasonable level of fire and life safety and property protection from the hazards created by fire, explosions, and dangerous conditions. 3. Code-Of-Record Design Solution and/or Requirements (limits) from Operational Codes A. Design of The Structure/System (code of record) 1) Building Code….prescribes chemical limits B. Operational Requirements (things change) 1) Updated Operational Codes/Standards..…also prescribes chemical limits based on occupancy, protective features, etc……Lessons Learned a) The IFC or NFPA 1 Fire Code, NFPA 45, NFPA 55, etc. Discuss Code Of Record and Applicability Examples: Asbestos, PCBs, Lead, Hazardous Materials, etc.9 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 9. Selected Elements of a DesignSolution/Safety Envelope: Guided by R&D“Needs” and Code Requirements  Occupancy classification  Fire department standpipe connections e.g. Business with labs and Group H areas  Portable fire extinguishers per I-Codes and Labs/Industrial per NFPA 1, 45, and 101  1500 KW Generator-backed emergency  Size/Area Limitations lights and exit signs  Noncombustible/fire-rated construction  Generator-backed lab exhaust  Fire detection and alarm system  Lightning protection  Means of Egress/Exit Routes compliant  Fire-rated and configurable hazardous with Life Safety Code materials control areas (HMCAs)/Laboratory Units  Complete automatic wet-pipe sprinkler protection  Strategically located and separated hazardous materials storage rooms  Fire department/emergency response access  Exterior cylinder storage area(s)10 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 10. The Roadmap: Things To Know/Do to Manage Chemical Inventory Limits • What Chemicals/Hazardous Materials do we have/use? – MSDS, etc….characterization…. • Physical Hazards (e.g. combustibles, flammables, oxidizers, reactives, etc.) • Health Hazards (e.g. corrosives, toxic, highly toxic) • Where are we using/storing the chemicals? – Be Specific….which Facility/Room/Lab? – “Map” inventories to your 1-hour fire-rated control areas • How Much? – Quantities (solids, liquids, gases) of each chemical in each location • What are the Limit(s) for a given Facility/Room/Lab • For Solids, Liquids, and Gases (Building/Fire/NFPA Codes & Standards) • Take Credit for Protection features/levels (Sprinklers?, approved cabinets?, etc.) • Compare and Evaluate the Inventory against the Limit(s) • Operate within the Limits or risk-manage the delta(s)11 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 11. Research Needs Drove an Innovative Design thatMitigates Risk and Enhances Team-Based Science Flexible Space Research Community • Service corridor for transfer of hazardous • Filtered exhaust where needed materials away from office areas • Flexible space available to accommodate • Higher hazard storage areas mission growth available on each floor • Co-location of sample preparation, • Increased visibility into labs material synthesis, and characterization • Co-location of theorists, students, • Suites of labs that can be easily and support staff isolated and secured12 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 12. Hazardous Materials Management needs tobe a Cornerstone of the Design Solution• Laboratory communities designed • Hazardous materials storage areas to accommodate flexible hazardous will enable: materials control areas – Life cycle management model• Vented enclosures and house manifolds – Chemical “stores” and reuse provided to minimize cylinder use and control quantities13 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 13. Initial Configuration of the First Floor Hazardous Materials Control Zones / Lab Units: XYZ14 Managed by UT-Battelle Building XYZ for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 14. Fire Barrier Integrity/1-hour HMCAs15 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 15. Sprinkler Protection/Exhausted Enclosures/Approved Cabinets16 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 16. Ventilated Gas Cabinets17 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 17. Ventilated Gas Cabinets, cont.18 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy
  • 18. Summary and questions19 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy EFCOG_March2012_Jeskie