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Gases

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CONCEPTO ,CARACTERISTICAS , LEYES DE LOS GASES , UN BREVE RESEÑA SOBRE BOYLE , AVOGRADO,DALTON,CHARLES

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Gases

  1. 1. YAMILETH OROZCO CRESPO DORIS MARTÍNEZ JARAMILLO NANCY ESTELA GUEPUD CULCHAC EDUCACIÓN EN QUÍMICA UNIVERSIDAD DEL VALLE
  2. 2. Algunas sustancias que existen en estado gaseoso a 1 atm y 25 ºC. O2 esencial para la vida. H2S y HCN son muy venenosos. Los gases nobles He, Ne y Ar son químicamente inertes, es decir, no reaccionan con ninguna otra sustancia.
  3. 3. GASES En los gases, las fuerzas de atracción intermoleculares son nulas, es decir, no existe fuerza de atracción ni de repulsión entre sus moléculas.
  4. 4. <ul><li>CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICAS DE LOS GASES: </li></ul><ul><li>Adoptan la forma y el volumen del recipiente que los contiene. </li></ul><ul><li>Se consideran los mas compresibles de los estados de la materia. </li></ul><ul><li>Cuando se encuentran confinados en el mismo recipiente se mezclan completa y uniformemente. </li></ul><ul><li>Cuentan con densidades muchos menores que los sólidos y los líquidos. </li></ul><ul><li>La mayoría de los gases son incoloros. Con excepción del F2 , Cl2, NO2. </li></ul>
  5. 5. El volumen de un gas equivale al espacio ocupado por dicho gas. Unidades: 1 m 3 = 1000 L 1 L = 1000 mL Se ha determinado que el volumen de 1 mol de cualquier gas en condiciones de Temperatura y Presión Estandar (TPE), es de: 22.4 Litros (Volumen molar de un gas). 
  6. 6. La temperatura de un sistema gaseoso es una medida del movimiento de las partículas. La temperatura se eleva en la misma medida que las moléculas adquieran velocidad, es decir, la temperatura corresponde a la energía cinética promedio del sistema. Sistema dinámico
  7. 7.  Los gases ejercen presión sobre cualquier superficie con la entren en contacto, ya que las moléculas gaseosas se hallan en constante movimiento. Las unidades de presión en el sistema internacional (SI) son el Pascal: 1 Pa = 1N / m 2 Presión atmosférica Es la presión que ejerce la atmósfera de la tierra. El valor real de la presión atmosférica depende de la localización, temperatura y las condiciones climáticas. La presión atmosférica estándar (1 atm) es igual a la presión que soporta una columna de mercurio (Hg) exactamente de 760 mm de altura a 0 ºC al nivel del mar. 1 atm = 760 mmHg = 1 torr = 101325 Pa Un manómetro , es un dispositivo para medir la presión de los gases distintos a los de la atmósfera.
  8. 8. Densidad de un gas (d) El numero de moles n, en los gases se define, Donde: masa (m), moles (M), volumen (V), presión (P), temperatura (T) y constante universal de los gases (R).
  9. 9. Ejercicio: Calcule la densidad del dióxido de carbono (CO 2 ) en gramos por litro (g/L) a 752 mmHg y 55ºC. Respuesta: 1.62 g/L
  10. 10. LAS LEYES DE LOS GASES Cuatro variables interdependientes: Presión (P) Temperatura (T) Volumen (V) Cantidad (n) Boyle Avogadro Charles
  11. 11. RELACIÓN PRESIÓN - VOLUMEN. LEY DE BOYLE Hg Patm V = 33 ml  h = 1520 mm Patm Gas encerrado V = 100 ml Gas encerrado V = 50 ml  h = 760 mm P tot =1520 torr P tot =760 torr Hg Patm Gas encerrado P tot =2280 torr
  12. 12. 0 20 15 10 5 Volumen (mL) 0.0005 0.0010 0.0015 20 15 10 5 0 Volumen (mL) 1000 2000 3000 Presión (mm Hg) 1/Presión (mm Hg) -1
  13. 13. V  P · V = cte. P 1 · V 1 = P 2 · V 2 ¡¡¡ A temperatura constante, el volumen de una cantidad dada de gas es inversamente proporcional a la presión aplicada !!! Enunciada por Sir Robert Boyle en 1662 1 p
  14. 14. RELACIÓN TEMPERATURA - VOLUMEN LEY DE CHARLES. B. Baño de agua hirviendo 100°C (373 K) Patm Calentador A . Baño de agua y hielo 0°C (273 K) Patm Aire atrapado Termómetro Mercurio Tubo de vidrio
  15. 16. ¡¡¡ A presión constante, el volumen de una cantidad dada de gas es directamente proporcional a su temperatura absoluta !!! Descubierta por Jacques Charles 1787 y Joseph Gay-Lussac en 1802. V a T (a P y n constantes) = constante 2 T 2 V 1 T 1 V  T V
  16. 17. La relación Presión - Temperatura : Ley de Gay-Lussac. Muestra que para una cantidad de gas y volumen constante, la presión del gas es directamente proporcional a la temperatura. P α T ( n y V constantes)
  17. 18. A presión y temperatura cons-tantes, el volumen de un gas es proporcional al número de partículas del mismo, o al número de moles de partículas, n. La Hipótesis de Amadeo Avogadro (Italia, 1811) fue, en realidad, que “a P y T constantes, iguales volúmenes de diferentes gases contienen el mismo nº de partículas” V  n 2 2 1 1 n V n V 
  18. 19. V a T (a P y n constantes) V a 1/ P (a T y n constantes) V a n (a P y T constantes) Como: Entonces: V a n T / P y V = K n T / P o V 1 P 1 / T 1 = V 2 P 2 / T 2 (a n cte.)
  19. 20. LA ECUACIÓN DEL GAS IDEAL Esta ecuación explica la relación entre las cuatro variables P, V, T y n. Un gas ideal , es un gas hipotético cuyo comportamiento de presión, volumen y temperatura se puede describir completamente por la ecuación del gas ideal. Combinando las expresiones de las leyes de los gases, se obtiene: V α n T / P V = R n T / P P V = n R T Donde R es la constante de los gases. Esta constante se calcula en condiciones de 0º C y 1 atm y se denominan temperatura y presión estándar (TPE). R = PV/nT = (1 atm) (22.414 L) (1 mol) (273.15 K ) = 0.082057 L * atm /K * mol
  20. 21. Ley de Dalton de las presiones parciales Establece que la presión total de una mezcla de gases es igual a la suma de las presiones que cada gas ejerce si estuviera solo.
  21. 22. Ley de Dalton de las presiones parciales Si un sistema contiene mas de dos gases, la presión parcial del componente i se relaciona con la presión total por: P i = X i P T Donde Xi es la fracción molar de la sustancia i . Ejemplo: Una mezcla de gases contiene 4.46 moles de neón (Ne), 0.74 moles de argón y 2.15 moles de xenón (Xe). Calcule la presión parcial del gas Ne si la presión total es de 2.00 atm a cierta temperatura. Respuesta: P Ne = 1.21 atm
  22. 23. ¡¡¡ En una mezcla de gases, la presión total es la suma de las presiones parciales de los gases individuales !!! P T = P 1 + P 2 + P 3 + …… Se puede demostrar tambien que: P i = P T X i J ohn Dalton nació en 1766, en Inglate-rra. Su ley de las Presio-nes Parciales es de alrededor de 1800.
  23. 24. MUCHAS GRACIAS

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