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SRSP

SARHAD RURAL SUPPORT
PROGRAMME

Canadian lnleuullonal Development Agency

 

Working in Uncertain,  Complex & Fragil...
About this Report

This report captures the Rural Support Programme (RSP) experience of working in
FATA through the succes...
Working in Uncertain, 
Complex & Fragile Environments

The Challenge for Development Professionals

The RSP Experience ofW...
Sarhad Rural Support Programme,  SRSP

The Sarhad Rural Support Programme,  established in 1989, is today the
largest non-...
The RSP Experience of Working in FATA
4—5 November,  2013, Islamabad

Through its dedication to the cause of social develo...
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

etween 2009 and 2013, SRSP implemented the FATA Local Area

Development Programme with financial support...
The RSP Experience ofworking in FATA
4-5 November,  2013, Islamabad

inclusive,  adaptive,  coordinated and accountable ef...
organisations,  while in his second presentation Mr.  Zeeshan spoke
about the monitoring tools used to assess sma| l—scale...
The RSP Experience of Working in FATA
45 November.  2013, Islamabad

Mr.  Syed Aftab Ahmad,  Programme Manager Operations ...
10

ACRONYMS

AAWU
AiD
AKDN
AKF

BKPAP

CAD
CBO
CBS
CDC
CEO

CIDA

CIG
CLDC
CPI

CRP
DDA
DWSS
EU

FATA

FGD

FLADP

FR
HR
...
The RSP Experience ofworking in FATA
45 November,  2013, islarriabad

CONTENTS

|  1. Experiences from FATA

Event Backgro...
Experiences from FATA

Event Background 14

Themes and Objectives 12
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14

EXPERIENCES FROM FATA

Event Background

evelopment practitioners working in

Ethe fragile and complex environment of
...
Some ofthe salient issues and themes

discussed over the course of the two day

workshop included: 

The different kinds o...
OPENING REMARKS

Welcome Address by
Mr.  Shoaib Sultan Khan, 
Chairman,  RSPN 18

Mr.  Berend De Groot,  Head
of EU Delega...
cc. 

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7
1
18

OPENING REMARKS

Welcome Address

: 
MR.  SHOAIB SULTAN KHAN
Cliairman RSPN

Mr.  Shoaib Sultan Khan,  in his opening
...
n
. ..

 — *-g'; ..'. mu. '—uu'm""' : -
20

 

i‘. ilr Berend De Groot,  rimd of PU Delequtioii,  Piikisian

The instability,  complexity and fragility faced
in K...
set by CIDA,  especially with reference to
mobilising women through the formation of
Common Interest Groups (C| Gs). 

Mr....
COMMUNITYVOICES
Mr. Habibu| |ah Fani 24
Mr. LalZada 25
Ms. MariaSalamat 25

Mr.  Zeeshan Haider 28

’{. .when I look at ho...
P23

 

rm
iv

 

 

if
24

COMMUNITY VOICES

MR.  HABIBULLAH FANI
("briiiniriiiKii'i7it1ii/ /wtwoik Kt: /l’Ul77 Ageizcy

“I would like to briefly ...
“As you all probably know Central Kurram
has been volatile since 2007 and the

situation has not improved ever since.  It ...
26

stigma attached to my community continued
to haunt me as I was repeatedly referred to
as ’Bhangi"- a degrading term us...
became an issue as no loans were extended
to us.  In these hard times,  FLADP/ SRSP
arranged a meeting with our community....
28

—

MR.  ZEESHAN HAIDER

Student ofa Community Based School,  Kurram
/ -lqency

“I am an eleven year old resident of a
...
in response to queries,  the participants were
given insight into how the organisation
works in collaboration with the FAT...
PRESENTATIONS

RSPs Experience of working in FATA by
Mr.  Masood Ul Mulk,  CEO,  SRSP 32

Institutional Development Index ...
"'II

I

V’!  ‘V’ V‘ Y, ’
PRESENTATIONS

—
MR.  MASOOD UL MULK

L Iwrlxet uirver ~£7tr'7< rrr,  SRSP‘

RSP's Experience of working in
FATA

r.  Maso...
field,  would be workable.  The government
accepted this approach and gave SRSP an
endowment of PKR 200 million to set up

...
to be’institutiona| |y developed‘,  while 45%
of MCOs and 50% WCOs were found to be
‘institutionally independent’.  He bel...
Mr.  Zeeshan then highlighted the impact of
specific schemes including drinking water, 
irrigation,  and link road and sani...
—

MS.  NADIA SHAH

Programme Manager Special Projects,  Social
Sectors and Gender.  SRSP

Most Significant Change Stories
...
The RSP Expei ience or VI/ orkirig in FATA
«"i—5 November 2013 Islamabacl

—
MS.  MARYAM BIBI
Chief Executive Officer,  Khw...
DAY 2: PRESENTATIONS

Multi Input Area Development:  An AKDN Perspective from
Implementing Community Based/ Driven Program...
an   . .-  . . ,  .: :.r: ;:. . ~~ . -!illli. ,.
40

—
MR.  DAUOD KHURRAM

ii . in’ ;1.: :« Hi . :'iri r"oiiii.7'w'i»:  Air»

  

Multi Input Area Development: 
An AKDN Pe...
. l’ *3’ "ilfilllllllli
approach with community engagement

and ownership was essential.  Narrating a
related incident,  Mr.  Khurram spoke of how...
as the cleaning ofirrigation canals and repair
and gravelling of link roads. The district
assembly formed different commit...
44

Mr.  Abdullah said that the concept of
membership in community organisations
in Afghanistan is on the basis of’fami| i...
established in 1990, that works to enhance
health,  living standards and democratic
norms within the communities that it w...
46

communities once projects had been
implemented. 

He added that with regard to taxation, 
Afghanistan was in a better ...
as long term support is necessary to help
communities recover and rebuild in the
aftermath ofdisasters.  He thanked UNDP, ...
48

avoid unnecessary publicity as it is often
counterproductive.  He also stressed on the
need to hire local staff to the...
With regard to monitoring and evaluation
in fragile environments,  Mr.  Rizvi was of the
opinion that the tools used need ...
50

social and economic empowerment of
women by women. Through participatory
management structures,  responsibilities
are ...
The RSP Experience of Working in FATA
4~5 November,  2013. Islamabad

Mr.  Shoaib Sultan Khan,  Chairman,  RSPN

 

Conclu...
S2

ANNEXURES

Annex 1: Conference Agenda

Annex 2: List of Participants

Annex 3: Presentations
The RSP Experience of Working in FATA
4—5 November,  2013, Islamabad
54

Workshop Agenda

November 4"‘ 8: 5"‘ 2013 at Serena Hotel Islamabad

 

Agenda
Registration

Recitation from the Holy ...
The RSP Experience ofworking in FATA
4-5 November,  2013, Islamabad

Agenda Presenter Timings

Multi Input Area Developmen...
56

List of Participants

m Name Organization/ Designation

1

a‘DmlGU| hWN

.1
.1

12
13
14
15

16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
2...
The RSP Experience of Working in FATA
4—5 November,  2013, Islamabad
58

38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
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48
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S6
57
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...
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments
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Working in uncertain, complex & fragile environments

  1. 1. SRSP SARHAD RURAL SUPPORT PROGRAMME Canadian lnleuullonal Development Agency Working in Uncertain, Complex & Fragile Environments The Challenge for Development Professionals The RSP Experience of Working in FATA 4-5 November, 2013, Islamabad
  2. 2. About this Report This report captures the Rural Support Programme (RSP) experience of working in FATA through the successful interventions in the region implemented by the Sarhad Rural Support Programme (SRSP) between 2009 and 2013 with financial support from the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) in the Kurram and FR Peshawar areas of FATA. As the project drew to an end, SRSP brought together a distinguished panel of experts from both sides ofthe Pak—Afghan border to highlight the development practices that had been successfully implemented, ensuring long- term benefits and sustainability while operating in such challenging environments. This report has been prepared with the financial support of CIDA in collaboration with SRSP The views, findings, interpretation and analysis exp_ressed in this report may not reflect views of CIDA. Our Partners Irlrl Cznadlzli International Development Agency Authored by Maria Ul Mulk, Zara Durrani Technical review by Masood Ul Mulk, Syed Aftab Ahmad, Nadia Shah Art direction & editing by Sumaira Sagheer Graphics & layout by Uzma Toor, Retroactive Studios Photographs by SRSP Printed at Pangraphics Pvt. Limited COPYRIGHTS © 2014 SARHAD RURAL SUPPORT PROGRAMME (SRSP)
  3. 3. Working in Uncertain, Complex & Fragile Environments The Challenge for Development Professionals The RSP Experience ofWorking in FATA 4-5 November, 2013, Islamabad
  4. 4. Sarhad Rural Support Programme, SRSP The Sarhad Rural Support Programme, established in 1989, is today the largest non-government and not—for~profit organisation operating in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). It has a presence in 23 ofthe 25 districts of KP, 5 of the 7Triba| Agencies, and 2 ofthe 6 Frontier Regions. These areas not only have low socio-economic indices but are also disaster and conflict- affected border districts that have made them prone to terrorism. SRSP’s mission is to build social capital by mobilising communities for poverty reduction, improved livelihoods and sustainable development in KP and FATA. It is a people—focused, responsive, adaptive and learning organisation that believes in people's ability to improve their own lives. As a catalyst organisation, SRSP is required to unleash this potential through extending technical and financial assistance. In line with the Rural Support Programme (RSP) approach, SRSP does this by creating grassroots level networks for poverty reduction, sustainable livelihoods and development. SRSP is primarily a developmental organisation set up to pursue developmental goals. It has so far organised over 21,000 men and women community institutions covering over 500,000 households. With over two decades of experience in establishing dynamic partnerships with local communities, a portfolio of over PKR 8 billion in ‘ the past ten years (2000-10) and having worked with almost 42 national and international donors, the organisation has a successful track—rec'ord of planning, implementation, management, monitoring and evaluation of community development projects. Given its vast experience and outreach, SRSP has, in recent years, repeatedly been called upon to respond to humanitarian crises in the province. As a result it has emerged as the largest local player among civil society organisations in relief, reconstruction and humanitarian work. The organisation has maintained a close collaboration with the government at both the district and provincial level to influence pro—poor policies, demonstrate viable models of poverty alleviation, understand government perspectives and seek buyvins. The government recognises the significant role of SRSP in KP and FATA and attaches credibility to its work. It has supported SRSP in extending its programme to FATA with an endowment of PKR 200 million. ha. "-r J: -w-"-n""f-r-"-. '~ 3.’ _
  5. 5. The RSP Experience of Working in FATA 4—5 November, 2013, Islamabad Through its dedication to the cause of social development and its commitment to execute and innovate, SRSP has created a sound foundation for the betterment of the people of the region. Constantly updating and developing its various competencies, and extending new and innovative projects to where there were none before, SRSP has set out on a success path it has carved for itself. Rural Support Programmes Network, RSPN The Rural Support Programmes Network (RSPN) is the largest development network of Pakistan, with an outreach to over 32 million rural Pakistanis spread across 110 districts of Pakistan's four provinces, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Gilgit—Ba| tistan as well as two FATA areas. It consists of12 member Rural Support Programmes that espouse a common approach to rural development through social mobilisation. Social mobilisation centres on the belief that poor people have an innate potential to help themselves, that they can better manage their limited resources if they are organised and provided with technical and financial support. The RSPS provide social guidance and technical and financial assistance to the rural poor. RSPN is the strategic platform for the RSPs as it provides capacity building support and assists them in policy advocacy and donor linkages. RSPN is strategically positioned to work with government, donors‘ and communities. The RSPs have a long—standing relationship with the Government of Pakistan. This is highlighted by the fact that five of T 5 RSPN’s partner RSPs have received substantial support and seed grants from the Government. However they are all registered as not—for—profit organisations and are independent. RSPN’s edge is its vast outreach to rural communities through the RSPs, its strong and influential relationship with government for impacting pro—poor policy, and its central position that brings together over 30 years of knowledge in participatory development work with Pakistan's rural communities.
  6. 6. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY etween 2009 and 2013, SRSP implemented the FATA Local Area Development Programme with financial support from CIDA in the Kurram and FR Peshawar areas of FATA. Given SRSP’s successful interventions in a region fraught with instability, complexity and widespread poverty, the organisation arranged an experience sharing workshop in Islamabad as the project drew to a close. The workshop titled, ‘Working in Uncertain, Complex & Fragile Environments: The Challenge for Development Professionals’ brought together a distinguished panel of experts from both sides ofthe Pak—Afghan border. The workshop highlighted the innovative and contextualised development practices that had been successfully implemented on-ground by SRSP. The objective was to address misconceptions about development in the region and promote learning, effective policy formation, and long-term relationships amongst development practitioners on both sides of the border. This will ultimately contribute to addressing the long standing developmental debacle of this fragile, yet often gravely misunderstood, region. DAY 1: Opening Session Mr. Shoaib Sultan Khan, Chairman RSPN welcomed the guests and expressed the hope that the workshop would bring to light the complex, yet organised and workable socioeconomic and political environment of the FATA areas. Indicating a firm belief in effective social mobilisation as the key to peace in the region, Mr. Shoaib Sultan anticipated that the following two days would provide workable guidelines for development practitioners interested in the region. Mr. Berend De Groot, Head of the EU Delegation to Pakistan, and David Fournier, First Secretary (Development) at the Canadian High Commission, were then called upon to share their experiences of working in the country. Although supporting projects in different regions, both agreed on the complexity and ever—changing nature of the operating environment in KP and FATA. They congratulated SRSP on the success of its contextua| ised, ’process approach’to development and expressed the belief that only such long term,
  7. 7. The RSP Experience ofworking in FATA 4-5 November, 2013, Islamabad inclusive, adaptive, coordinated and accountable efforts could bear fruit in the context. The need for inclusive development was also highlighted by Mr. Arbab Arif, Additional Chief Secretary, FATA. In his address Mr. Arif stressed that policies would never succeed in FATA if imposed from outside. Yet, this in no way meant that the people of FATA were opposed to change and development. Rather, the area had been left behind due to external factors and neglect. Therefore, in order to bring FATA at par with the rest of contemporary Pakistan, development efforts in the region needed to take the local people on board from the start. Voices from the Field In order to hear the communities’ perspective on the developmental work done by SRSP in their region, representatives of several local community institutions as well as two school children were invited to share their stories with the gathering. They highlighted how, as a result of SRSP’s technical and financial support, they had been mobilised to work for their own betterment instead of waiting for others to do this for them. SRSP had provided them with the V opportunity to transform their lives and they would continue to work’ hard to extend the same privileges to others. ‘ Presentations Mr. Masood Ul Mulk, CEO ofSRSP, then gave a detailed presentation on his organisation's experience in implementing a community- driven approach in the turbulent FATA areas between 2006 and 2013. He said that a range of factors had produced a complex development conundrum in the region and stressed how a ’process approach’, under which SRSP’s programme had grown through | earning~from— the-field, was the only workable development strategy under such conditions. Mr. Atif Zeeshan, Programme Manager Planning, Monitoring, Evaluation and Research at SRSP, then gave two comprehensive presentations on the monitoring side of the FATA project. In his first presentation he described the ‘Institutional Development Index‘ used by SRSP to assess the progress of men and women community
  8. 8. organisations, while in his second presentation Mr. Zeeshan spoke about the monitoring tools used to assess sma| l—scale infrastructure schemes in FATA. Ms. Nadia Shah, Programme Manager Special Projects, Social Sectors and Gender at SRSP, next presented three of the ‘Most Significant Change Stories’ from the field. Through them, she drew the conclusions that the people of FATA, including women and people belonging to remote areas, were not opposed to change but rather suffered from a severe lack of opportunities and facilities. Ms. Shah stressed that if these issues were resolved there would be dramatic improvements in the area. The final presentation of Day 1 was delivered by Ms. Maryam Bibi, CEO of Khwendo Kor. Khwendo Kor works largely for women empowerment in KP and FATA. Ms. Maryam Bibi narrated her experiences and described how her organisation, like SRSP, had had to continuously reform and adapt its coping strategies to fit the changing context, pressures and challenges ofthe region. DAY 2 The second day of the workshop began with presentations from the delegates from Afghanistan. Mr. Daoud Khurrum, National Manager Health Programme AKF—Afghanistan, was first to speak. He gave an overview of the AKDN’s activities in Afghanistan and also explained how the system they had in place there differed from the RSP model in terms of having representative participation instead of community participation in local organisations. These themes were further elaborated in a detailed discussion at the end of his presentation. Mr. Abdullah representing an AKF District Development Assembly, Mr. Massehullah of the All Afghan Women Union and Mr. Shah Wall representing the Norwegian Project Office/ Rural Rehabilitation Association for Afghanistan, then provided an overview of their organisations‘work and experience in Afghanistan. Each speaker stressed the complexity of the working environment in the country and highlighted the means by which their organisations had been able to successfully manoeuvre local conditions. . a._ A. ..
  9. 9. The RSP Experience of Working in FATA 45 November. 2013, Islamabad Mr. Syed Aftab Ahmad, Programme Manager Operations at SRSP, then gave a detailed account ofthe nature and challenges facing humanitarian efforts in disaster prone and conflict-affected areas. Recounting the recent natural and man—made disasters that had hit the region, Mr. Ahmad described the flexibility and practicality of the strategies that SRSP had adopted to deal with the situation. The humanitarian programme has today become one of SRSP’s chief competencies. This was followed by a comprehensive presentation on monitoring and evaluation in uncertain and complex environments by Mr. ljaz Rizvi, representing the Associates in Development, Islamabad. He described the different challenges and restrictions faced, and outlined the tools and strategies that could be employed to overcome them. Mr. Wasiq Ali Khan, ProgrammeManager Microfinance at SRSP, then outlined SRSP’s experience in delivering rural finance in the KP through a’Community Managed Rural Finance Model (Village Banking)’. He described the innovations that had been necessary in the local context and outlined the evolution, acceptability and success of SRSP’s financial interventions. Concluding Remarks Mr. Shoaib Sultan Khan, Chariman RSPN gave the closing address. He thanked the participants for their interest and commended the presenters, especially the Afghan delegates, for the insights they had provided into one of the most difficult and misunderstood regions of the world. Mr. Shoaib Sultan stressed the importance of community participation and urged the identification of local heroes. He thanked SRSP for providing a valuable platform for learning and discussion on FATA and other complex areas, and expressed pride in the successful strategies the organisation has devised for working in such difficult areas.
  10. 10. 10 ACRONYMS AAWU AiD AKDN AKF BKPAP CAD CBO CBS CDC CEO CIDA CIG CLDC CPI CRP DDA DWSS EU FATA FGD FLADP FR HR IDP IOA IDRC All Afghan Women Union IT Associates in Development KP Aga Khan Development Network M&E Aga Khan Foundation MCO Bacha Khan Poverty Alleviation MER Programme Canadian Dollar MIAD Community Based Organisation MNA Community Based School MSC Community Development Councils NFI Chief Executive Officer NGO Canadian International NPO/ RRAA Development Agency Common Interest Group NSP Cluster Level Development Council PKR Community Physical Infrastructure PMER Community Resource Person PMN District Development Assemblies RSP Drinking Water Supply Scheme RSPN European Union Federally Administered Tribal SRSP Areas US Focus Group Discussion USD FATA Local Area Development Programme WCIG Frontier Region WCO Human Resources WIG Internally Displaced Person Institutional and Organisational Assessment International Development Research Centre Information Technology Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Monitoring and Evaluation Male Community Organisation Monitoring Evaluation and Research Multi—lnput Area Development Member of National Assembly Most Significant Change Non Food Item Non Governmental Organisations Norwegian Project Office/ Rural Rehabilitation Association for Afghanistan National Solidarity Programme Pakistani Rupee Planning, Monitoring, Evaluation and Research Pakistan Microfinance Network Rural Support Programme Rural Support Programmes Network Sarhad Rural Support Programme United States United States Dollar Women Common Interest Group Women Community Organisation Working Interest Group
  11. 11. The RSP Experience ofworking in FATA 45 November, 2013, islarriabad CONTENTS | 1. Experiences from FATA Event Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Themes and Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I4 I DAY 1 2. Opening Remarks Welcome Address by Mr. Shoaib Sultan Khan, Chairman RSPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..18 Mr. Berend De Groot, Head of EU Delegation, Pakistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Mr. David Fournier, First Secretary (Development) Canadian High Commission . . .20 Mr. Arbab Arif, Additional Chief Secretary FATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 3. Communityvoices Mr. Habibullah Fani . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..24 Mr. Lal Zada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ms. Maria Salamat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Mr. Zeeshan Haider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 4. Presentations _ RSPs Experience ofWorking in FATA by Mr. Masood Ul Mulk, CEO SRSP . . . . . . . . . . .32 Institutional Development Index of Men & Women Communities in FATA Integrated Area Development Project by Mr. Atif Zeeshan, SRSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Impact Assessment of Small Scale Infrastructure Schemes in FATA by Mr. Atif Zeeshan, SRSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Most Significant Change Stories by Ms. Nadia Shah, SRSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , ’.. .36 Education in Conflict by Ms. Maryam Bibi, CEO Khwendo Kor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 I DAY 2 5. Presentations Continued . . Multi Input Area Development: An AKDN Perspective from Implementing Community Based/ Driven Programmes in Afghanistan by Mr. Daoud Khurram, National Manager Health Programme, AKF Afghanistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Presentation by Mr. Abdullah, DDA Representative, AKF Afghanistan . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Presentation by Mr. Massehullah, AAWU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .44 Presentation by Mr. Shah Wali, NPO/ RRAA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44 Delivering Humanitarian Aid in Conflicts Areas by Mr. Syed Aftab Ahmad, SRSP . .46 Monitoring and Evaluation in Uncertain and Complex Environments by Mr. ljaz Rizvi Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 Rural Financial Services by Mr. Wasiq Ali Khan SRSP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 6. Concluding Remarks Mr. Shoaib Sultan Khan, Chairman RSPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 7. Annexure Annex 1: Conference Agenda Annex 2: List of Participants Annex 3: Presentations
  12. 12. Experiences from FATA Event Background 14 Themes and Objectives 12
  13. 13. . c . , w W - ' '1 . . '3. S v S l ' - . .. »;3« xi 1.‘ » . . . .. . ‘ - . .. gi , ~ . .. .. .. .. , ‘e at I- I’ . . T‘ ' . .. . ‘ < l 1 ‘ ‘ . . , . A _ n x . - —. . . I I J , . . 1 . ~ . _. , _ . _ . -, v , . _ , . I ~. . . ., _ I 5 n raw» . 3‘
  14. 14. 14 EXPERIENCES FROM FATA Event Background evelopment practitioners working in Ethe fragile and complex environment of the border lands of Pakistan and Afghanistan, work in a setting where delivering development and ensuring that its stated outcomes are attained is a highly demanding task. It is particularly challenging for those practitioners who work in community driven development. Working directly with the communities entails long and intensive levels of interaction between the practitioners and the communities to ensure a viable and sustainable change. The border regions of Pakistan and Afghanistan are characterised by a high level of insecurity; poorly developed and often ineffective state institutions; absence of good information for planning; rapidly changing situations on ground; religious, social and political diversities; and deeply embedded tribal value systems that are resistant to change. How practitioners in community driven projects work in such environments to attain their goals and objectives is an unenviable task. Sarhad Rural Support Programme (SRSP) is a leading non-government organisation working in the border regions of Pakistan for nearly twenty five years. It delivers multidisciplinary community driven programmes in a wide variety offields which include community institution building, community infrastructure development, human resource development, micro- enterprise, micro—finance and community investment funds, education, gender and development and humanitarian work. Besides its programmes in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, SRSP has implemented a project funded by CIDA in parts of FATA between 2009 and 2013. As the project drew to an end, SRSP shared its experiences in the region with other professionals having similar interests. Themes & Objectives n the first week of November 2013, SRSP brought together a group of development practitioners with demonstrated success in implementing different community driven projects in the region, at a workshop in lslamabad. The workshop meant to serve as a platform for practitioners from both sides of the border to share experiences from the ground about how successful projects are designed and implemented and how long-term benefits and sustainability is ensured while operating in such challenging environments. In addition, members from the local communities were invited to share their opinions and perspective on the work that had been done. The immediate aim of the workshop was to learn from such experiences and to produce policy recommendations based on these experiences. In the long term, this will contribute towards developing networks and bonds among development practitioners on both sides, thereby allowing cross—border learning and bridges to be built between communities on both sides.
  15. 15. Some ofthe salient issues and themes discussed over the course of the two day workshop included: The different kinds of complexities (social, cultural and power dynamics) that projects face in the area and how these can be dealt with How projects can be designed to deliver in such environments The means by which disparate groups can be brought together and dialogue kept open between them while addressing common goals How a broader set of organisations representing youth, religious and private sectors were involved in the regions’ developmental process Innovations that have been successfully introduced by different organisations to improve effectiveness of programmes in the region Improvements in the local service delivery mechanisms The methods of including marginalised groups like women and minorities in programmes How the delivery offinancial services can be improved in the region _ The recruitment and retention of staff in such an environment and the different incentives that ensure long term commitment The kinds of business systems for planning, budgeting and programme delivery that need to be adopted to work in these areas The mechanisms for ensuring monitoring and evaluation and both upward and downward accountability in the region The processes of building engagements with the state. The RSP Experience of Woikiiiq in FATA 4 5 November 2013 Islamabad 15
  16. 16. OPENING REMARKS Welcome Address by Mr. Shoaib Sultan Khan, Chairman, RSPN 18 Mr. Berend De Groot, Head of EU Delegation, Pakistan 18 Mr. David Fournier, First Secretary (Development) Canadian High Commission 20 Mr. Arbab Arif, Additional Chief Secretary FATA 21 ll . ..political grievances arise from the unfulfilled aspirations and shattered hopes of the underprivileged. ”
  17. 17. cc. , _,_. ... ._r_. ..s. ... ,,. ..~ / - . .. lie. ix 2§. BI. lE. r§. i. 1 7 1
  18. 18. 18 OPENING REMARKS Welcome Address : MR. SHOAIB SULTAN KHAN Cliairman RSPN Mr. Shoaib Sultan Khan, in his opening remarks, highlighted the importance of the purpose and topic of the conference. FATA, and in particular developmental efforts in the region, are according to him, highly misconceived across the board. Mr. Shoaib Sultan shared his experience of working in FATA and its neighbouring districts, and spoke about the days when he served as Deputy Commissioner for Peshawar and Kohat in the sixties. He said that contrary to what one would expect, he had faced more problems in Kohat (which was a settled district) than in Orakzai or Dera Adam Khan. He stated that there are widespread misconceptions about FATA and that it is actually an organised society with tribes and sub-tribes. Shedding light on the history of the region, Mr. Shoaib Sultan said that the British had, at a very early stage, realised that the tribes could not be ‘settled’which is why the treaties signed during Lord Curzon’s times remain intact even today. He emphasised the importance ofthe‘Pashtun Code‘for the locals and the prominent role it plays in the organisation of the tribal society. Mr. Shoaib Sultan stated that it is only in recent '1 . .it is actually an organised society with tribes and sub-tribes. " Mr. Shoaib Sultan Khan. Chairman RSPN years that the region, especially the areas surrounding Peshawar, has begun to be used as a ‘haven'for carrying out harmful, criminal activities. He acknowledged Governor Orakzai’s role in extending the RSPs to FATA and was grateful for the support of the government in the form ofa PKR 200 million endowment to SRSP to start its operations in ‘soft’ FATA areas of Kurram and FR Peshawar. In 2008, support of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), was secured for the project. In the end, Mr. Shoaib Sultan reiterated the need for effective social mobilisation and identified it as the key to peace in FATA. — MR. BEREND DE GROOT Head of the E U Delegation, Pakistan peaking of his experience of working in Pakistan, Mr. De Groot summarised that it had been ‘a bumpy learning curve’. He spoke of the ease with which he had travelled to the Mohmand Agency of FATA‘in the mid 1990’s and compared it to the elaborate security arrangements that had been necessary for his most recent visit. Reflecting on this changed situation, Mr. De Groot made three statements. First, he said that development workers are not soldiers and development activities should not be put forward to counter instability in a region if the situation is otherwise not right. Next, he stressed that development did not prevent instability from evolving and that there was a need to depoliticise development by distinguishing between the two. In his last statement he stressed that poverty is not the driving cause of instability. Rather, Mr. De Groot believed that political grievances arise from the unfulfilled aspirations and shattered hopes of the underprivileged.
  19. 19. n . .. — *-g'; ..'. mu. '—uu'm""' : -
  20. 20. 20 i‘. ilr Berend De Groot, rimd of PU Delequtioii, Piikisian The instability, complexity and fragility faced in KP and FATA today is the result of power imbalances that are impeding equitable and just socioeconomic balances. Mr. De Groot said donors could still go and work in these areas but governance, proper administration and adequate stability measures were prerequisite for this and without them we could ‘forget about development’. Towards the end of his speech, Mr. De Groot outlined what he believed was a workable roadmap for developmental initiatives in FATA. Based on his extensive experience of working in the complex environment of the Malakand Division of Pakistan, Mr. De Groot emphasized the need for a long term vision of social mobilisation. He said that he had learnt the importance of working through community organisations from Mr. Masood Ul Mulk and his team, This is because community infrastructure is not only present today, but will still be actively working tomorrow and this is essential for the sustainability of development initiatives. Mr. De Groot also stressed the need to avoid scattered actions. He said that if a donor planned on working in an area, they should take all of the area, or if not, they should at least be organised enough for other organisations to come to them. He also said Mi i)a/ tti Fouiniei, Hist 'wtr’era. rv i‘L)€/ €lO0I7‘£’r7i‘ at me L'riiiriiiii‘: ii High C(7rirri‘iix‘siuIi that civil society organisations should follow the state in attempts to establish control and not the other way round. Involvement ofthe state, he said, was essential for successful efforts. Mr. De Groot stressed the importance oftracking and reporting progress, through pictures and interactive maps, for instance. Lastly, he emphasised the need of holding effective progress meetings with other partners and stakeholders from the state and civil society to ensure wholesome and coordinated development efforts. I, — ‘ MR. DAVID FOURNIER first Secretary i’Devi)/ onrneiir) at the Caricic1i'an High Commission r. David Fournier stated thatCanada had a long history of working with the Sarhad Rural Support Programme (SRSP), an organisation which has extensive experience of operating in fragile and difficult environments. He mentioned that over a course of four years, the Canadian Government had provided SRSP with S 3.1 million through the Canadian International Development Agency. He acknowledged the efforts of SRSP in mobilising the people of FATA and stated that SRSP had successfully managed to go even beyond the targets
  21. 21. set by CIDA, especially with reference to mobilising women through the formation of Common Interest Groups (C| Gs). Mr. Fournier spoke of the need to find ways to address the ’paradox’that organisations face while working in fragile and complex environments ie. how to increase aid while simultaneously enhancing accountability. He congratulated SRSP on its success in striking this delicate balance in what he believed to be one of the most challenging operating environments in the world. rawing on an association of more than D 15 years with FATA, Mr. Arif highlighted several major aspects of the region and its people. He said that no matter what we think, the people of FATA have a unique socio—judicia| culture. They will never change if we, as outsiders, ask them to do so. Rather any efforts to bring about a change will have to ensure their engagement and association at each step of the process. Mr. Arif said that his experience had taught him that the people of FATA accept controls and discharge responsibility dutifully once it has been placed on them. In return for their compliance, it was customary for them to ask for remuneration. To explain their law abiding nature, Mr. Arif narrated how at one point of his career he had been astonished to find that the crime rate of one police station of Badaber and Peshawar had been higher than the crime rate across all areas of FATA. He believed that expeditious reform in FATA was not possible if imposed. Yet, FATA could prove to be one of the most conducive societies for social mobilisation if its people were made part of the thinking around development. Narrating an incident from 4-xv» 1894 when there was a slight difference of opinion regarding laws the British wanted to promulgate in South Waziristan, Mr. Arif said the tribesmen had responded by saying “Sir, we can always reconcile. ’ FATA had been neglected and isolated. But this is not what the people of FATA want and we cannot blame them for their underdevelopment since it is more the result of the lack of priority and foresight of the Provincial and Federal Governments. Mr. Arif spoke about periods of development in the region that had been periodically washed away by external, sometimes international, events. Speaking of the most recent of such incidents, he said that after 2001 the area had been pushed right back to what it had been in 1947. ‘We are therefore talking of a backlog of 65 years when speaking of development in the region, ’ he added. Mr. Arif said that to bring FATA on par with KP and the rest of Pakistan there was need for a development programme that would condense the efforts of these 65 years into a decade or less, and this would require equivalent funding. He spoke of creating a force solely for the purpose of security and development, and said that efforts needed to be made to improve accountability in the region. . 21
  22. 22. COMMUNITYVOICES Mr. Habibu| |ah Fani 24 Mr. LalZada 25 Ms. MariaSalamat 25 Mr. Zeeshan Haider 28 ’{. .when I look at how far I have come, I cannot help but feel that if SRSP had not given me the platform, I would have suffered a different fate” Ms. Maria Salamat, Female Social Organiser, FLADP
  23. 23. P23 rm iv if
  24. 24. 24 COMMUNITY VOICES MR. HABIBULLAH FANI ("briiiniriiiKii'i7it1ii/ /wtwoik Kt: /l’Ul77 Ageizcy “I would like to briefly introduce Kurram Agency to you. Kurram was made an Agency in 1892.The total area of the agency is 2296 square kilometers and it has a population of 560,000. Different tribes have been residing in the region since time immemorial including Tori, Bangash, Para Chamkani, Alia Her Zai, Masozai, Maymosht, Maqabal, Khushi, Hazara, Laisani, Koroti and Wazeer. SRSP came to Kurram at a time when people from all segments of the society were facing difficulties. Sectarian violence and terrorism was on the rise in all parts of Kurram and the situation had negatively impacted the delivery of basic services like health and education. From organizing 25 households in Sehra Kely in 2008 to organising over 4000 households in the region today, SRSP has come a long way. However, thisjourney has not been a smooth one as both the organisation and the people have had to overcome hurdles to achieve success. Gradually with time, SRSP was able to work together with local communities for the uplift of the region. The communities realised that instead of depending on outside forces they needed to work for their own welfare and solve their own problems. At the same time the women of Kurram Agency realised that if they were to live a life of dignity, they had to organise themselves. It was evident '1. . if they were to live a life of dignity, they had to organise. ” Mr. Habibullah Fani, Chairman, Kirman Network, Kurram Agency N4,’ l-labibullah fan: Cliaiimaii Kii'Yltlll Notvvurk, Kurram Ageiiiy that development was possible only through participatory management. As a result ofthis five networks were formed along with 143 MCOS, l0 WCOs and 111 W| Gs. The networks opened their own offices and were able to Mr. Habib initiate work in the region. The small plants planted by SRSP in 2008 are almost fully grown trees today. ‘ SRSP has carried out various interventions in Kurram includingutree plantation drives, drinking water schemes, anti- drugs awareness campaigns as well as peace campaigns. As a result of its. efforts, uncultivated tracts of land have been brought under cultivation, men and women have been given skills and vocational training, and livelihoods have been improved. Free medical camps have been arranged in terrorist hit areas and polio awareness campaigns launched. Fourteen community based schools have been established in Kurram where 1600 boys and girls are studying. None ofthis would have been possible without the help extended to us. lam very thankful to SRSP and CIDA for supporting us in such times of uncertainty. ”
  25. 25. “As you all probably know Central Kurram has been volatile since 2007 and the situation has not improved ever since. It is difficult to imagine living in an area where there is no education, no health facilities and no telephone links but my people have been living in exactly such conditions for years now. When SRSP first came to our district they arranged for free medical camps to be set up for the people living in areas cleared by the army. It proved to be a blessing for the locals who had been deprived of health care service. Schools were also established in Central Kurram which proved to be a vital step towards restoring the education system. Spin Ghar network enabled SRSP to gain access to areas otherwise thought inaccessible. With the support of the MCOs in Spin Ghar, not only was SRSP able to provide assistance to local communities but it also paved the way for other organisations to help the | DPs. lam proud to say that Mr. Rafique Khatak (Consultant ClDA), Tariq Ali Khan (Programme Coordinator FLADP) and Awalad Hussain (Agency Coordinator FLADP) were able to visit Central Kurram. This is something we had not anticipated because few people in authority had ever visited our area before. They also opened a school and provided direly needed educational facilities to our children. In the end, I would like to say that the organisation helped the people of Central Kurram at a time when they seemed to be stuck between the devil and the deep blue sea. Given the chaotic ground realities, the spread of insurgency and terrorism, and the ongoing military operation, the help could not have come at a better time. ” . l'/ IS. I‘-/ I/XRIA ': Al. .5lviAT CC My name is Maria Salamat I be| on'g to a Hindu family of Parachinar, Kurram Agency. Today I would like to share my story with you. I will start from the time when I lived with my parents in a one room house along with five brothers and sisters. I am part of a community that cleans people's houses for a living. I grew up to find myself living in a society where chances of progress were nonexistent. We live in Parachinar where women are not allowed to work outside their houses. My father put his children in school so that they would not have to suffer the same fate that he did. Although I attended school, the 25
  26. 26. 26 stigma attached to my community continued to haunt me as I was repeatedly referred to as ’Bhangi"- a degrading term used to refer tojanitors and their families. I found this so insulting that instead of concentrating on my studies, I lived in constant fear ofthe next verbal assault. This label that was so insensitively attached to me deterred other students from befriending me. I lived in hope that college life would bring an end to my misery as the students there might accept me as an equal. Alas, I was proved wrong again. As I progressed from being a school student to an adult studying at college, little seemed to change. There was this sinking feeling that the label attached to me and other members of my community was one that we would have to live with all our lives. After completing my F. A, I decided to help my father support the household by teaching at a local school. My students addressed me with respect and called me‘Miss’. For the first time in my life I felt like I too could live a life of dignity. Unfortunately, the feeling was fleeting as the head master soon reminded me of my’p| ace’ in the society by calling me a ’Bhangi"and though I tried to put up a brave front, his words shattered me. That day I cried to God and prayed for a miracle that would enable me to get rid of the stigma attached with my community. '1. . they helped us prioritise our needs. ..” Ms. Maria Salamat, Female Social Organiser, FLADP I still remember the day when I was tutoring a kid in the neighbourhood when my father walked into the house to clean it. I sat on a chair as he swept the floor beneath me. It was a numbing feeling, one that I pray no daughter ever feels. That day I vowed to myself that I would turn my fatearound, regardless ofwhat it took. I went from door to door tutoring kids to supplement our household income, ‘but our problems seem to multiply day by day. I had to not only take care of my family, but also pay the medical bills to treat my brother who is handicapped. Life had taken a turn for the worse. At the same while, my community seemed to be suffering a similar fate. Terrorist activity had started in Kurram Agency and all roads had been b| ocked. The members of my community were employees ofthe Town Committee and were paid salaries from the amount collected as road tax. However, as the roads were closed no tax could be collected and my community was deprived of its only source of income. We could barely make ends meet, and even food security
  27. 27. became an issue as no loans were extended to us. In these hard times, FLADP/ SRSP arranged a meeting with our community. We were in a fix as we had nothing to eat ourselves, how were we to serve our guests? The MNAs and other government officials who would visit our locality would make many promises about changing our lives, have lunch and leave, rarely to been seen again. We thought that this meeting would follow the same pattern. However, the whole community was pleasantly surprised to see that FLADP had brought its own tea and food to the community meeting. The words of the Agency Coordinator, Awlad Hussain jolted the community as he asked them to ponder over'who’they were waiting for to come and rescue them from their fate. Our community was the first to form a community organisation and I was selected as the president of the WCO. We realised that instead of making empty promises, the people were helping us harness our hidden potential. They helped us prioritise our needs and the first need we identified was skill training (tailoring). All the community members took part in the training. As I had a certificate of training from Bait ul Maal, I was hired as a master trainer. After three months of training I was given PKR 18,000 which was a huge amount for me. I then began to work with the organisation as a Community Recourse Person (CRP). I was sent to field on my first day and Mr. Hussain urged me to think of the office as my home, and him as an elder brother. This gave me the confidence to start my work with enthusiasm. As part of my work, I was sent to Peshawar for ilic REP f. x_r)eiii: i'~_e oflfiloikiiig <n H-T. f 1 . V(>'. 'EF= ‘-IDE’. ZOIB Islamabad the first time. With the passage of time, I was promoted to Female Social Organiser, FLADP. Though my life had been completely transformed, I hung on to the fear that my past might come back to haunt me someday. Before I knew it, two whole years had passed without anyone referring to me in derogatory terms. In fact, I was referred to as ‘madam’, a word that filled my heart with pride. As I continued to interact with development professionals, the encouraging words of Mr. Hussain resounded in my head. We have now opened an account in the bank in which we deposit PKR 100 per member every month. With this fund we are able to provide loans to members in time of need, be it weddings, funerals or for paying—off medical bills. SRSP has also worked on CBS, WCIGs, DWSS and livestock trainings in our locality. Today when I look at how far I have come, I cannot help but feel that if SRSP had not given me the platform, I would have suffered a different fate and perhaps remained a ’Bhangi’a| l my life. My story doesn't end here as I have become a role model for members of my community and given them hope that they too can aspire to do more in life. I am confident that the time is not far when other people from my community will be standing here on this platform addressing you like I have. I look up to Mr. Masood UI Mulk and Mr. Shoaib Sultan and hope that one day I can be in the position that they are in today. ” 27
  28. 28. 28 — MR. ZEESHAN HAIDER Student ofa Community Based School, Kurram / -lqency “I am an eleven year old resident of a backward area of Kirman in the Kurram Agency. I feel immense pride and excitement in standing here before you, to represent the 1600 children of my school established by FLADP/ SRSP. Not long ago, parents in my region were reluctant to send their children to school since the nearest school was five kilometers away and there was danger of bomb blasts, land mines and terrorists in the way. I remember this being a very difficult time. Then, as if in answer to our prayers, FLADP/ SRSP established a community based school in our village. I still clearly remember the day my father first took me to the school where I got free books, a bag, and pencils. I had not previously received any education and the prospects of learning ABC brought tears of happiness to my eyes. I recall my father telling me, ‘Son, nowyou must tryyour best to get a good education to serve your country. ’ See how far I've already come! The child who had not stepped out of his small village for the past two years is now attending a seminar in Islamabad because of the support given by FLADP/ SRSP. My parents and community could not have been more proud. Today, with SRSP and ClDA’s help, I have chosen two words to guide me and they are ’peace’ and ‘knowledge’. Standing on this stage today, I hope my words inspire you all so that you can join hands with me and help me in my efforts for a better Pakistan. Peace, love, brotherhood, equality and respect must define us— not Nll. Zeeshan Haider. Student of a Community Based School, Kurrarn Agency hatred, revenge and terror. We all love our lives. Everyone wants to feel safe and happy. Thus, let us all spread the message of tolerance, wisdom and progress. I am young but I have set out on my mission, as have my friends at school, and we thank all of you for helping us in this. I wish to paya special tribute to the active and vigilant members of SRSP/ FLADP in particular, who have led us out of the darkness of ignorance and enlightened our future with knowledge. ” Discussion The discussion following this segment focused on government support extended to SRSP. The Afghan participants were keen to know about the kind of relationship SRSP had with the government, whether there was government support for these local organisations, and also whether there were saving groups in these communities before SRSP’s activities.
  29. 29. in response to queries, the participants were given insight into how the organisation works in collaboration with the FATA Secretariat and the Political Agent System in Agencies. They were informed that SRSP would not have been able to operate in FATA had it not been for the government's backing. The participants were told that SRSP does not go into areas without government support and that although saving groups were encouraged, community organisations did not necessarily begin with them. In response to a further question on the sustainabilty mechanisms of these groups after the exit of SRSP, the organisation's CEO said that members of community organisations had been living in these areas for a long time. SRSP had only helped organise them and given them endowment funds for schools and networks. Mr. Masood Ul Mulk explained that SRSP defines sustainability in terms of'behavioura| change’— ifthe organisation is able to bring about change in behaviour, then it will consider its interventions a success. He stressed that though the members of the community organisations and women interest groups change over time, these people are more likely to go ahead and become leaders in the future. It is precisely this kind of’sustainabi| ity’that should be the objective oforganisations working in FATA. Relating to a concept from South America, he said that social energy once created cannot be destroyed, it simply changes its form. . The RSV Experieiic L‘ of Working in FATA /4 3 ilr: vei'ni; vei zU! a', leian1aban ‘O-I ‘l" xiii’ i‘ "M '1 . .SRSP defines sustainability in terms of behavioural change. .. .” Mr. Masood UI Mulk, CEO, SRSP 29
  30. 30. PRESENTATIONS RSPs Experience of working in FATA by Mr. Masood Ul Mulk, CEO, SRSP 32 Institutional Development Index of Men &Women Communities in FATA Integrated Area Development Project by Mr. AtifZeeshan, Programme Manager, Planning, Monitoring, Evaluation and Research, SRSP 33 Impact Assessment of Small Scale infrastructure Schemes in FATA by Mr. Atif Zeeshan, Programme Manager, PMER, SRSP 34 Most Significant Change Stories by Ms. Nadia Shah, Programme Manager Special Projects, Social Sector and Gender, SRSP 36 Education in Conflict by Ms. Maryam Bibi, CEO Khwendo Kor 37 ’f. .sociaI energy once created cannot be destroyed, it simply changes its form. ” ‘Vii 'Kri<, < itl U RN: K,L"I, ~’[, xP. "i’~. —O13’: -‘v "iS‘>’
  31. 31. "'II I V’! ‘V’ V‘ Y, ’
  32. 32. PRESENTATIONS — MR. MASOOD UL MULK L Iwrlxet uirver ~£7tr'7< rrr, SRSP‘ RSP's Experience of working in FATA r. Masood ul Mulk, Chief Executive Officer ofSRSP, then gave a detailed account of Sarhad Rural Support Programme's experience in implementing a community driven approach in the volatile FATA areas between 2006 and 2013. He said that history, governance systems and repeated conflicts in FATA have led to a‘ “development conundrum’. Yet, departing from the conventional narrative, Mr. Masood Ul Mulk stressed that developmental efforts could in fact be realised in the area as long as the right approach was taken. introducing the RSP approach first, Mr. Masood Ul Mulk said that they believed in the inherent potential of communities for self- help and aimed at tapping this social capital for the development of communities. Based on the same principles, SRSP has garnered over two decades of experience in working on grassroots development and community empowerment in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region. Mr. Masood Ul Mulk highlighted that the organisation has a presence in 23 ofthe 25 districts of KP and has so far organised over 25,000 men and women community '1 . .in an uncertain environment W . r~, ,L~, ,i: l til f. 'l. .3i« (iv: -'9 )<"l .3lrw irlii; V: ‘r. S~" institutions covering over 500,000 member households. After the recurrent natural disasters and calamities that have hit the area, SRSP has also expanded its scope of work to include humanitarian-efforts in addition to its developmental competencies. The organisation has worked extensively in a region bordering and sharing many cultural and social similarities with FATA. Therefore, in 2006 when the government decided to launch the’FATA Sustainable Development Plan’, SRSP was the ideal civil society partner for promoting development and bringing about social transformation in the region. Mr. Masood Ul Mulk spoke of how the government had wanted SRSP to start implementing a project with definite time lines, clear inputs, outputs and outcomes and a monitoring system to link the outcomes with project activities. He stated like FATA only a ’process approach; . ..would be workable. " Mr. Masood UI Mulk, CEO, SRSP that SRSP was adamant that in an uncertain environment like FATA only a ‘process approachj where both the organisation and its programme grew by learning-from-the- 32
  33. 33. field, would be workable. The government accepted this approach and gave SRSP an endowment of PKR 200 million to set up a FATA Unit within the organisation. Mr. Masood Ul Mulk said that this specialised organisation was then given the task of | earning—from —the~fie| d and developing a programme from it. It was also given the task of leveraging additional resources to scale up the programme. In 2008, this was achieved through CIDA funding of CAD 3 million for a programme in Kurram and FR Peshawar. Yet, as Mr. Masood Ul Mulk described, it has not always been smooth sailing. As soon as the programme started, the project areas were hit by war, sectarian and communal tensions, breaking down of communication and rapidly changing government policies. The project area that had been initially identified as a ‘soft area’was suddenly transformed into a ’hard area’. Despite the complexities, the goals and objectives set out in the CIDA project have been successfully delivered and attained given the flexible and adaptive process approach ofthe SRSP. Mr. Masood Ul Mulk described how SRSP implemented its project in FATA incrementally, using social learning, iteration and emergence for strategy making. He described the monitoring and evaluation tools that had been employed in the exercise and highlighted the key lessons learnt during the course ofthe project. Mr. Masood Ul Mulk then thanked CIDA for its support in promoting a culture of rapid learning and adaptation through its teams based in Islamabad. He expressed hope that such partnerships and interventions should be continued in the future to ensure effective, sociallyeacceptable and sustainable results on ground. The RSP lrxperience of Working in FATA 4-5 November 2013. lslamabad — MR. ATIF ZEESHAN, Programme ll/ lflilflqffl P/ rmnmg, Monitoring, Evtiluut/ or; tmtl Research, SRSP Institutional Development Index of Men & Women Communities in FATA Integrated Area Development Project Mr. Atif Zeeshan, Programme Manager Planning, Monitoring, Evaluation and Research (SRSP), gave a comprehensive overview of an evaluation study carried out to assess the level of development of Community Based Organisations (CBOs) set up by SRSP in FATA. The study, titled Assessing Institutional Development Index, was based on an analysis of primary data collected from a sample of 30 CBOs out of a total of 146 CBOs. Mr. Zeeshan explained that the Institutional and Organisational Assessment model (IOA) developed by Universelia and IRDC was modified and I used for the purpose of the study as it was comprehensive, versatile and interactive. He stated that practical considerationslhad guided the selection and prioritisation of key questions for the assessment. Through the study, four major parameters of Institutional Development were accessed including organisational motivation, capacity, performance and external factors. The responses gathered from the exercise were then used to categorise CBOs into four major categories i. e. excellent, good, average and poor Mr. Zeeshan presented the statistical results of the study and explained the process used to reach the conclusions. Referring to the major findings of the study, he informed the participants that about 55% of the MCOs and 50% of the WCOs were found 33‘
  34. 34. to be’institutiona| |y developed‘, while 45% of MCOs and 50% WCOs were found to be ‘institutionally independent’. He believed that organisations can choose between two courses of action; they can either store such studies in shelves or utilise them to identify important factors that aid or impede the achievement of results. SRSP, he maintained, had used the diagnostic tool to obtain useful data on the performance and sustainability ofCBOs so that areas for improvement could be identified and strategic planning initiatives could be undertaken. He conceded that the challenges that monitoring and evaluation teams face in complex and uncertain environments are numerous, but they can be overcome if the right approach is followed. He stressed on the need to innovate and improvise while adapting to the environment and highlighted the importance oftriangulation. He reiterated the need to develop simple and flexible systems that can easily be adapted to different organisational contexts. Impact Assessment of Small Scale Infrastructure Schemes in FATA n his second presentation, Mr. Zeeshan Ished light on a study carried out to access the 'Immediate Impacts of Community Physical Infrastructure (CPI) Schemes in Kurram Agency’. He informed the participants that a total of48 CP| s had been initiated in the region with the financial assistance of C| DA. The aim of the study, he said, was to assess the relevance, efficiency and effectiveness of the interventions, and to '1. . 100% of the households were Mr /1tif7eeshan llrocjramnte l/ Ianacjer Planmritj M-', )n= Imivi<; Fv. ilii. it: on and R€‘St', 'd'fl. SRSP gauge the immediate impact as well as the sustainability of community built schemes. The major instruments of the study included technical surveys to access the engineering aspects and functionality ofthe schemes, Focus Group Discussions (FGDS) with community organisation members to access implementation and management issues, and community questionnaires to access community participation and impact of interventions. A sample size of 20 was taken, covering almost half of the schemes imp| emented. The results were encouraging as the evaluation revealed a significant level (85%) of community participation in planning and designing ofthese CPls. Furthermore, 85% ofthe schemes had been completed within the approved budget while 95% had been completed within the approved timelines. He added that according to the community, almost 95% of the schemes were fully functional and 100% ofthe households stated that they satisfied the performance of were satisfied with the performance of the the schemes. Schemes- Mr. Atifzeeshan, Programme Manager, PMER, SRSP
  35. 35. Mr. Zeeshan then highlighted the impact of specific schemes including drinking water, irrigation, and link road and sanitation projects. It was noteworthy that Drinking Water Supply Schemes (DWSS) had reduced the average time taken to reach water sources from 120 minutes to 6 minutes per trip. Access to irrigation has potentially large effects on land value and an average increase of 17% in farm land (from 3.62 acres to 4.25 acres) was observed in target areas of the programme, followed by a remarkable increase in crop production (17.3 to 24.4 maunds in kharifand 31.4 to 53.6 maunds in Rabi). Mr. Zeeshan informed the participants that a detailed report surveying the main lessons from impact evaluations of the Community Infrastructure Projects had been published by SRSP and could be referred to for further details. Discussion he participants wanted to know whether the results of monitoring and evaluation had been shared with community members to which the reply came in the affirmative. With regard to the sustainability of the community organisations, Mr. Zeeshan explained that studies had been carried out across northern Pakistan to determine the long term sustainability of such organisations and the results showed a high rate of sustainability. So, even if projects end, these organisations are likely to continue with their operations. He conceded that the context in FATA is a little different from usual, but was nevertheless optimistic that the links established would survive. It was stated that third party evaluation of results had been encouraged at every stage to verify the results of the programme. The RSP Experience of)/ Vorking in FATA 'l S P. l0‘uE'll1l)t’l 2017., Islamabad 35
  36. 36. — MS. NADIA SHAH Programme Manager Special Projects, Social Sectors and Gender. SRSP Most Significant Change Stories Ms. Nadia Shah, Programme Manager Special Projects, Social Sectors and Gender (SRSP), then presented some of the Most Significant Change Stories from the field. Explaining the Most Significant Change (MSC) technique first, Ms. Shah said this participatory approach to monitoring and evaluation helped identify unexpected change and highlighted interventions that left the most lasting impacts on people's lives. Field teams of SRSP were given a checklist of questions This was demonstrated by the enthusiasm to follow in focus group discussions and with which the residents of Spina Shagey individual interviews to identify these stories. had welcomed SRSP’s proposal to start a This information was then analysed by the Community Based School in their village. project management after which final stories In her next story, Ms. Shah described the were selected. broader context of Ms. Maria Salamat’s (one ofSRSP’s community voices) "story by speaking ofthe formation and working of the Saint Anthony Women Community Organisation in Parachinar, Kurram Agency. Created as a result of the | oca| s'own se| f~help initiative that induced them to approach the Programme’s Team Lead in the Agency, the story ofthe Saint Anthony WCO shows the importance of trust—bui| ding for ensuring female participation in the region. The 1:. oparticipatory approach to last story related to the work of Kirman Network established in the Kurram Agency. fnonitofing and evaluation The Network works for the socio-economic betterment ofthe area and has successfully helped Un€XP€Ct€Cl resolved a number of local issues on its own. Ms. Shah then went on to describe three remarkable stories from the field. Speaking of a Community Based School in the remote Spina Shagey village on the border with Afghanistan, she stated that people in FATA do not resent the‘idea‘of sending their daughters to school — it was only a matter of resources and available opportunities. Change. ..” Ms. Shah ended her presentation with the hope that more of such stories and local heroes come forth in the near future. Ms. Nadia Shah, Programme Manager Special Projects, Social Sector and Gender, SRSP
  37. 37. The RSP Expei ience or VI/ orkirig in FATA «"i—5 November 2013 Islamabacl — MS. MARYAM BIBI Chief Executive Officer, Khwendo Kor Education in Conflict Maryam Bibi, the founder and Chief Executive of Khwendo Kor, narrated her experience of working in difficult parts of FATA. Khwendo Kor works for economic empowerment, education, health and the propagation of civil rights in KP. With regards to FATA she said that Khwendo Kor had to repeatedly adapt its policies and change its coping strategies to effectively work in the region. She highlighted the plight of women in FATA and stressed M; Maryam Bibi Chief Executiw Officer. Kl1W€‘h(l(7K()I‘ that community mobilisation is the right approach to use in the region. Maryam Bibi further added that trust is a very vital aspect when it comes to working with '1 . . trust is a very vital aspect when it comes to working with tribal communities, especially with regards to women. Ms. Maryam Bibi, CEO, Khwendo Kor tribal communities, especially with regards to women. Organisations working for development in FATA need to assure the local communities that they have no hidden agendas. They must work to win over the hearts and minds ofthe locals. According to her, compromises have to be made to adapt to the local cultural and religious context. While narrating her experience, she spoke about the kinds of pressures and challenges organisations face while working in FATA and how they can be overcome. According to her, networking and coordination is of vital importance as relationships have to be cultivated with different stakeholders in the region, especially with the military. She stressed on the dire need to ‘stop reinventing the whee| ’and to learn from the experiences of other organisations working in FATA. 37
  38. 38. DAY 2: PRESENTATIONS Multi Input Area Development: An AKDN Perspective from Implementing Community Based/ Driven Programmes in Afghanistan by Mr. Daoud Khurram, National Manager Health Programme, AKF Afghanistan 40 Presentation by Mr. Abdullah, DDA Representative, AKF Afghanistan 42 Presentation by Mr. Massehullah, AAWU 44 Presentation by Mr. Shah Wali, NPO/ RRAA 44 Delivering Humanitarian Aid in Conflicts Areas by Mr. Syed Aftab Ahmad, SRSP 46 Monitoring and Evaluation in Uncertain and complex Environments by Mr. ljaz Rizvi Aid 48 Rural Financial Services by Mr. Wasiq Ali Khan SRSP 49
  39. 39. an . .- . . , .: :.r: ;:. . ~~ . -!illli. ,.
  40. 40. 40 — MR. DAUOD KHURRAM ii . in’ ;1.: :« Hi . :'iri r"oiiii.7'w'i»: Air» Multi Input Area Development: An AKDN Perspective from Implementing Community Based/ Driven Programmes in Afghanistan Mr. Dauod Khurram, representing the work ofthe Aga Khan Development Network (AKDN) in Afghanistan, said that the country had been facing uncertainty and complexity for over three decades and AKDN has been working there ever since. AKDN is a group of international, non—denominational development agencies and institutions . that seek to empower communities and individuals, usually in disadvantaged circumstances, to improve living conditions and opportunities. AKDN’s activities cover a range of sectors and have a wide geographical coverage particularly in the north-eastern part ofthe country. The AKDN basically attempts to improve quality of life by targeting five key areas, ie. a) improved governance and civil society, b) improved educational outcomes, c) improved health status, d) improved management of natural resources and e) improved livelihoods and economy. With regard to their implementation model, Mr. Khurram said that with the help ofa number of facilitating partners, they did direct implementation and had successfully established 1,500 Community Development Councils (CDCs) across their target areas. These CDCs were then aggregated into the Cluster Level Development Councils (CLDC) and the District Development Assemblies (DDA). The community based institutions were used as a platform for all development Vii lZ‘iii. irLl l<’iiirr. i‘~n N atxtimi’ l. i:’iivii; i—r Hi ii‘lli PT()tjliIl1llWl' / Kl / fqIi. inii. in interventions and were engaged in the development of linkages, identification of priorities and collection of funds for projects from the very beginning. Mr. Khurram said that there were three phases of their activities. First, these community institutions were established, then their capacities were improved through numerous trainings and lastly their maturity was regularly assessed. These community institutions were supplemented by other local groups and organised bodies. As AKDN chose to address all sectors once they entered an area, their approach was known as the Multi Input Area Development (MIAD). The AKDN also facilitated and provided policy support to the line ministries of the Government of Afghanistan and other civil society organisations. Mr. Khurram then highlighted the key achievements of the AKDN in Afghanistan and identified and listed three factors that had contributed to their success in such a complex working environment. These were: accountability, confidence in the local community, and community contribution. He said they had learnt that a district specific
  41. 41. . l’ *3’ "ilfilllllllli
  42. 42. approach with community engagement and ownership was essential. Narrating a related incident, Mr. Khurram spoke of how insurgents could not touch projects in AKDN areas as community members told them that ‘their fight was with the government and the government is not here’. In the end, Mr. Khurram identified the challenges faced by AKDN in working in Afghanistan. He drew attention to the area‘s complex geography, diverse cultural practices, limited human resources at the implementation level and the restricted role of women in society. He also spoke ofthe uncertainty accompanying potential policy changes with the postA20l4 U. S withdrawal from Afghanistan. Discussion: When asked about the sustainability and monitoring of CDCs, Mr. Khurram said that although they did not work with CDCs directly, CDCs were closely monitored and records of their registration and membership were maintained from inception. In response to Mr. Shoaib Sultan's queries regarding the structure, coverage and membership ofCDCs, Mr. Khurram explained that the system followed in Afghanistan was more along the lines of representative participation. Each CDC covers a certain population, yet, the entire population of the area is covered by at least one CDC or another. Members of the CDCs are selected from their respective catchment areas, with fixed numbers of male and female seats. — MR. ABDULLAH DDA Representative AKF, Afghanistan Mr. Abdullah, Head ofthe AKF District Development Assembly (DDA) in the Khinjan District of Afghanistan, then gave an overview of his community organisations efforts and work on ground. He said that the AKF was working in his province of Baghlan to empower and enhance the collective capacity of the community to create self—sufficient institutions and community organisations. Mr. Abdullah stated that the biggest problem in Afghanistan was the management of common property and the DDAs were being trained to deal with this. The DDAs were authoritative at the district level, proposing development projects and implementing them independently. Mr. Abdullah then listed some of the major accomplishments of his organisation under the umbrella of the AKF. The Khinjan DDA had been able to generate independent donor funding and had completed 62 different projects at the district | eve| .They also did voluntary infrastructural work, such
  43. 43. as the cleaning ofirrigation canals and repair and gravelling of link roads. The district assembly formed different committees at hamlet and village level that met regularly through proper planning in their offices. The DDA was one ofthe major actors in local conflict resolution, and Mr. Abdullah said they had so far resolved over 170 cases including murder, theft, kidnapping, land disputes, family feuds, rape cases etc through the district assembly. Efforts for gender mainstreaming and female involvement were another of the DDAs major achievements and 12 development projects had been completed by the women district assembly at hamlet/ cluster level. With regards to children, under the guidance ofthe district assembly the village councils had persuaded 3845 non—school~ going children to be admitted to schools, majority of whom were girls. The DDA had also extended financial assistance for the vaccination of over 52,000 infants against a number of different diseases. Mr. Abdullah said that the DDA was actively involved in linkage building with governmental and non-governmental institutions at the district level. He then went on to describe the major challenges faced by the DDAs while working in the field. He said that there were coordination problems and work had been started on some projects without keeping in view district development plans by some non- governmental organisations. Traditional practices and cultural norms that restricted female involvement and activities were also a recurring concern. The security situation of the region could not be discounted and this introduced a major element of insecurity into all DDA efforts. The RSP Experience of Working in FATA 4—5 November, 2013, Islamabad Ml’, Abdullah, Head of the AKF DiS'(ri(! D€Vt-‘l()piT1L‘I'iI Assembly (DDA) Discussion: In response to a query, Mr. Abdullah explained that there were 27 CDCs, 6 CLDCs and i DDA operating in the Khinjan District. Further describing their structure, he said that CDCs had an Executive Committee of two males and two females. The number of ‘ members varied according to the size ofthe village, but on average a CDC had twenty members. 43
  44. 44. 44 Mr. Abdullah said that the concept of membership in community organisations in Afghanistan is on the basis of’fami| ies' (engaged people) ratherthan in terms of househo| ds. Therefore, ifa father and his five married sons lived in the same house, they were counted as six families rather than as one household. Given this background, Mr. Abdullah explained that a CDC should not have less than 15 families but there was no upper limit. Each family gets USD 200. — MR. MASSEHULLAH . ‘2z': ,~. +, mnizl ‘Hi «'*un. :i/ i . /i'r: i?: -mi t, r'. -‘mi. +; iW! i Mr. Massehullah in his opening remarks explained that he was presenting on behalf of the All Afghan Women Union as the Deputy had difficulty communicating in English. He started by giving the audience a brief overview of Afghanistan, putting particular emphasis on the security situation in different provinces. Mr. Massehullah explained that the All Afghan Women Union was established in 1992 as a field based organisation to strengthen people's efforts through resource mobilisation, networking, and vocational, human rights and advocacy trainings. The organisation works to uphold women's rights with regards to education, health and livelihoods by helping to empower them socially and economically. He listed the main achievements of the organisation, which has expanded to over 3,000 members. Talking about the challenges of working for women in Afghanistan, he maintained that security continues to be the single biggest ~r: i:li. m iieputv veaa Ali i‘+i'tji: .a-: iromi V . si mi‘ issue, with workers and participants being subjected to a growing number of attacks and threats. He added that the restrictions on mobility and public life are not due to insecurity alone but are embedded in the social and traditional customs of the locals, and the patriarchal nature of the society. It is unfortunate that most men are still reluctant to allow their daughters or wives to attend workshops. In addition to these challenges, Mr. Massehullah also identified the lack of sources for co—finance as a major factor inhibiting the work ofthe organisation. In conclusion, Mr. Massehullah emphasised the need to work for peace by changing mindsets and attitudes across the country. — MR. SHAH WALl / /WC)’/ iii’/ Mi Describing the work of the Norwegian Project Office/ Rural Rehabilitation Association for Afghanistan (NPO/ RRAA), Mr. Wali explained that it is a non—profit, non- governmental and non-political organisation,
  45. 45. established in 1990, that works to enhance health, living standards and democratic norms within the communities that it works with. He added that since 2011 it has been working in the fragile border regions of Afghanistan and Pakistan to enhance the resilience of local livelihood systems to cope with natural disaster or conflict—re| ated vulnerabilities. Mr. Wali explained that while the regions on both side ofthe border have differences when it comes to their political and administrative set up, they continue to share linguistic, cultural, and traditional similarities. He elaborated on the design and implementation methodology used by the organisation to ensure success in the target districts and emphasised on the need to involve stakeholders, especially the government when carrying out interventions in complex and fragile environments. With regards to operating in relatively insecure districts, he stressed on the need to keep close contact with local notables and influential people. By keeping close contact with stakeholders on both sides of the border and encouraging regular sharing of information and experience, the organisation had worked out a feasible plan of action to enhance cross border relations. Commenting on the lessons learnt, Mr. Wali stated that organisations need to follow the ’do no harm’ principle for understanding sources of tension and local capacity for peace. He listed three steps that were used to reduce risk (1) understanding the conflict context (factor and actors) (2) understanding the relations and interactions between donors, implementing partners and stakeholders (3) accessing options and adapting the project or programme Mr. Shah Wall, Nf’O'RRAA accordingly. He listed insecurity, poverty, illiteracy and lack offinance as some ofthe major challenges of project implementation. In his concluding remarks Mr. Wa| i reiterated the need for effective communication with communities and the continued support of committed donors who are willing to workini insecure areas. Discussion Mr. Wali was asked to comment on the future sustainability and financial independence of NPO/ RRAA’s work. He said that his organisation plans and selects special committees for the maintenance and operation of the project in the future. With regard to financial sustainability and donor funding, he said that a portion of the project funds were set aside for future maintenance of the project. The participants were informed that there were two types offunding in Afghanistan. Infrastructure projects had maintenance plans attached to them and these were handled by the The RSP Experience of Working in FATA 475 November, 2013, Islamabad 45
  46. 46. 46 communities once projects had been implemented. He added that with regard to taxation, Afghanistan was in a better position than Pakistan, since everyone on the payroll, whether public or private, did pay their due tax. In response to a further question on the role ofthe government in what seemed like entirely community driven projects, he explained that the NSP was funded by the World Bank and the channel for the entry of these funds into Afghanistan was through the Ministry of Rural Development. Therefore, the government controlled the funding and devised all the implementation policies, while NGOs were only facilitators in this process. — Mr. SYED AFTAB AHMAD Programme Manager Operations, SRSP Delivering Humanitarian Aid in Conflicts Areas Mr. Syed Aftab Ahmad gave a detailed overview of SRSP’s humanitarian programme in an attempt to shed light on the challenges of effectively delivering aid in conflict prone and disaster—hit areas. He said that SRSP’s humanitarian programme had been implemented in 19 districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa as well as 5 tribal regions of FATA. Outlining the main achievements ofthe organisations humanitarian programme, he stated that over 60,400 houses had been built in the wake of the 2005 earthquake in one of the largest ever community driven programmes. Furthermore, PKR 460 million Nil. Syed Aftab Ahmad, Programme Manager, Operations, SRSP worth of infrastructure schemes had been initiated and implemented in earthquake affected areas. Touching upon the humanitarian dimensions of the Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) crisis of 2009, he stated that it had been a huge challenge for SRSP’s staff as they worked to ameliorate the plight of lDPs in the midst ofa large and rapidly developing displacement. As part of its relief efforts, SRSP was able to reach over 368,198 households with Non Food Items (NFls) to address their immediate needs. Mr. Ahmad also spoke of the devastating floods that had hit Pakistan, and briefly elaborated on SRSP’s response to the crisis. SRSP’s humanitarian team had distributed 107,840 NFls and 45,613 tents in the floods affected areas of KP with the financial assistance ofa multitude of donors. Furthermore, 7,152 families had been provided transitional shelters with the help of UNHCR. SRSP’s work, Mr. Ahmad explained, was not limited to providing immediate relief
  47. 47. as long term support is necessary to help communities recover and rebuild in the aftermath ofdisasters. He thanked UNDP, AusAid, GIZ, IKF, DFID and other institutions and philanthropists for supporting SRSP’s Early Recovery Programmes to help rehabilitate those affected by disasters. Touching upon the main challenges faced, Mr. Ahmad listed issues of security, accessibility and means ofdelivery as the most important factors inhibiting effective delivery of aid. The scale of the disasters, geographical spread of the districts, security situation in the area and topographical barriers to access impeded speedy delivery of assistance. Excessive flooding had rendered entire villages inaccessible by destroying roads and bridges. Helicopters, boats and in some cases, animals had to be used to transport relief items to people, thus further exacerbating an already complex task. Speaking about the challenges of monitoring, he stated that the context of humanitarian crises is generally not seen as conducive to monitoring and evaluation, as the alleviation of suffering usually takes precedence over such activities. Humanitarian aid has to be delivered within the shortest possible time, and under tremendous pressure. These factors, he believed, impede the proper collection and comparison of data. There is also a major issue ofdata collection for tracking of beneficiaries to ensure accountability and feedback mechanisms. The case was no different for SRSP which had to deliver a large scale humanitarian programme across a wide geographical spread. However, SRSP was able to ensure transparency and accountability The RSP Experience ofWorl<ing in FATA 4~5 November, 2013, Islamabad by maintaining an on—line distribution database and using effective reporting mechanisms that facilitated se| f—regu| ation. The use of IT enabled the organisation to collect and analyse data in a timely manner. Mr. Ahmed reiterated the need for simple and transparent systems for delivery and accountability to the people of concern. According to him context is of utmost importance when one is working in a complex and fragile environment. Prescribing rigid red lines does not dojustice to the different contexts encountered by humanitarian organisations. Evaluations that refer to strict ideal practices have a highly theoretical tinge and only by becoming adaptable and flexible can organisations respond effectively to humanitarian crises. Mr. Ahmed stressed on the importance of engaging people of concern and sharing relevant information with key stakeholders. This, he said, had enabled them to gain trust and make their teams accountable to the ' beneficiaries and stakeholders. Drawing on his experience, Mr. Ahmad listed down the main points of action that he believed need to be kept in mind when implementing humanitarian programmes. First and foremost, organisations delivering aid need to have credibility within the local population. Secondly, the issue of visibility needs to be handled contextually and with caution. To work successfully in a region as complex as the north west of Pakistan, organisations need to keep a low profile and '1. . context is of utmost importance when one is working in a complex and fragile environment. ” Mr. Syed Aftab Ahmad, Programme Manager, Operations, SRSP 47
  48. 48. 48 avoid unnecessary publicity as it is often counterproductive. He also stressed on the need to hire local staff to the extent possible and to ensure that the HR policies ofthe organisation have the flexibility to respond to emerging needs. The focus of organisations, he believed, should be on winning the humanitarian space to operate by developing trust amongst the key stakeholders. In the light of recent experiences, and given the operational context, he emphasised on the need to develop and foster relationships with key stakeholders and authority figures which would in turn facilitate strategic alliances. Humanitarian organisations, he argued, must endeavour to adapt to the dynamic environment in which they pursue their' missions. In conclusion he reiterated the need to implement flexible programmes that have a holistic approach to relief, rehabilitation and development. — MR. lJAZ RIZVI Associates in Development (A10) Monitoring and Evaluation in Uncertain and Complex Environments by AiD Mr. Rizvi explained that Associates in Development (AiD) is a Pakistan based development consulting organisation that specialises in development consulting in the Engineering and Social Sectors. Referring to the challenges of monitoring and evaluation in uncertain and complex environments, he said that restriction on access to project areas, movement and office Mr ijaz Rizvi, Associates in Development i/ iDi setups was a major issue that his organisation had to deal with. He added that a fluid environment does not lead into a cohesive approach to project implementation and cannot always be built into the original planning. Furthermore, impacts of project activities are difficult to measure assimple contingency loses its meaning in fragile and complex environments. Mr. Rizvi also touched upon challenges of data collection which in turn diminishes the effectiveness of long term evaluation planning. He stated that expertise for effective monitoring is hard to come by in such areas, which negatively impacts the quality of evaluation. Mr. Rizvi identified security—re| ated threats as a major factor that impacts monitoring and evaluation. These threats hinder mobility and have repercussions for project implementation, donor visibility as well as human resource management. In light of these, he urged all stakeholders to take precautionary measures and adopt strategies to mitigate risks.
  49. 49. With regard to monitoring and evaluation in fragile environments, Mr. Rizvi was of the opinion that the tools used need to be clear and simple, so that the M&E teams are well aware of the frameworks being used. He spoke of the advantages of using a more flexible and adaptable approach given the complex dynamics of the operating environment. He stressed that decisions regarding hiring of staff and the visibility of the programme need to be made keeping in mind the context. Towards the end of his presentation, Mr. Rizvi reaffirmed the need to contextualise M&E frameworks to reflect the complexity of the operating environment. — MR. WASIQ ALI KHAN i= ‘rt>grtImrne / lrl(7IiCI_(]€fll’lIr'rOfit1(Il’ii'€' Sfrfii’ Rural Financial Services Mr. Wasiq Ali Khan, Programme Manager for Microfinance (SRSP), gave an overview of rural finance delivery through a Community Managed Rural Finance Model (Village Banking) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. He stated that according to the Pakistan Microfinance Network (PMN), rural finance is inaccessible to over 90 percent ofthe rural households in the province. The reasons for this extremely low outreach include low population density, high dependence of the population on agriculture, few economic opportunities and the presence of grassroots religious movements that oppose interest- based lending. Mr. Khan explained that this resulted in a manifold increase in cost of delivery and credit risk for service providers. The RSP Experience ofworking in FATA 4 5 November, 2013, Islamabad llI ‘‘ mi, Ali ~' Ivan l’l. 'J(]lr1l‘. llT7t‘ ll/ li‘l'li1t]r7l N) I r’ , »ii: i.i ll : - To respond to these inherent challenges, SRSP pilot—tested a Community Managed Rural Finance model that adequately addressed the issues of lack of ownership among the communities, proximity and cost attached to the delivery of rural financial services in KP. Based on its success, the Village Banking model was then taken to scale in 2009, with the support of the Government of. KP, under its Bacha Khan Poverty Alleviation Programme (BKPAP). Village Banking, Mr. Khan added, is a shift from providing access to responsible delivery offinancial services. Unlike mainstream models of rural finance which reduce community members to simple clients, the Village Banking approach leads to increased empowerment both at the individual and community level. Mr. Khan explained that during the process, villagers — mostly members of poor households — are encouraged to form institutions of their own. These institutions are local, se| f—managed, women—centered and financially sustainable. Village Banks predominantly focus on the 49
  50. 50. 50 social and economic empowerment of women by women. Through participatory management structures, responsibilities are decentralised by giving women community institutions the autonomy and space to take most of the key decisions pertaining to Village Banking operations. Mr. Khan described how these may include electing their own leaders; selecting their own members; recruiting their own staff; creating their own bylaws; doing their own bookkeeping; fund management (disburse and deposits); resolving delinquency problems and levying their own penalty system on members who either come late, miss meetings, or fall behind in loan payments. ‘ He stated that the Government of KP, Australian—A| D and the Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund have been the major supporters and financiers of SRSP’s Village Banking Programme. Through its innovative model, SRSP has managed to make financial services accessible to marginalised households via the formation of over 300 Village Banks in 10 districts of the province. These local ‘Institutions of the Poor’ have provided over 62,000 members (all women) with financial assistance ranging from PKR 5,000 to 25,000 per individual. Mr. Khan drew attention to a third party evaluation report of the BKPAP by AiD, according to which a large percentage ofthe Village Banks’ beneficiaries had noted a rise in financial stability, high se| f—esteem, economic independence, better opportunities and greater self confidence as an immediate impact of the programme. The report also confirmed that nearly 94 percent of the respondents reported a moderate to visible improvement in their household income. ”SR$P has developed an approach that if provided with funding, can effectively resolve the long-standing developmental debacle of FAT . ” Mr. Shoaib Sultan Khan, Chairman, RSPN
  51. 51. The RSP Experience of Working in FATA 4~5 November, 2013. Islamabad Mr. Shoaib Sultan Khan, Chairman, RSPN Concluding Remarks eferring to an enlightening and constructive two days, Mr. Shoaib Sultan said this had been ‘one ofthe best workshops’ he had ever had the pleasure of attending. He thanked the gathering for their participation and interest, and especially commended the inputs of the Afghan team. He reiterated his belief in the Afghan representatives for skilfully navigating and handling an extremely complex socioeconomic and political situation in Afghanistan. Mr. Shoaib Sultan made a suggestion to Mr. Dauod of the AKDN, on the basis of his own experience with rural social mobilisation. He said that there is a distinction between the community participation model and the representative participation model. Representative participation allows linkages to be formed with the government and donors and therefore, although it is prudent to start with it, as had been done in Afghanistan, in time the AKDN should think about shifting to the more community based approach. This is because it is only through community participation that heroes like Ms. Maria Salamat of Parachinar and Mr. Abdullah of the DDA will be brought forth. And if in each district one such person can be found, then the task of poverty alleviation and social development will be enormously simplified. Mr. Shoaib Sultan said that the households of Afghanistan, where each household could be referring to two to three families, should be organised in groups offifteen or twenty. These should then be empowered. He said the RSPs were fully willing to help in the process if required. Mr. Shoaib Sultan said the similarity of the areas on either side of the border, provided a valuable opportunity for sharing best practices and learning from the insights of both sides. He thanked SRSP for providing the platform that had made this possible. He said that everyone had been wondering how the RSPs would fare in FATA. Today, he was extremely happy and proud to say that SRSP has developed an approach that if provided with funding, can effectively resolve the long-standing developmental debacle of FATA.
  52. 52. S2 ANNEXURES Annex 1: Conference Agenda Annex 2: List of Participants Annex 3: Presentations
  53. 53. The RSP Experience of Working in FATA 4—5 November, 2013, Islamabad
  54. 54. 54 Workshop Agenda November 4"‘ 8: 5"‘ 2013 at Serena Hotel Islamabad Agenda Registration Recitation from the Holy Quran Opening Remarks Speech by Head of the EU Delegation Speech by Head of AID 5ection—CIDA Speech by ACS FATA 7 Tea Break Documentary: Slide Show on FATA Integrated Area Development Project Voices from the Field Presentation1 Presentation 2 Presentation 3 Discussion/ Question Answer Presenter Mr. Shoaib Sultan Khan Mr. Berend De Groot Mr. David Fournier Mr. Arbab Arif Timings 9:30- 10:00am 10:00-1 0:05am 10:05-10:1 Sam 10:1 5-10:25am 10:25-10:35am 10:35-10:45am 71:00-I 1:30am Community Activists 11:30-11:50am 11:50-12:05pm 2:05-12:20pm 12:20-12:35pm 12:35-12:45pm Presentation of RSPs Experience of Mr. Masood UI Mulk 12245-1 :15 working in FATA CEO, SRSP Lunch 1:15-2:00 pm Institutional Development Index of Atif Zeeshan 2:00-2:20pm, Men & Women Communities in FATA Programme Manager PMER ‘ ‘ Integrated Area Development Project SRSP Discussions 2:20-2:30pm Impact Assessment of Small Scale Atif Zeeshan 2:30-2:50pm Infrastructure Schemes in FATA Programme Manager PMER ’ SRSP Discussions 2:50-3:00pm Most Significant Change Stories Nadia Shah 3:00-3:20pm Programme Manager, SP&SSG SRSP Discussions 3:20—3:30pm (7 Tea Break W 7’ 7 3:30--4:00pm Film and discussions on Education In Maryam Bibi-CEO Khwendo 4:00-4:30pm Conflict by Khwendo Kor Kor
  55. 55. The RSP Experience ofworking in FATA 4-5 November, 2013, Islamabad Agenda Presenter Timings Multi Input Area Development: Mr. Dauod Khurrum- 10:00—10:30am An AKDN perspective from National Manager implementing community based] Health Programme-AKF driven programmes in Afghanistan- Afghanistan Presentation & Discussion Presentation DDA Representative- Mr. Abdullah 10:30-10:50am AKF Afghanistan Presentation & Discussion by All Mr. Massehullah- Afghan Women Union Afghanistan All Afghan Women Union 10:50-11:05am Presentation NPO/ RRAA Mr. Shah Wali 11:05- 11:15am Delivering Humanitarian Aid in Conflicts Areas Presentation & Discussions Syed Aftab Ahmad ‘ Programme Manager Operations 11:15-11:45am SRSP Tea Break 7 7 7 11:45-12:00pm Monitoring and Evaluation in Uncertain and complex Environments _ ' - _ '. by AID ‘ ». ‘ - " ljaz Rizvi 12:00-12:40pm Rural Financial Services . , Presentation & Discussion Wasiq Ali Khan 55' _, ,__ ‘Z Programme Manager Microfinance 1 2:40-1 :1 5pm SRSP Lunch 1:75-2:00pm Wrap Up Session 2:00-3:00pm
  56. 56. 56 List of Participants m Name Organization/ Designation 1 a‘DmlGU| hWN .1 .1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Arbab Arif Javed Iqbal Arshad Ali Asad Ali Ghulam Shabbir Zahir Shah Zahoor Ahmad Muhammad Zahoor Tahir Ali Shah Tahir Orakzai David Fournier Fareeha Ummar Berend de Groot Arshad Andrew Mckee Shoaib Tayyab D. Preston Qazi Azmat Arshad Ali Tabbasum Baloch Zafar Pervez Sabri Sania Liaqat Ali Khan Greg Ellis Hashim Khan Aliya Sethi Lornatfau Zorica McCarthy Shoaib Sultan Khan Mrs. Munawar Humayun Masood Ul Mulk Ehsanullaah Khan Ikram Khan Syed Aftab Ahmad Nadia Shah Atif Zeeshan Wasiq Ali Khan Dr. Mohammad Dauod AC 5 FATA Director Bureau of Statistics Senior Management Executive PPAF P&D KP Faculty Member PARD Peshawar Secretary P&D FATA Deputy Secretary FATA Coordinator PCNA Project Director RLCIP DG SDU Peshawar First Secretary (Development) Canadian High Commission GE Advisor Canada PSU Head of the EU Delegation to Pakistan EU Advisor EU First Secretary (Development Cooperation) at AusAid Senior Programme Manger AusAid Corporate Manager AusAid CEO PPAF Senior Management Executive PPAF Manager ID PPAF ' PPAF ‘ PPAF Counsellor AusAid P. Advisor GIZ-RAHA Advisor GIZ Diplomat DFID Ex-Australian High Commissioner Director SRSP Chairperson SRSP CEO SRSP Board Member SRSP Board Member SRSP PM Operations SRSP PM SP&SSG PM PMER SRSP PM Microfinance SRSP AKF Afghanistan
  57. 57. The RSP Experience of Working in FATA 4—5 November, 2013, Islamabad
  58. 58. 58 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 S6 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 S. No. Name Saleh Mohammad Samit Abdul Hamid Riaz Wali Abdul Sattar Shah Wali Abdullah Ms. Zelikha Massehullah Caroline Wadhams Tom Perriello Dr. Pervaiz Tahir Aga Ali Jawad Allah Rakha Asi Bashir Anjum Ali Akbar Arshad Abbasi Asif Habib Ayesha Amina Askari Dr. Firdous Naqir Dr. Nadia Tahir Faisal Hashmi Fazal Ali lmran Masih Intisar Ahmed Kamran Afridi Karim Namani Khalil Tetley M. Anwer Panezai Robert Boujuole M. N. Memon Malik Fateh Khan Maryam Bibi Misheal Ali Khan Mohammad Nazir Muhammad Ali Azizi Muhammad Muhsin Muhammad Nazir Nasery Naheed Khan Naseem Ur Rehman Nawazish Ali Organization/ Designation AKF Afghanistan Chief of CDC Baharh. B Afghanistan NSP Country Manager NPO-RRAA North Region Manager NPO/ RRAA East Zone Manager NPO/ RRAA Chief of D. D.A Baghlan Afghanistan Afghan Women Union (AWU) Afghan Women Union (AWU) CAP CAP Ex. Chief Economist Pakistan GM NRSP CEO PRSP RSPN PO Admin RSPN Programme Officer JICA P0 Finance SRSP PO RSPN MO FPAP Professor UCP Lahore Manager ID PPAF RSPN Admin. Assistant RSPN coo FIDA ‘ GM-WECC PPAF ' Aga Khan Foundation COO RSPN Manager BRSP MTDF Coordinator WB SRSO CEO GBTI CEO Khwendo Kor Grants and Programmes Manager FIDA Coordinator MODE SP Social Mobilization RSPN Tolo Services 8: Culture Organization (TSCO) Modern Organization for Development of Education (MODE) P0-CLMR SRSP Board Member HHKRC Chief Coordinator EERA

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