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BHARATIYA NAGRIK
SURAKSHA SANHITA
Registration of FIR, Investigation, Bail, Disposal of Property, Inherent Powers of
Court, Remand
Presentation by:- Shri Girish Pancholi
JD (Law) Dehradun
ऐतिहातिक पृष्ठभूति
• 1860 में भारतीय दंड संहिता क
े पाररत िोने क
े बाद, दंड प्रतिया िंतहिा का
पिला संस्करण 1861 में अहिहनयहमत हकया गया था।
• 1882 क
े अहिहनयम 10 ने अंततः संहिता को बदल हदया।
• 1882 से आपराहिक प्रहिया से संबंहित सोलि कानून पाररत हकए गए िैं।
• संहिता को 1898 में दंड प्रतिया िंतहिा द्वारा प्रहतस्थाहपत हकया गया था।
• 1898 की कानून को तब 1923 क
े दंड प्रहिया संशोिन अहिहनयम की संहिता
द्वारा अद्यतन हकया गया था।
• अपनी 14वीं ररपोर्ट (1958) में, प्रथम हवहि आयोग ने आपराहिक न्याय सुिार क
े
हलए कई प्रस्ताव पेश हकए।
• सहमहत की हसफाररशों पर हवचार हकया गया और संहिता में बदलाव हकया गया।
• पांचवें हवहि आयोग की इकतालीसवीं ररपोर्ट की हसफाररशों क
े जवाब में संसद ने
1973 में दंड प्रतिया िंतहिा (Code of Criminal Procedure in
Hindi) पाररत की।
भारिीय नागररक िुरक्षा िंतहिा, 2023
• भारतीय नागररक सुरक्षा संहिता, 2023 को 11 अगस्त, 2023
को लोकसभा में प्रस्तुत हकया गया था। भारतीय नागररक सुरक्षा
संहिता, आपराहिक प्रहिया संहिता, 1973 का स्थान लेगा।
भारतीय नागररक सुरक्षा संहिता, 2023 संहिता भारतीय दंड
संहिता 1860 सहित हवहभन्न अहिहनयमों क
े तित अपरािों क
े हलए
हगरफ्तारी, अहभयोजन और जमानत की प्रहियाओं की रूपरेखा
तैयार करती िै।
बीएनएिएि/पीएििी पर 247वीं ररपोर्ट
• अध्याय XXVII (िारा 367-378) पर अवलोकन, हवक
ृ त हदमाग वाले आरोपी
व्यक्तियों क
े प्राविान, मानहसक स्वास्थ्य देखभाल अहिहनयम 2017 क
े आिार पर
हसफाररशें
• िारा 86 क
े तित नए प्राविान घोहित व्यक्ति की पिचान और संपहि की क
ु की, भारत
क
े बािर िारा 112 क
े तित जांच
• िारा 313 क
े तित सुनवाई और कायटवािी इलेक्ट्रॉहनक मोड में िोने से न्याय की
अखंडता की रक्षा िोती िै
• सहमहत ने किा हक हिंदी में शीिटक संहविान क
े अनुच्छे द 348 का उल्लंघन निीं िै
क्ोंहक पाठ अंग्रेजी में िै
• िारा 2(1)(ए) 'ऑहडयो-वीहडयो इलेक्ट्रॉहनक माध्यम' की पररभािा प्रदान करती िै, यि
एक सरािनीय प्रयास िै, यिां राज्य सरकार द्वारा हनयम बनाने की गुंजाइश िै
• प्लीडर की जगि एडवोक
े र् शब्द बदल हदया गया
• िारा 23 (2) और (3) सामुदाहयक सेवा क
े हलए प्रथम और हद्वतीय श्रेणी महजस्ट्रेर् की
शक्ति प्रदान करती िै
• इसमें सामाहजक पुनस्थाटपन शाहमल िै
बीएनएिएि/पीएििी पर 247वीं ररपोर्ट
• िारा 33, सावटजहनक रूप से क
ु छ अपरािों की जानकारी देने क
े हलए जो अहिकतर संपहि की
तलाशी और जब्ती से संबंहित िैं
• आहथटक अपराि में निीं बक्ति गंभीर मामलों में िथकडी लगाकर हगरफ्तार हकया जाता िै
• भारतीय नागररक सुरक्षा संहिता (बीएनएसएस) की िारा 52 क
े तित बलात्कार क
े आरोपी व्यक्ति
की हचहकत्सक द्वारा हबना हकसी देरी क
े जांच
• राजद्रोि क
े हनरसन क
े मद्देनजर कायटवािी क
े हलए पयाटप्त आिार क
े आिार पर हकसी भी व्यक्ति
से सुरक्षा लेने क
े हलए ईएम को िारा 127 क
े तित अहतररि हववेकािीन शक्ति दी गई िै।
• पुहलस क
े वैि हनदेश की पुहि करने क
े हलए बाध्य व्यक्तियों क
े मामले में पुहलस द्वारा िारा 172 क
े
तित हकसी व्यक्ति को 24 घंर्े क
े भीतर ररिा करने की समय सीमा
• बलात्कार पीहडत हवकलांग व्यक्तियों और महिलाओं की सुरक्षा से संबंहित िारा 173 क
े तित
एफआईआर दजट करने में मानवाहिकार दृहिकोण
• 3 से 7 विट की सजा वाले मामलों की पुहलस उपािीक्षक की अनुमहत से प्रारंहभक जांच की प्रहिया
• यूथ बार एसोहसएशन बनाम यूहनयन ऑफ इंहडया मामले में सुप्रीम कोर्ट क
े फ
ै सले क
े आलोक में
आरोहपयों को एफआईआर की प्रहत उपलब्ध कराने क
े हलए िारा 173 क
े खंड 2 से संबंहित संसद
द्वारा कोई हसफाररश स्वीकार निीं की गई।
• मामले की गंभीरता क
े अनुसार िारा 175 क
े तित जांच की शक्ति हडप्टी एसपी को
BNSS िें िुधर का अवलोकन (पररवधटन /तवलोपन /
िंशोधन)
• 11 अगस्त 2023 को लोक सभा क
े पर्ल पर रखे जाने क
े बाद हविेयक को
स्थायी सहमहत क
े पास भेज हदया गया
• सहमहत ने 10 नवंबर 2023 को सरकार को ररपोर्ट स ंपी
• हविेयक अंततः स्थायी सहमहत की ररपोर्ट की हसफाररश को शाहमल करता
िै
• सीआरपीसी में 484 िाराएं िैं जबहक बीएनएसएस हजसे सीआरपीसी क
े
स्थान पर प्रस्ताहवत हकया गया िै, उसमें 533 िाराएं िैं.
• पररविटन:- 11 िाराएं नई
• हवलोपन:- सीआरपीसी की 9 िाराएं
• संशोिन:- सीआरपीसी की 160 िाराएं
पुतलि को िूचना और उनकी जांच करने की शक्ति'
बीएनएसएस का अध्याय XIII 'पुहलस को सूचना और
उनकी जांच करने की शक्ति' से संबंहित िै।
पिले, यि सीआरपीसी क
े अध्याय XII क
े प्राविानों
द्वारा शाहसत िोता था। िालााँहक, सभी िाराएाँ , चािे
सीआरपीसी से िों या बीएनएसएस से, कानूनी प्राविानों
क
े अनुपालन और जांच प्रहिया में पारदहशटता बनाए
रखने क
े मित्व पर जोर देती िैं।
जबहक सीआरपीसी की िारा 165 तलाशी क
े हलए
आिार तैयार करती िै, बीएनएसएस की िारा 173,
176 और 185 इस आिार पर आिाररत िैं, जो
आपराहिक प्रहिया क
े उभरते पररदृश्य क
े अनुक
ू ल
पररशोिन पेश करती िैं।
पुतलि की जांच करने की शक्ति
• BNSS 2023 की िारा 175 (1) क
े अनुसार, कोई पुहलस थाने का भारसािक अहिकारी महजस्ट्रेर् क
े
आदेश क
े हबना हकसी ऐसे संज्ञेय मामले का अन्वेिण कर सकता िै, हजसकी जांच या हवचारण करने
की शक्ति उस थाने की सीमाओं क
े अंदर क
े स्थानीय क्षेत्ों पर अहिकाररता रखने वाले न्यायालय को
अध्याय 14 क
े उपबंिों क
े अिीन िै|
• Information to the Police, their Powers to Investigate (Sec 154 Crpc/Sec 173
BNSS)
• Information in cognizable cases
• – Electronic communication
• – Information to informant/victim
• – Preliminary enquiry
• – Powers of Superintendent of Police
• Information as to non-cognizable cases and investigation of such cases (Sec 155
Crpc/ 174 BNSS)
• – Daily Diary
• Police Officer’s power to investigate cognizable case (Sec 156 Crpc/ Sec 175
Bnss)
• – Powers of Superintendent of Police/Judicial Magistrate
पुतलि की जांच करने की शक्ति
Procedure for investigation (Sec 157 crpc/ Sec 176 BNSS)
• – Audio-video electronic data
• – Forensic facility
• – Non-compliance with requirement of section 176(1)
Police Officer’s power to require attendance of witnesses (Sec 160/ Sec 179
Bnss)
• – Acute illness
• – Exempted person willingness to attend
Recording of confessions and statements (Sec 164/ Sec 183 Bnss)
• – Woman Magistrate
• – Recording statement of witness
• – Audio-video electronic means
• – Metropolitan Area/Metropolitan Magistrate
पुतलि की जांच करने की शक्ति
• Medical examination of victim of rape (164A Crpc/ 184 Bnss)
• – Time-limit for submission of medical examination report of rape
victim (7 days for doctor)
• Search by Police Officer (165 Crpc/185 Bnss)
• – Recording of search by mobile
• – Time limit for sending records (48 hours to nearest magistrate)
• Procedure when investigation cannot be completed in 24
hours (167 Crpc/187 Bnss)
• – Detention in police station
• detention in custody can be authorised beyond the period of
fifteen days, but omits the phrase ‘otherwise than in police
custody’; implying that police custody can also be provided
in such further period.
• – Audio-video electronic means
पुतलि की जांच करने की शक्ति
• Report of police officer on completion of investigation
(173Crpc/193 Bnss)
• – Requirement of time-bound completion of
investigation within 2 months applicable to offences of rape and
gang rape have been extended to offences under POSCO
• – Electronic communication
• – Progress of investigation (within 90 days inform progress to
victim)
• – Supply of copies of documents
• – Time-limit for completion of further investigation (90 days)
PROCESS FOR INFORMATION RELATING A
COGNIZABLE OFFENCE:- (173 BNSS 2023 &97
POLICE REGULATION)
• 1) Whenever information relating to the commission of a cognizable offence irrespective of the area
where the offence which is made punishable for 3 years or more but less than 7 years, the officer in charge
of the Police Station either conduct preliminary enquiry as may with the prior permission from officer not
below the rank of Dy S.P. considering the nature or gravity of the offence, proceed to conduct preliminary
enquiry to ascertain whether there exists a prima facie case for proceeding in the matter within a period of
14 days and before conduction a preliminary enquiry shall record the substance of information in a book
kept by such officer in such form as the state Govt. prescribe in this behalf and also send this to the
superior officer not below the rank of Dy S.P.
• and after conduction preliminary enquiry when there exists a prima facie case shall record the FIR
in CCTNS by filing (Police form no. 341 under CCTNS)in portal of CCTNS or may proceed investigation,
when there exists a prima facie case. For that purposes officer in charge of the Police Station shall record
the FIR in the CCTNS by e-filing of FIR (Police form no. 341 under CCTNS)
• 2) Whenever the information relating to the commission of a cognizable offence irrespective of area
where the offence committed, which is made punishable for 7 years or more the officer in charge of the
Police Station shall record the FIR in the CCTNS by e-filing of FIR (Police form no. 341 under CCTNS)
• 3) If the report is given orally, it should reduce to writing by him or under his direction and be read over
to the informant, and every such information whether given writing or reduced to writing as aforesaid, shall
be signed by the person giving it, or if he can write, he must make his mark of thumb impression.
• 4) If the report is given by electronic Communication, it shall be taken on record
by him on being signed within 3 days by the person giving it.
• 5) If the information (FIR) given by the woman against whom an offence U/S 65,
66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79 or 127 of BNS 2023 is alleged to have
been committed or attempted, then such FIR shall be recorded by a woman police
officer or any woman officer.
• 6) In the event that the person against whom an offence u/s 64, 65,66, 67,68, 69,
70,71,74,75,76,77,78,79 or 124 of BNS 2023 is alleged to have been committee or
attempted, is temporarily or permanently mentally or physically disabled, then
such information shall be recorded by a women police officer or a women officer, at
the residence of the person seeking to report such offence or at the convenient
place of such person’s choice, in the presence of an interpreter or special educator
and videograph such recording and the women police officer shall get the
statement of the person recorded by magistrate u/sec 183(6)(a) as soon as possible.
• 7) A copy of the information as recorded u/d sub section (1) shall be given
forthwith, free of cost, to the informant or the victim
पुतलि को िूचना और उनकी जांच करने की शक्ति'
• अब संज्ञेय अपरािों की सूचना (हजनमें पुहलस हबना वारन्ट क
े हगरफ्तार करक
े जााँच शुरु कर सकती िै)
म क्तखक, हलक्तखत या इलेक्ट्राहनक माध्यम से दी जा सक
े गी। थाने में इसे दजट हकया जायेगा, हजस पर सूचना
देने वाले व्यक्ति को तीन हदन क
े अंदर िस्ताक्षर करने िोंगे।
• किीं से भी ई-मेल से हकसी भी अपराि की सूचना हकसी भी थाने में दजट कराई जा सक
े गी।
• महिला पीहडता का बयान क
े वल महिला अहिकारी द्वारा िी दजट हकया जायेगा।
• हगरफ्तार करने वाले पुहलस अहिकारी का नाम, उसकी पिचान तथा उसका नम्बर उसकी वदी पर ऐेसी
जगि हलखा िोना चाहिए, जिााँ से उसे आसानी से देखा और पढ़ा जा सक
े ।
• लोकसेवकों से जुडे अपराि क
े मामलों में जिााँ मुकदमा चलाने क
े हलए हवभागीय अनुमहत की आवश्यकता
िै, विााँ अहिकारी को 120 हदन क
े अन्दर हनणटय लेना िोगा। इस द रान हनणटय न लेने पर भी मुकदमा
चलाया जा सक
े गा।
पुतलि को िूचना और उनकी जांच करने की शक्ति'
• हकन्तु दुष्कमट एवं महिलाओं क
े हवरुद्ध िोने वाले क
ु छ अपरािों तथा मानव तस्करी जैसे मामलों में ऐसे
हकसी भी प्रकार की अनुमहत आवश्यक निीं िोगी।
• य न उत्पीडन क
े पीहडता की हचहकत्सा जााँच ररपोर्ट परीक्षक क
े द्वारा सात हदनों क
े अन्दर जमा कर देनी
िोगी।
• आरोप तय करने का काम सक्षम महजस्ट्रेर् द्वारा आगे की पिली सुनवाई से 60 हदनों क
े भीतर हकया
जाना िोगा।
• पुहलस जााँच में वीहडयोग्राफी से जवावदेिी सुहनहित की जायेगी।
• तलाशी क
े हलये भी र्ैक्नोलॉजी का उपयोग हकया जायेगा।
• यहद कोई घोहित अपरािी मुकदमें से बचने क
े हलए भाग गया िै, तो उसकी अनुपक्तस्थहत में भी मुकदमा
चलाकर फ
ै सला सुनाया जा सकता िै।
• आपराहिक न्यायालयों को बिस पूरी िोने क
े 30 हदनों क
े भीतर फ
ै सला देना िोगा। हवशेि पररक्तस्थहतयों
में इसे 45 हदनों तक बढ़ाया जा सक
े गा।
MAGISTRATE'S DUTY AND AUTHORITY WHILE
GRANTING REMAND
A magistrate has the power to grant judicial or police custody. The magistrate also has the power to detain the
accused person for more than 15 days if he is not in police custody. However, the magistrate cannot detain the
accused for more than 90 days if the accused has committed a crime punishable by death, life imprisonment or
imprisonment of at least 10 years. Furthermore, the judge may not detain the accused for more than 60 days in
other cases.
The provision of section 167 of the CrPC is applicable only during the period of judicial proceedings. After the
expiry of the mentioned period, the accused is released on bail according to the provisions of grating bail.
However, if the police officer or investigator completes the investigation within the given period, the accused will
be deprived of the default.
In Ram Doss v. State of Tamil Nadu, the court held that before granting custody under section 167, the
Magistrate must keep in mind:
The reason for detaining the accused even after 24 hours and on the basis of which material the accused should
be placed in a police cell.
• Whether an offense is apparent in the report.
• Whether the case has been registered for investigation purposes.
PROCEDURE WHEN INVESTIGATION CANNOT BE COMP
LETED IN 24 HOURS (167 CRPC/187 BNSS)
• – Detention in police station
• BNSS retains the timelines of sixty or ninety days and the concept of default bail, as in the
CrPC. However, unlike s.167 CrPC, Sec187(2) additionally provides that the detention in custody of
fifteen days (in whole or in part) can be at any time during the initial forty or sixty days out of the sixty
or ninety days period, as the case may be.
• Sec 187(3) provides that detention in custody can be authorised beyond the period of fifteen days, but
omits the phrase ‘otherwise than in police custody’; implying that police custody can also be provided in
such further period.
• – Audio-video electronic means
No Magistrate shall authorize etention of accused in custody of police u/d this section unless the accused in
produce before him in person for the first time and subsequently every time. (this appearance can now be by
audio video electronic means)
LANDMARK CASES ON REMAND
Central Bureau of Investigation v. Anupam J. Kulkarni, 1992 AIR 1768,
the Supreme Court has identified the phrase ‘such custody as he thinks fit’ under 167 of CrPC to mean police custody and
judicial custody. It was further held that the magistrate acting under Section 167 of the CrPC was authorized to grant
police custody only for the first 15 days and thereafter only judicial custody.
Gautam Navlakha v. National Investigation Agency.
• It will be open to courts to order house arrest of accused persons under Section 167 of the Code of Criminal Procedure in
appropriate cases, the Supreme Court ruled
Enforcement Directorate of India v. Kapil Wadhawan and anr etc.,
• A three-judge bench comprising of Justice K.M. Joseph, Hrishikesh Roy and B.V. Nagarathna on March 27, 2023 ruled
that the moment the stipulated 60 or 90 day remand period, as the case may be, expires, an indefeasible right to default
bail accrues to the accused and added that the remand period under section 167 (procedure when investigation cannot be
completed within 24 hours) of theCrPC ought to be computed from the date when a magistrate authorises remand.
BAIL
• भारतीय संहविान का अनुच्छे द 21 प्रत्येक व्यक्ति को जीवन और व्यक्तिगत स्वतंत्ता का
अहिकार देता िै। यि सम्मान और व्यक्तिगत स्वतंत्ता क
े साथ जीने क
े म हलक अहिकार
को बरकरार रखता िै, हजसमें हकसी भी कानून प्रवतटन एजेंसी द्वारा हिरासत में हलए जाने पर
जमानत लेने का अहिकार शाहमल िै।
• भारत में, जमानत एक कानूनी तंत् िै जो आरोपी व्यक्ति की स्वतंत्ता क
े अहिकार को
मुकदमे क
े हलए अदालत में उनकी उपक्तस्थहत सुहनहित करने क
े सावटजहनक हित क
े साथ
समेर्ता िै। इसमें हकसी आरोपी व्यक्ति को हिरासत से न्याहयक ररिाई शाहमल िै, इस शतट
क
े अिीन हक वे बाद में अदालत में पेश िोंगे।
• भारत में आपराहिक अपरािों को जमानती और गैर-जमानती अपरािों क
े रूप में वगीक
ृ त
हकया गया िै।
• जमानत से संबंहित प्राविानों और हवहनयमों को आपराहिक प्रहिया संहिता , 1973 में
उक्तल्लक्तखत हकया गया िै, हवशेि रूप से िारा 436 से 450 तक।
• िारा 436 में किा गया िै हक जमानती अपराि क
े आरोपी व्यक्ति को कानूनी प्रहिया क
े
हकसी भी चरण में जमानत पर ररिा िोने का अहिकार िै।
गैर-जिानिी
हुिैनैरा खािून बनाि तबहार राज्य 1979 एआईआर 1369
• िारा 437 गैर-जमानती अपरािों को पररभाहित करती िै, इस िारा
क
े तित दी गई शतों पर न्यायालय क
े हववेक पर जमानत दी जा
सकती िै। यि उच्च न्यायालय या सत् न्यायालय क
े अलावा हकसी
अन्य न्यायालय को संदहभटत करता िै। एक मामले में, यि माना गया
हक िारा 437 क
े तित जमानत देना अदालत पर िै और यि
मनमाना या अस्पि निीं िो सकता। दू सरे शब्दों में, जमानत देने क
े
हववेक का प्रयोग िमेशा अदालत द्वारा न्याहयक रूप से हकया जाना
चाहिए, न हक सनक, मनमजी या सनक क
े अनुसार। हुसैनैरा खातून
बनाम हबिार राज्य क
े मामले में , जमानत में देरी और संहविान
क
े अनुच्छे द 21 क
े तित दायरे क
े बारे में एक सवाल उठाया गया था
।
अतिि जिानि अपराध
सुशीला अग्रवाल और अन्य बनाम राज्य (एनसीर्ी हदल्ली) और अन्य
2020 5 एससीसी 1
• सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने स्पि हकया हक अहग्रम जमानत मुकदमे क
े अंत तक प्रभावी
रिती िै और एक हनहित अवहि तक सीहमत निीं िै।
• हगरफ्तारी से पिले अहग्रम जमानत मांगी जाती िै, और यहद अदालत द्वारा
जमानत दे दी जाती िै, तो यि पुहलस को व्यक्ति को हगरफ्तार करने से
रोकती िै।
• हकसी भी व्यक्ति द्वारा दंड प्रहिया संहिता (सीआरपीसी) की िारा 438 क
े
तित अहग्रम जमानत की मांग की जा सकती िै, हजसे गैर-जमानती अपराि
का आरोप लगने की आशंका िै। अहग्रम जमानत क
े हलए आवेदन कहथत
अपराि पर अहिकार क्षेत् वाले उच्च न्यायालय या सत् न्यायालय में दायर
हकया जाना चाहिए।
SEC 480- गैर-जिानिी अपराध क
े िािले िें जिानि
(SEC 437 CRPC)
उसे जमानत पर ररिा हकया जा सकता िै, लेहकन
जब हकसी गैर-जमानती अपराि
क
े आरोपी
संहदग्ध व्यक्ति को हकसी पुहलस
स्ट्ेशन क
े प्रभारी अहिकारी द्वारा
हबना वारंर् क
े हगरफ्तार या हिरासत
में हलया जाता िै
उच्च न्यायालय या सत् न्यायालय क
े
अलावा हकसी अन्य न्यायालय क
े
समक्ष पेश हकया जाता िै या लाया
जाता िै
Offence punishable
with death, LI, or
more than 7yrs (no
bail)
Previous Conviction
(no bail)
Of death, LI, or
more than 7yrs
More than 2
previous
conviction of
offence
Punishable
with 3 yrs or
more but less
than 7 yrs
(1)
No reasonable
ground for
believing that
accused
committed non
bailable offence
but sufficient
grounds for
further inquiry
into his guilt
(2)
Offence
Punishable with
with Punishment
7 yrs or more or
of offences
relating to Chap
6 (body), Chap 7
(State) Chp 17
(Prop) or
abetment,
conspiracy,
attempt of same
(3)
4 Provisos in case of (no
bail)
Subject to
cancellation of
bond be released
on bail on
execution of
bond
Apply 3 conditions
grant bail
Will attend court,
Not commit similar offence,
no treath to witness or
tamper evidence
4 provisos of clause 1
Be released if
women, sick or
infirm
May be released on
bail for special
reasons to be
recorded in writing
by magistrate
Mere fact that he
will be require for
identification by
witnesses
Or for police
custody beyond 1st
15 days will not be
a reason to deny
bail if he is
otherwise
competent to get
bail (Newly added)
When
committed
offence
punishable
with death, LI,
or 7 yrs or
upwards
opportunity be
given to PP for
hearing before
granting bail
• (4) Officer of Court while releasing u/d sub clause (1) or (2)shall record in writing his
reasons or special reasons
• (5) Court may direct that the person be arrested an taken in custody again
• (6) If case is triable by Magistrate and trial is not completed within 60days from 1st date
fixed for taking evidence, and if such person is in custody for whole of the said period –
he shall be released on bail. If magistrate doesn’t give bail, in such a case he has to
record reasons in writing
• (7) At the stage of conclusion of trial and before Judgement, Court is of Opinion that
there are reasonable grounds for believing that the accused is not guilty, he shall release
the accused on execution of a bond
Sec 480- गैर-जमानती अपराि क
े मामले में जमानत
(continued)
SEC 482 DIRECTION FOR GRANT OF BAIL TO
PERSON APPREHENDING ARREST SEC (438
CRPC)
When any person has
apprehension of
arrest in N.B offence
He may apply to
High Court
or
Court of
Session
For
direction
u/ this
Sec
An the Court may direct that in the event of such arrest, he shall be released on bail imposing 4
conditions
Person shall make
himself available for
interrogation to police
when required
Will not directly or
indirectly make
any inducement,
threat or promise
to witnesses
Shall not leave
India without
prior permission
of Court
Other
conditions as
may be
imposed u/d
Sec 480(3)
SEC 482 DIRECTION FOR GRANT OF BAIL TO PERSON
APPREHENDING ARREST SEC (438 CRPC)
• Result :- If thereafter arrested without warrant by officer incharge of Police Station
and he is prepared to give bail at the time of arrest or at any time while in custody
he shall be released on bail
• If warrant is issued by magistrate he shall issue a bailable warrant.
On comparison between Sec 438 Crpc 1973 and Sec 482 BNSS 2023 we find a major procedure
has been eliminated of interim application. Although the final result of the procedure of Sec
482 BNSS and Sec 438 Crpc is the same lets discuss what interim procedure in previous Crpc
was
SEC 438 CRPC ANTICIPATORY BAIL (CONCEPT OF INTERIM
APPLICATION WHICH HAS BEEN DELETED IN BNSS 2023)
A person apprehending arrest in non-bailable cases applied to
High Court
or
Court of
Session
These Courts after considering
Gravity and
Nature of
accusation
Antecedents of the
applicant including
facts as to whether
previous
imprisonment or
conviction
Possibility of
accused to flee
Justice
Where accusation
was to insult or
humiliate applicant
Either reject the application forthwith or issue an interim order for grant of anticipatory
Bail
No INTERIM ORDER COURT GRANTS INTERIM
ORDER
Open to officer in charge of Police
station to arrest without warrant
A notice within 7 days to PP and SP to
hearing in court
Applicants presence obligatory at the
time of final hearing
An the court may thus grant
Anticipatory Bail with conditions as is
in Sec 482 BNSS
Rest of the procedure is same as is in BNSS Sec 482, on application court may grant
Anticipatory bail where on the event of arrest of the applicant he will be granted bail on 4
conditions.
The reason for deleting the entire procedure on interim application is that most of it was
understood and higher courts were burdened with several hearings on bail consuming the
time of court.
SEC 483 SPECIAL POWERS OF HC OR COURT OF SESSION
REGARDING BAIL (SEC 439 CRPC)
High Court or Court of Session May direct
Any person accused of an offence and in custody be
released on bail
And if in Sec 480(3) (more than 7 yrs or offences against State,
body, property or their attempt, abetment or conspiracy) may
impose any condition which it considers necessary
That any condition imposed
by magistrate when
releasing any person on bail
be set aside
While granting bail to a person accused of offence
punishable with Life Imprisonment (whether
exclusively triable by sessions or not)
May give notice of such bail application to PP
(newly added proviso) Bail in
offences u/s 65 and 70(2)
(Rape and Gang Rape)
Notice to PP within 15 days of date
of receipt of notice of bail
application, Presence of informant of
the case necessary or a person
authorized by her on hearing of such
SEC 492 CANCELLATION OF BOND AND BAIL BOND (SEC 446 A CRPC)
• Without prejudice to the provisions of (section 446 Crpc), (Sec 492 BNSS) where a bond under
this Code is for appearance of a person in a case and it is forfeited for breach of a condition—
• the bond executed by such person as well as the bond, if any, executed by one or more of his
sureties in that case shall stand cancelled; and
thereafter no such person shall be released only on his own bond in that case, if the Police
Officer or the Court, for appearance before whom the bond was executed, is satisfied that
there was no sufficient cause for the failure of the person bound by the bond to comply with its
condition;
Provided that subject to any other provision of this Code he may be released in that case upon
the execution of a fresh personal bond for such sum of money and bond by one or more of such
sureties as the Police Officer or the Court, as the case may be, thinks sufficient.
SEC 492 CANCELLATION OF BOND AND BAIL BOND (SEC 446 A
CRPC)
• Cancellation of bail normally falls under Section 446A of the Criminal
Procedure Code (CrPC) and a petition under the said section has to be filed
against the bail granting Order.
The prerequisites for cancellation of bail are (not exhaustive):-
(i) If the bail granting order is patently illegal, erroneous, factually incorrect and has
resulted into miscarriage of justice.
ii) That the accused has misused the concession of bail in any manner.
iii) That accused has tried to hamper prosecution evidence by persuading/pressurizing
prosecution witnesses.
iv) That there is likelihood of absconsion of the accused beyond the jurisdiction of Court.
v) That the accused has attempted to interfere with the smooth course of investigation.
vi) That accused misused his liberty while indulging into similar offence.
vii) That some fresh facts and material has been collected during the course of investigation
which tends to establish guilt of the accused.
Section
Pre-requisite
for cancellation
of bail
SEC 492 CANCELLATION OF BOND AND BAIL BOND (SEC 446 A
CRPC)
• Depending on the ground agitated for cancellation of bail,
the same Court which granted bail may cancel the bail or
any Court superior to it. However, any Court subordinate to
it cannot cancel bail.
• For example, if the Court of Session has granted bail, Court
of Session itself (upon your petition for cancellation of bail)
and/or the High Court can cancel the bail granting Order
but the Magistrate cannot cancel the bail if a petition is
moved before it.
Which Court can cancel
the bail granting Order?
DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY
दंड प्रहिया संहिता क
े तित संपहि क
े हनपर्ान का अवलोकन
• दंड प्रहिया संहिता 1973 (सीआरपीस) का अध्याय XXXIV, िारा 451-459 क
े तित संपहि क
े हनपर्ान
की अविारणा को रेखांहकत करता िै।
• एक आपराहिक मामले से हनपर्ने क
े द रान, पुहलस को हवहभन्न चीजे हमलती िैं हजन्हें बाद में जब्त कर
हलया जाता िै। यि चीजे अत्यंत मित्वपूणट िैं और साक्ष्य क
े रूप में कायट करते िैं। इन्हें न्यायालय क
े समक्ष
प्रस्तुत हकया जाता िै और एक सफल परीक्षण में एक मित्वपूणट घर्क बन जाता िै। संपहि शब्द ऐसे सभी
दस्तावेजों या लेखों पर लागू िोता िै जो न्यायालय क
े समक्ष प्रस्तुत हकए जाते िैं और दस्तावेजी प्रदशटन
(डॉक्ुमेंर्री एक्सहिबीर्) या भ हतक वस्तुओं (मर्ेररयल ऑब्जेक्ट्) क
े रूप में हचहित िोते िैं।
• िालांहक,एक बार जब परीक्षण समाप्त िो जाता िै, इन चीजो या दस्तावेजों को हनपर्ाने की आवश्यकता
िोती िै।
िंपतियों का वगीकरण
दंड प्रहिया संहिता का अध्याय 34, 4 प्रकार की संपहियों क
े हनपर्ान से संबंहित िै। इसमे नीचे बताई गये
हबंदु शाहमल िै:
• संपहि या दस्तावेज हजनका उपयोग अपराि करने में हकया गया िै।
• संपहि या दस्तावेज हजस पर अपराि हकया गया िै।
• संपहि या दस्तावेज जो अदालत क
े समक्ष पेश हकए गए िैं।
• संपहि या दस्तावेज जो पुहलस या न्यायालय की हिरासत में िैं।
इन संपहियों को इस प्रकार वगीक
ृ त हकया जा सकता िै:
• हकसी व्यक्ति को हगरफ्तार करते समय हमली चीजे;
• जो हकसी अपराि क
े हकए जाने क
े संबंि में संहदग्ध पररक्तस्थहतयों में पाए गए;
• हजन्हें कहथत त र पर चोरी कर हलया गया िै।
SEC 497 ORDER FOR CUSTODY AND DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY
PENDING TRIAL IN CERTAIN CASES (SEC 451 CRPC)
Sec 497 BNSS 2023
• When any property is produced before any
• Criminal Court, or the Magistrate empowered to
take cognizance or commit the case for trial
(Newly added)
• During any investigation, inquiry or trial
• The court or magistrate may make such order as
it thinks fit for the Proper custody of such
property
• Pending the conclusion of such investigation ,
inquiry or trial
• If the property is subject to speedy an natural
decay the court or magistrate may after recoding
evidence order it to be sold or disposed of
Sec 451 Crpc 1973
• When any property is produced before any
• Criminal court
• During any inquiry or trial
• The court may make such order as it thinks fit
for the Proper custody of such property
• Pending the conclusion of such inquiry or trial
• If the property is subject to speedy an natural
decay the court or magistrate may after
recoding evidence order it to be sold or
disposed of
SEC 497 ORDER FOR CUSTODY AND DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY
PENDING TRIAL IN CERTAIN CASES (SEC 451 CRPC)
• Property includes
• A) property of any kind or document which is produced before the court or which is
in its custody
• B)any property regarding which an offence appears to have been committed or
which appears to have been used for the commission of any offence
SEC 497 (2) ORDER FOR CUSTODY AND DISPOSAL OF
PROPERTY PENDING TRIAL IN CERTAIN CASES
The Court or the
Magistrate shall,
within a period of
fourteen days from the
production of the
property before it,
prepare a statement of
such property
containing its
description in such
form and manner as
the State Government
may, by rules, provide.
The Court or the
Magistrate shall cause
to be taken the
photograph and if
necessary, videograph on
mobile phone or any
electronic media, of the
property
The statement
prepared under sub-
section (2) and the
photograph or the
videography taken
under sub-section (3)
shall be used as
evidence in any
inquiry, trial or other
proceeding under the
Sanhita.
The Court or the Magistrate
shall, within a period of thirty
days after the statement has
been prepared under sub-
section (2) and the photograph
or the videography has been
taken under sub-section (3),
order the disposal,
destruction, confiscation or
delivery of the property in the
manner specified hereinafter.
Newly added clauses
SUPREME COURT IN SUNDERBHAI AMBALAL DESAI VS STATE OF GUJARAT
REPORTED IN (2002) 10 SCC 382
• the Honourable Apex Court has directed to ensure the powers under Section 451 Cr.P.C. are being
properly and promptly exercised by the Magistrates. Responsibility of the Commissioner of Delhi Police
to check the compliance by police stations.
• In the present case, laid down the following procedure to be followed by the police officials for custody of
different kinds of property, such as valuable articles, money, vehicles, narcotics, etc., separately.
• The panchnama for the return of property should be prepared by the police officers with the same
precautions as the panchnama for the seizure of property.
• In addition, photographs should be taken of the concerned articles. The claimant shall also pay a bond
and security deposit to ensure that the articles are not altered, damaged, or destroyed.
• The photographs of the articles should be countersigned by the prosecution, the accused, and the
claimant of the property.
• In respect of a vehicle, the production of a seizure report is sufficient before the Court, and there is no
need to produce the vehicle.
• The Court can impose any other condition it deems fit in the interest of justice.
• The vehicles shall not be allowed to lie idle in front of the police station.
LANDMARK CASES FOR DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY
Binu Paul Vs. Babu Raj 2001 (1) ALT Criminal 124 Kerala.
If the section is to apply there must have been an enquiry or trial in the Court and the enquiry or trial should
have concluded. If the offence is compounded before enquiry or trial has commenced, Section does not apply.
Kalia Ammai Vs. State 2000 (2) ALT Criminal 232 Madras.
• Disposal of properties recovered during investigation and before the Court. Properties, Jewels recovered at the
place of occurrence and places pointed out by the accused. In the absence of any other claims, when accused
acquitted, jewels to be returned to wife of deceased.
Naiz Ahmed Vs. State of U.P. 1994 SCC Criminal 1730.
• Disposal of Property seized from accused as theft property. Truck seized from Accused and sold in auction.
Criminal Proceedings ended in favour of Accused and Truck was directed to be returned to accused from whom
it was seized. Auction purchaser cannot have a right to retain vehicle. He is only entitled to have return of
money deposited by him as sale consideration.
SEC 528 SAVING INHERENT POWER OF HIGH
COURT (SEC 482 CRPC)
• Nothing in this Sanhita shall be deemed to limit or affect the inherent powers of the
High Court to make such orders as may be necessary to give effect to any order
under this Sanhita, or to prevent abuse of the process of any Court or otherwise
to secure the ends of justice.
Madhu Limaye v. Maharashtra AIR 1978 (47), the Court has observed the following principles that
would govern the High Court’s inherent jurisdiction:
That inherent power must not be resorted to, if specific provision for redressal of grievances is been
given.
That it should be carefully used to prevent abuse of process of any Court or otherwise to secure ends
of justice.
That it should not be exercised against the express provision given in any other statute.
The inherent power would come into play there being no other provision in the code for the grievance
redressal of the aggrieved party.
THANK YOU

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Bail, Disposal, Remand, Registration JD Sir.pptx

  • 1. BHARATIYA NAGRIK SURAKSHA SANHITA Registration of FIR, Investigation, Bail, Disposal of Property, Inherent Powers of Court, Remand Presentation by:- Shri Girish Pancholi JD (Law) Dehradun
  • 2. ऐतिहातिक पृष्ठभूति • 1860 में भारतीय दंड संहिता क े पाररत िोने क े बाद, दंड प्रतिया िंतहिा का पिला संस्करण 1861 में अहिहनयहमत हकया गया था। • 1882 क े अहिहनयम 10 ने अंततः संहिता को बदल हदया। • 1882 से आपराहिक प्रहिया से संबंहित सोलि कानून पाररत हकए गए िैं। • संहिता को 1898 में दंड प्रतिया िंतहिा द्वारा प्रहतस्थाहपत हकया गया था। • 1898 की कानून को तब 1923 क े दंड प्रहिया संशोिन अहिहनयम की संहिता द्वारा अद्यतन हकया गया था। • अपनी 14वीं ररपोर्ट (1958) में, प्रथम हवहि आयोग ने आपराहिक न्याय सुिार क े हलए कई प्रस्ताव पेश हकए। • सहमहत की हसफाररशों पर हवचार हकया गया और संहिता में बदलाव हकया गया। • पांचवें हवहि आयोग की इकतालीसवीं ररपोर्ट की हसफाररशों क े जवाब में संसद ने 1973 में दंड प्रतिया िंतहिा (Code of Criminal Procedure in Hindi) पाररत की।
  • 3. भारिीय नागररक िुरक्षा िंतहिा, 2023 • भारतीय नागररक सुरक्षा संहिता, 2023 को 11 अगस्त, 2023 को लोकसभा में प्रस्तुत हकया गया था। भारतीय नागररक सुरक्षा संहिता, आपराहिक प्रहिया संहिता, 1973 का स्थान लेगा। भारतीय नागररक सुरक्षा संहिता, 2023 संहिता भारतीय दंड संहिता 1860 सहित हवहभन्न अहिहनयमों क े तित अपरािों क े हलए हगरफ्तारी, अहभयोजन और जमानत की प्रहियाओं की रूपरेखा तैयार करती िै।
  • 4. बीएनएिएि/पीएििी पर 247वीं ररपोर्ट • अध्याय XXVII (िारा 367-378) पर अवलोकन, हवक ृ त हदमाग वाले आरोपी व्यक्तियों क े प्राविान, मानहसक स्वास्थ्य देखभाल अहिहनयम 2017 क े आिार पर हसफाररशें • िारा 86 क े तित नए प्राविान घोहित व्यक्ति की पिचान और संपहि की क ु की, भारत क े बािर िारा 112 क े तित जांच • िारा 313 क े तित सुनवाई और कायटवािी इलेक्ट्रॉहनक मोड में िोने से न्याय की अखंडता की रक्षा िोती िै • सहमहत ने किा हक हिंदी में शीिटक संहविान क े अनुच्छे द 348 का उल्लंघन निीं िै क्ोंहक पाठ अंग्रेजी में िै • िारा 2(1)(ए) 'ऑहडयो-वीहडयो इलेक्ट्रॉहनक माध्यम' की पररभािा प्रदान करती िै, यि एक सरािनीय प्रयास िै, यिां राज्य सरकार द्वारा हनयम बनाने की गुंजाइश िै • प्लीडर की जगि एडवोक े र् शब्द बदल हदया गया • िारा 23 (2) और (3) सामुदाहयक सेवा क े हलए प्रथम और हद्वतीय श्रेणी महजस्ट्रेर् की शक्ति प्रदान करती िै • इसमें सामाहजक पुनस्थाटपन शाहमल िै
  • 5. बीएनएिएि/पीएििी पर 247वीं ररपोर्ट • िारा 33, सावटजहनक रूप से क ु छ अपरािों की जानकारी देने क े हलए जो अहिकतर संपहि की तलाशी और जब्ती से संबंहित िैं • आहथटक अपराि में निीं बक्ति गंभीर मामलों में िथकडी लगाकर हगरफ्तार हकया जाता िै • भारतीय नागररक सुरक्षा संहिता (बीएनएसएस) की िारा 52 क े तित बलात्कार क े आरोपी व्यक्ति की हचहकत्सक द्वारा हबना हकसी देरी क े जांच • राजद्रोि क े हनरसन क े मद्देनजर कायटवािी क े हलए पयाटप्त आिार क े आिार पर हकसी भी व्यक्ति से सुरक्षा लेने क े हलए ईएम को िारा 127 क े तित अहतररि हववेकािीन शक्ति दी गई िै। • पुहलस क े वैि हनदेश की पुहि करने क े हलए बाध्य व्यक्तियों क े मामले में पुहलस द्वारा िारा 172 क े तित हकसी व्यक्ति को 24 घंर्े क े भीतर ररिा करने की समय सीमा • बलात्कार पीहडत हवकलांग व्यक्तियों और महिलाओं की सुरक्षा से संबंहित िारा 173 क े तित एफआईआर दजट करने में मानवाहिकार दृहिकोण • 3 से 7 विट की सजा वाले मामलों की पुहलस उपािीक्षक की अनुमहत से प्रारंहभक जांच की प्रहिया • यूथ बार एसोहसएशन बनाम यूहनयन ऑफ इंहडया मामले में सुप्रीम कोर्ट क े फ ै सले क े आलोक में आरोहपयों को एफआईआर की प्रहत उपलब्ध कराने क े हलए िारा 173 क े खंड 2 से संबंहित संसद द्वारा कोई हसफाररश स्वीकार निीं की गई। • मामले की गंभीरता क े अनुसार िारा 175 क े तित जांच की शक्ति हडप्टी एसपी को
  • 6. BNSS िें िुधर का अवलोकन (पररवधटन /तवलोपन / िंशोधन) • 11 अगस्त 2023 को लोक सभा क े पर्ल पर रखे जाने क े बाद हविेयक को स्थायी सहमहत क े पास भेज हदया गया • सहमहत ने 10 नवंबर 2023 को सरकार को ररपोर्ट स ंपी • हविेयक अंततः स्थायी सहमहत की ररपोर्ट की हसफाररश को शाहमल करता िै • सीआरपीसी में 484 िाराएं िैं जबहक बीएनएसएस हजसे सीआरपीसी क े स्थान पर प्रस्ताहवत हकया गया िै, उसमें 533 िाराएं िैं. • पररविटन:- 11 िाराएं नई • हवलोपन:- सीआरपीसी की 9 िाराएं • संशोिन:- सीआरपीसी की 160 िाराएं
  • 7. पुतलि को िूचना और उनकी जांच करने की शक्ति' बीएनएसएस का अध्याय XIII 'पुहलस को सूचना और उनकी जांच करने की शक्ति' से संबंहित िै। पिले, यि सीआरपीसी क े अध्याय XII क े प्राविानों द्वारा शाहसत िोता था। िालााँहक, सभी िाराएाँ , चािे सीआरपीसी से िों या बीएनएसएस से, कानूनी प्राविानों क े अनुपालन और जांच प्रहिया में पारदहशटता बनाए रखने क े मित्व पर जोर देती िैं। जबहक सीआरपीसी की िारा 165 तलाशी क े हलए आिार तैयार करती िै, बीएनएसएस की िारा 173, 176 और 185 इस आिार पर आिाररत िैं, जो आपराहिक प्रहिया क े उभरते पररदृश्य क े अनुक ू ल पररशोिन पेश करती िैं।
  • 8. पुतलि की जांच करने की शक्ति • BNSS 2023 की िारा 175 (1) क े अनुसार, कोई पुहलस थाने का भारसािक अहिकारी महजस्ट्रेर् क े आदेश क े हबना हकसी ऐसे संज्ञेय मामले का अन्वेिण कर सकता िै, हजसकी जांच या हवचारण करने की शक्ति उस थाने की सीमाओं क े अंदर क े स्थानीय क्षेत्ों पर अहिकाररता रखने वाले न्यायालय को अध्याय 14 क े उपबंिों क े अिीन िै| • Information to the Police, their Powers to Investigate (Sec 154 Crpc/Sec 173 BNSS) • Information in cognizable cases • – Electronic communication • – Information to informant/victim • – Preliminary enquiry • – Powers of Superintendent of Police • Information as to non-cognizable cases and investigation of such cases (Sec 155 Crpc/ 174 BNSS) • – Daily Diary • Police Officer’s power to investigate cognizable case (Sec 156 Crpc/ Sec 175 Bnss) • – Powers of Superintendent of Police/Judicial Magistrate
  • 9. पुतलि की जांच करने की शक्ति Procedure for investigation (Sec 157 crpc/ Sec 176 BNSS) • – Audio-video electronic data • – Forensic facility • – Non-compliance with requirement of section 176(1) Police Officer’s power to require attendance of witnesses (Sec 160/ Sec 179 Bnss) • – Acute illness • – Exempted person willingness to attend Recording of confessions and statements (Sec 164/ Sec 183 Bnss) • – Woman Magistrate • – Recording statement of witness • – Audio-video electronic means • – Metropolitan Area/Metropolitan Magistrate
  • 10. पुतलि की जांच करने की शक्ति • Medical examination of victim of rape (164A Crpc/ 184 Bnss) • – Time-limit for submission of medical examination report of rape victim (7 days for doctor) • Search by Police Officer (165 Crpc/185 Bnss) • – Recording of search by mobile • – Time limit for sending records (48 hours to nearest magistrate) • Procedure when investigation cannot be completed in 24 hours (167 Crpc/187 Bnss) • – Detention in police station • detention in custody can be authorised beyond the period of fifteen days, but omits the phrase ‘otherwise than in police custody’; implying that police custody can also be provided in such further period. • – Audio-video electronic means
  • 11. पुतलि की जांच करने की शक्ति • Report of police officer on completion of investigation (173Crpc/193 Bnss) • – Requirement of time-bound completion of investigation within 2 months applicable to offences of rape and gang rape have been extended to offences under POSCO • – Electronic communication • – Progress of investigation (within 90 days inform progress to victim) • – Supply of copies of documents • – Time-limit for completion of further investigation (90 days)
  • 12. PROCESS FOR INFORMATION RELATING A COGNIZABLE OFFENCE:- (173 BNSS 2023 &97 POLICE REGULATION) • 1) Whenever information relating to the commission of a cognizable offence irrespective of the area where the offence which is made punishable for 3 years or more but less than 7 years, the officer in charge of the Police Station either conduct preliminary enquiry as may with the prior permission from officer not below the rank of Dy S.P. considering the nature or gravity of the offence, proceed to conduct preliminary enquiry to ascertain whether there exists a prima facie case for proceeding in the matter within a period of 14 days and before conduction a preliminary enquiry shall record the substance of information in a book kept by such officer in such form as the state Govt. prescribe in this behalf and also send this to the superior officer not below the rank of Dy S.P. • and after conduction preliminary enquiry when there exists a prima facie case shall record the FIR in CCTNS by filing (Police form no. 341 under CCTNS)in portal of CCTNS or may proceed investigation, when there exists a prima facie case. For that purposes officer in charge of the Police Station shall record the FIR in the CCTNS by e-filing of FIR (Police form no. 341 under CCTNS) • 2) Whenever the information relating to the commission of a cognizable offence irrespective of area where the offence committed, which is made punishable for 7 years or more the officer in charge of the Police Station shall record the FIR in the CCTNS by e-filing of FIR (Police form no. 341 under CCTNS) • 3) If the report is given orally, it should reduce to writing by him or under his direction and be read over to the informant, and every such information whether given writing or reduced to writing as aforesaid, shall be signed by the person giving it, or if he can write, he must make his mark of thumb impression.
  • 13. • 4) If the report is given by electronic Communication, it shall be taken on record by him on being signed within 3 days by the person giving it. • 5) If the information (FIR) given by the woman against whom an offence U/S 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79 or 127 of BNS 2023 is alleged to have been committed or attempted, then such FIR shall be recorded by a woman police officer or any woman officer. • 6) In the event that the person against whom an offence u/s 64, 65,66, 67,68, 69, 70,71,74,75,76,77,78,79 or 124 of BNS 2023 is alleged to have been committee or attempted, is temporarily or permanently mentally or physically disabled, then such information shall be recorded by a women police officer or a women officer, at the residence of the person seeking to report such offence or at the convenient place of such person’s choice, in the presence of an interpreter or special educator and videograph such recording and the women police officer shall get the statement of the person recorded by magistrate u/sec 183(6)(a) as soon as possible. • 7) A copy of the information as recorded u/d sub section (1) shall be given forthwith, free of cost, to the informant or the victim
  • 14. पुतलि को िूचना और उनकी जांच करने की शक्ति' • अब संज्ञेय अपरािों की सूचना (हजनमें पुहलस हबना वारन्ट क े हगरफ्तार करक े जााँच शुरु कर सकती िै) म क्तखक, हलक्तखत या इलेक्ट्राहनक माध्यम से दी जा सक े गी। थाने में इसे दजट हकया जायेगा, हजस पर सूचना देने वाले व्यक्ति को तीन हदन क े अंदर िस्ताक्षर करने िोंगे। • किीं से भी ई-मेल से हकसी भी अपराि की सूचना हकसी भी थाने में दजट कराई जा सक े गी। • महिला पीहडता का बयान क े वल महिला अहिकारी द्वारा िी दजट हकया जायेगा। • हगरफ्तार करने वाले पुहलस अहिकारी का नाम, उसकी पिचान तथा उसका नम्बर उसकी वदी पर ऐेसी जगि हलखा िोना चाहिए, जिााँ से उसे आसानी से देखा और पढ़ा जा सक े । • लोकसेवकों से जुडे अपराि क े मामलों में जिााँ मुकदमा चलाने क े हलए हवभागीय अनुमहत की आवश्यकता िै, विााँ अहिकारी को 120 हदन क े अन्दर हनणटय लेना िोगा। इस द रान हनणटय न लेने पर भी मुकदमा चलाया जा सक े गा।
  • 15. पुतलि को िूचना और उनकी जांच करने की शक्ति' • हकन्तु दुष्कमट एवं महिलाओं क े हवरुद्ध िोने वाले क ु छ अपरािों तथा मानव तस्करी जैसे मामलों में ऐसे हकसी भी प्रकार की अनुमहत आवश्यक निीं िोगी। • य न उत्पीडन क े पीहडता की हचहकत्सा जााँच ररपोर्ट परीक्षक क े द्वारा सात हदनों क े अन्दर जमा कर देनी िोगी। • आरोप तय करने का काम सक्षम महजस्ट्रेर् द्वारा आगे की पिली सुनवाई से 60 हदनों क े भीतर हकया जाना िोगा। • पुहलस जााँच में वीहडयोग्राफी से जवावदेिी सुहनहित की जायेगी। • तलाशी क े हलये भी र्ैक्नोलॉजी का उपयोग हकया जायेगा। • यहद कोई घोहित अपरािी मुकदमें से बचने क े हलए भाग गया िै, तो उसकी अनुपक्तस्थहत में भी मुकदमा चलाकर फ ै सला सुनाया जा सकता िै। • आपराहिक न्यायालयों को बिस पूरी िोने क े 30 हदनों क े भीतर फ ै सला देना िोगा। हवशेि पररक्तस्थहतयों में इसे 45 हदनों तक बढ़ाया जा सक े गा।
  • 16. MAGISTRATE'S DUTY AND AUTHORITY WHILE GRANTING REMAND A magistrate has the power to grant judicial or police custody. The magistrate also has the power to detain the accused person for more than 15 days if he is not in police custody. However, the magistrate cannot detain the accused for more than 90 days if the accused has committed a crime punishable by death, life imprisonment or imprisonment of at least 10 years. Furthermore, the judge may not detain the accused for more than 60 days in other cases. The provision of section 167 of the CrPC is applicable only during the period of judicial proceedings. After the expiry of the mentioned period, the accused is released on bail according to the provisions of grating bail. However, if the police officer or investigator completes the investigation within the given period, the accused will be deprived of the default. In Ram Doss v. State of Tamil Nadu, the court held that before granting custody under section 167, the Magistrate must keep in mind: The reason for detaining the accused even after 24 hours and on the basis of which material the accused should be placed in a police cell. • Whether an offense is apparent in the report. • Whether the case has been registered for investigation purposes.
  • 17. PROCEDURE WHEN INVESTIGATION CANNOT BE COMP LETED IN 24 HOURS (167 CRPC/187 BNSS) • – Detention in police station • BNSS retains the timelines of sixty or ninety days and the concept of default bail, as in the CrPC. However, unlike s.167 CrPC, Sec187(2) additionally provides that the detention in custody of fifteen days (in whole or in part) can be at any time during the initial forty or sixty days out of the sixty or ninety days period, as the case may be. • Sec 187(3) provides that detention in custody can be authorised beyond the period of fifteen days, but omits the phrase ‘otherwise than in police custody’; implying that police custody can also be provided in such further period. • – Audio-video electronic means No Magistrate shall authorize etention of accused in custody of police u/d this section unless the accused in produce before him in person for the first time and subsequently every time. (this appearance can now be by audio video electronic means)
  • 18. LANDMARK CASES ON REMAND Central Bureau of Investigation v. Anupam J. Kulkarni, 1992 AIR 1768, the Supreme Court has identified the phrase ‘such custody as he thinks fit’ under 167 of CrPC to mean police custody and judicial custody. It was further held that the magistrate acting under Section 167 of the CrPC was authorized to grant police custody only for the first 15 days and thereafter only judicial custody. Gautam Navlakha v. National Investigation Agency. • It will be open to courts to order house arrest of accused persons under Section 167 of the Code of Criminal Procedure in appropriate cases, the Supreme Court ruled Enforcement Directorate of India v. Kapil Wadhawan and anr etc., • A three-judge bench comprising of Justice K.M. Joseph, Hrishikesh Roy and B.V. Nagarathna on March 27, 2023 ruled that the moment the stipulated 60 or 90 day remand period, as the case may be, expires, an indefeasible right to default bail accrues to the accused and added that the remand period under section 167 (procedure when investigation cannot be completed within 24 hours) of theCrPC ought to be computed from the date when a magistrate authorises remand.
  • 19. BAIL • भारतीय संहविान का अनुच्छे द 21 प्रत्येक व्यक्ति को जीवन और व्यक्तिगत स्वतंत्ता का अहिकार देता िै। यि सम्मान और व्यक्तिगत स्वतंत्ता क े साथ जीने क े म हलक अहिकार को बरकरार रखता िै, हजसमें हकसी भी कानून प्रवतटन एजेंसी द्वारा हिरासत में हलए जाने पर जमानत लेने का अहिकार शाहमल िै। • भारत में, जमानत एक कानूनी तंत् िै जो आरोपी व्यक्ति की स्वतंत्ता क े अहिकार को मुकदमे क े हलए अदालत में उनकी उपक्तस्थहत सुहनहित करने क े सावटजहनक हित क े साथ समेर्ता िै। इसमें हकसी आरोपी व्यक्ति को हिरासत से न्याहयक ररिाई शाहमल िै, इस शतट क े अिीन हक वे बाद में अदालत में पेश िोंगे। • भारत में आपराहिक अपरािों को जमानती और गैर-जमानती अपरािों क े रूप में वगीक ृ त हकया गया िै। • जमानत से संबंहित प्राविानों और हवहनयमों को आपराहिक प्रहिया संहिता , 1973 में उक्तल्लक्तखत हकया गया िै, हवशेि रूप से िारा 436 से 450 तक। • िारा 436 में किा गया िै हक जमानती अपराि क े आरोपी व्यक्ति को कानूनी प्रहिया क े हकसी भी चरण में जमानत पर ररिा िोने का अहिकार िै।
  • 20. गैर-जिानिी हुिैनैरा खािून बनाि तबहार राज्य 1979 एआईआर 1369 • िारा 437 गैर-जमानती अपरािों को पररभाहित करती िै, इस िारा क े तित दी गई शतों पर न्यायालय क े हववेक पर जमानत दी जा सकती िै। यि उच्च न्यायालय या सत् न्यायालय क े अलावा हकसी अन्य न्यायालय को संदहभटत करता िै। एक मामले में, यि माना गया हक िारा 437 क े तित जमानत देना अदालत पर िै और यि मनमाना या अस्पि निीं िो सकता। दू सरे शब्दों में, जमानत देने क े हववेक का प्रयोग िमेशा अदालत द्वारा न्याहयक रूप से हकया जाना चाहिए, न हक सनक, मनमजी या सनक क े अनुसार। हुसैनैरा खातून बनाम हबिार राज्य क े मामले में , जमानत में देरी और संहविान क े अनुच्छे द 21 क े तित दायरे क े बारे में एक सवाल उठाया गया था ।
  • 21. अतिि जिानि अपराध सुशीला अग्रवाल और अन्य बनाम राज्य (एनसीर्ी हदल्ली) और अन्य 2020 5 एससीसी 1 • सुप्रीम कोर्ट ने स्पि हकया हक अहग्रम जमानत मुकदमे क े अंत तक प्रभावी रिती िै और एक हनहित अवहि तक सीहमत निीं िै। • हगरफ्तारी से पिले अहग्रम जमानत मांगी जाती िै, और यहद अदालत द्वारा जमानत दे दी जाती िै, तो यि पुहलस को व्यक्ति को हगरफ्तार करने से रोकती िै। • हकसी भी व्यक्ति द्वारा दंड प्रहिया संहिता (सीआरपीसी) की िारा 438 क े तित अहग्रम जमानत की मांग की जा सकती िै, हजसे गैर-जमानती अपराि का आरोप लगने की आशंका िै। अहग्रम जमानत क े हलए आवेदन कहथत अपराि पर अहिकार क्षेत् वाले उच्च न्यायालय या सत् न्यायालय में दायर हकया जाना चाहिए।
  • 22. SEC 480- गैर-जिानिी अपराध क े िािले िें जिानि (SEC 437 CRPC) उसे जमानत पर ररिा हकया जा सकता िै, लेहकन जब हकसी गैर-जमानती अपराि क े आरोपी संहदग्ध व्यक्ति को हकसी पुहलस स्ट्ेशन क े प्रभारी अहिकारी द्वारा हबना वारंर् क े हगरफ्तार या हिरासत में हलया जाता िै उच्च न्यायालय या सत् न्यायालय क े अलावा हकसी अन्य न्यायालय क े समक्ष पेश हकया जाता िै या लाया जाता िै
  • 23. Offence punishable with death, LI, or more than 7yrs (no bail) Previous Conviction (no bail) Of death, LI, or more than 7yrs More than 2 previous conviction of offence Punishable with 3 yrs or more but less than 7 yrs (1) No reasonable ground for believing that accused committed non bailable offence but sufficient grounds for further inquiry into his guilt (2) Offence Punishable with with Punishment 7 yrs or more or of offences relating to Chap 6 (body), Chap 7 (State) Chp 17 (Prop) or abetment, conspiracy, attempt of same (3) 4 Provisos in case of (no bail) Subject to cancellation of bond be released on bail on execution of bond Apply 3 conditions grant bail Will attend court, Not commit similar offence, no treath to witness or tamper evidence
  • 24. 4 provisos of clause 1 Be released if women, sick or infirm May be released on bail for special reasons to be recorded in writing by magistrate Mere fact that he will be require for identification by witnesses Or for police custody beyond 1st 15 days will not be a reason to deny bail if he is otherwise competent to get bail (Newly added) When committed offence punishable with death, LI, or 7 yrs or upwards opportunity be given to PP for hearing before granting bail
  • 25. • (4) Officer of Court while releasing u/d sub clause (1) or (2)shall record in writing his reasons or special reasons • (5) Court may direct that the person be arrested an taken in custody again • (6) If case is triable by Magistrate and trial is not completed within 60days from 1st date fixed for taking evidence, and if such person is in custody for whole of the said period – he shall be released on bail. If magistrate doesn’t give bail, in such a case he has to record reasons in writing • (7) At the stage of conclusion of trial and before Judgement, Court is of Opinion that there are reasonable grounds for believing that the accused is not guilty, he shall release the accused on execution of a bond Sec 480- गैर-जमानती अपराि क े मामले में जमानत (continued)
  • 26. SEC 482 DIRECTION FOR GRANT OF BAIL TO PERSON APPREHENDING ARREST SEC (438 CRPC) When any person has apprehension of arrest in N.B offence He may apply to High Court or Court of Session For direction u/ this Sec An the Court may direct that in the event of such arrest, he shall be released on bail imposing 4 conditions Person shall make himself available for interrogation to police when required Will not directly or indirectly make any inducement, threat or promise to witnesses Shall not leave India without prior permission of Court Other conditions as may be imposed u/d Sec 480(3)
  • 27. SEC 482 DIRECTION FOR GRANT OF BAIL TO PERSON APPREHENDING ARREST SEC (438 CRPC) • Result :- If thereafter arrested without warrant by officer incharge of Police Station and he is prepared to give bail at the time of arrest or at any time while in custody he shall be released on bail • If warrant is issued by magistrate he shall issue a bailable warrant. On comparison between Sec 438 Crpc 1973 and Sec 482 BNSS 2023 we find a major procedure has been eliminated of interim application. Although the final result of the procedure of Sec 482 BNSS and Sec 438 Crpc is the same lets discuss what interim procedure in previous Crpc was
  • 28. SEC 438 CRPC ANTICIPATORY BAIL (CONCEPT OF INTERIM APPLICATION WHICH HAS BEEN DELETED IN BNSS 2023) A person apprehending arrest in non-bailable cases applied to High Court or Court of Session These Courts after considering Gravity and Nature of accusation Antecedents of the applicant including facts as to whether previous imprisonment or conviction Possibility of accused to flee Justice Where accusation was to insult or humiliate applicant Either reject the application forthwith or issue an interim order for grant of anticipatory Bail
  • 29. No INTERIM ORDER COURT GRANTS INTERIM ORDER Open to officer in charge of Police station to arrest without warrant A notice within 7 days to PP and SP to hearing in court Applicants presence obligatory at the time of final hearing An the court may thus grant Anticipatory Bail with conditions as is in Sec 482 BNSS Rest of the procedure is same as is in BNSS Sec 482, on application court may grant Anticipatory bail where on the event of arrest of the applicant he will be granted bail on 4 conditions. The reason for deleting the entire procedure on interim application is that most of it was understood and higher courts were burdened with several hearings on bail consuming the time of court.
  • 30. SEC 483 SPECIAL POWERS OF HC OR COURT OF SESSION REGARDING BAIL (SEC 439 CRPC) High Court or Court of Session May direct Any person accused of an offence and in custody be released on bail And if in Sec 480(3) (more than 7 yrs or offences against State, body, property or their attempt, abetment or conspiracy) may impose any condition which it considers necessary That any condition imposed by magistrate when releasing any person on bail be set aside While granting bail to a person accused of offence punishable with Life Imprisonment (whether exclusively triable by sessions or not) May give notice of such bail application to PP (newly added proviso) Bail in offences u/s 65 and 70(2) (Rape and Gang Rape) Notice to PP within 15 days of date of receipt of notice of bail application, Presence of informant of the case necessary or a person authorized by her on hearing of such
  • 31. SEC 492 CANCELLATION OF BOND AND BAIL BOND (SEC 446 A CRPC) • Without prejudice to the provisions of (section 446 Crpc), (Sec 492 BNSS) where a bond under this Code is for appearance of a person in a case and it is forfeited for breach of a condition— • the bond executed by such person as well as the bond, if any, executed by one or more of his sureties in that case shall stand cancelled; and thereafter no such person shall be released only on his own bond in that case, if the Police Officer or the Court, for appearance before whom the bond was executed, is satisfied that there was no sufficient cause for the failure of the person bound by the bond to comply with its condition; Provided that subject to any other provision of this Code he may be released in that case upon the execution of a fresh personal bond for such sum of money and bond by one or more of such sureties as the Police Officer or the Court, as the case may be, thinks sufficient.
  • 32. SEC 492 CANCELLATION OF BOND AND BAIL BOND (SEC 446 A CRPC) • Cancellation of bail normally falls under Section 446A of the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) and a petition under the said section has to be filed against the bail granting Order. The prerequisites for cancellation of bail are (not exhaustive):- (i) If the bail granting order is patently illegal, erroneous, factually incorrect and has resulted into miscarriage of justice. ii) That the accused has misused the concession of bail in any manner. iii) That accused has tried to hamper prosecution evidence by persuading/pressurizing prosecution witnesses. iv) That there is likelihood of absconsion of the accused beyond the jurisdiction of Court. v) That the accused has attempted to interfere with the smooth course of investigation. vi) That accused misused his liberty while indulging into similar offence. vii) That some fresh facts and material has been collected during the course of investigation which tends to establish guilt of the accused. Section Pre-requisite for cancellation of bail
  • 33. SEC 492 CANCELLATION OF BOND AND BAIL BOND (SEC 446 A CRPC) • Depending on the ground agitated for cancellation of bail, the same Court which granted bail may cancel the bail or any Court superior to it. However, any Court subordinate to it cannot cancel bail. • For example, if the Court of Session has granted bail, Court of Session itself (upon your petition for cancellation of bail) and/or the High Court can cancel the bail granting Order but the Magistrate cannot cancel the bail if a petition is moved before it. Which Court can cancel the bail granting Order?
  • 34. DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY दंड प्रहिया संहिता क े तित संपहि क े हनपर्ान का अवलोकन • दंड प्रहिया संहिता 1973 (सीआरपीस) का अध्याय XXXIV, िारा 451-459 क े तित संपहि क े हनपर्ान की अविारणा को रेखांहकत करता िै। • एक आपराहिक मामले से हनपर्ने क े द रान, पुहलस को हवहभन्न चीजे हमलती िैं हजन्हें बाद में जब्त कर हलया जाता िै। यि चीजे अत्यंत मित्वपूणट िैं और साक्ष्य क े रूप में कायट करते िैं। इन्हें न्यायालय क े समक्ष प्रस्तुत हकया जाता िै और एक सफल परीक्षण में एक मित्वपूणट घर्क बन जाता िै। संपहि शब्द ऐसे सभी दस्तावेजों या लेखों पर लागू िोता िै जो न्यायालय क े समक्ष प्रस्तुत हकए जाते िैं और दस्तावेजी प्रदशटन (डॉक्ुमेंर्री एक्सहिबीर्) या भ हतक वस्तुओं (मर्ेररयल ऑब्जेक्ट्) क े रूप में हचहित िोते िैं। • िालांहक,एक बार जब परीक्षण समाप्त िो जाता िै, इन चीजो या दस्तावेजों को हनपर्ाने की आवश्यकता िोती िै।
  • 35. िंपतियों का वगीकरण दंड प्रहिया संहिता का अध्याय 34, 4 प्रकार की संपहियों क े हनपर्ान से संबंहित िै। इसमे नीचे बताई गये हबंदु शाहमल िै: • संपहि या दस्तावेज हजनका उपयोग अपराि करने में हकया गया िै। • संपहि या दस्तावेज हजस पर अपराि हकया गया िै। • संपहि या दस्तावेज जो अदालत क े समक्ष पेश हकए गए िैं। • संपहि या दस्तावेज जो पुहलस या न्यायालय की हिरासत में िैं। इन संपहियों को इस प्रकार वगीक ृ त हकया जा सकता िै: • हकसी व्यक्ति को हगरफ्तार करते समय हमली चीजे; • जो हकसी अपराि क े हकए जाने क े संबंि में संहदग्ध पररक्तस्थहतयों में पाए गए; • हजन्हें कहथत त र पर चोरी कर हलया गया िै।
  • 36. SEC 497 ORDER FOR CUSTODY AND DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY PENDING TRIAL IN CERTAIN CASES (SEC 451 CRPC) Sec 497 BNSS 2023 • When any property is produced before any • Criminal Court, or the Magistrate empowered to take cognizance or commit the case for trial (Newly added) • During any investigation, inquiry or trial • The court or magistrate may make such order as it thinks fit for the Proper custody of such property • Pending the conclusion of such investigation , inquiry or trial • If the property is subject to speedy an natural decay the court or magistrate may after recoding evidence order it to be sold or disposed of Sec 451 Crpc 1973 • When any property is produced before any • Criminal court • During any inquiry or trial • The court may make such order as it thinks fit for the Proper custody of such property • Pending the conclusion of such inquiry or trial • If the property is subject to speedy an natural decay the court or magistrate may after recoding evidence order it to be sold or disposed of
  • 37. SEC 497 ORDER FOR CUSTODY AND DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY PENDING TRIAL IN CERTAIN CASES (SEC 451 CRPC) • Property includes • A) property of any kind or document which is produced before the court or which is in its custody • B)any property regarding which an offence appears to have been committed or which appears to have been used for the commission of any offence
  • 38. SEC 497 (2) ORDER FOR CUSTODY AND DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY PENDING TRIAL IN CERTAIN CASES The Court or the Magistrate shall, within a period of fourteen days from the production of the property before it, prepare a statement of such property containing its description in such form and manner as the State Government may, by rules, provide. The Court or the Magistrate shall cause to be taken the photograph and if necessary, videograph on mobile phone or any electronic media, of the property The statement prepared under sub- section (2) and the photograph or the videography taken under sub-section (3) shall be used as evidence in any inquiry, trial or other proceeding under the Sanhita. The Court or the Magistrate shall, within a period of thirty days after the statement has been prepared under sub- section (2) and the photograph or the videography has been taken under sub-section (3), order the disposal, destruction, confiscation or delivery of the property in the manner specified hereinafter. Newly added clauses
  • 39. SUPREME COURT IN SUNDERBHAI AMBALAL DESAI VS STATE OF GUJARAT REPORTED IN (2002) 10 SCC 382 • the Honourable Apex Court has directed to ensure the powers under Section 451 Cr.P.C. are being properly and promptly exercised by the Magistrates. Responsibility of the Commissioner of Delhi Police to check the compliance by police stations. • In the present case, laid down the following procedure to be followed by the police officials for custody of different kinds of property, such as valuable articles, money, vehicles, narcotics, etc., separately. • The panchnama for the return of property should be prepared by the police officers with the same precautions as the panchnama for the seizure of property. • In addition, photographs should be taken of the concerned articles. The claimant shall also pay a bond and security deposit to ensure that the articles are not altered, damaged, or destroyed. • The photographs of the articles should be countersigned by the prosecution, the accused, and the claimant of the property. • In respect of a vehicle, the production of a seizure report is sufficient before the Court, and there is no need to produce the vehicle. • The Court can impose any other condition it deems fit in the interest of justice. • The vehicles shall not be allowed to lie idle in front of the police station.
  • 40. LANDMARK CASES FOR DISPOSAL OF PROPERTY Binu Paul Vs. Babu Raj 2001 (1) ALT Criminal 124 Kerala. If the section is to apply there must have been an enquiry or trial in the Court and the enquiry or trial should have concluded. If the offence is compounded before enquiry or trial has commenced, Section does not apply. Kalia Ammai Vs. State 2000 (2) ALT Criminal 232 Madras. • Disposal of properties recovered during investigation and before the Court. Properties, Jewels recovered at the place of occurrence and places pointed out by the accused. In the absence of any other claims, when accused acquitted, jewels to be returned to wife of deceased. Naiz Ahmed Vs. State of U.P. 1994 SCC Criminal 1730. • Disposal of Property seized from accused as theft property. Truck seized from Accused and sold in auction. Criminal Proceedings ended in favour of Accused and Truck was directed to be returned to accused from whom it was seized. Auction purchaser cannot have a right to retain vehicle. He is only entitled to have return of money deposited by him as sale consideration.
  • 41. SEC 528 SAVING INHERENT POWER OF HIGH COURT (SEC 482 CRPC) • Nothing in this Sanhita shall be deemed to limit or affect the inherent powers of the High Court to make such orders as may be necessary to give effect to any order under this Sanhita, or to prevent abuse of the process of any Court or otherwise to secure the ends of justice. Madhu Limaye v. Maharashtra AIR 1978 (47), the Court has observed the following principles that would govern the High Court’s inherent jurisdiction: That inherent power must not be resorted to, if specific provision for redressal of grievances is been given. That it should be carefully used to prevent abuse of process of any Court or otherwise to secure ends of justice. That it should not be exercised against the express provision given in any other statute. The inherent power would come into play there being no other provision in the code for the grievance redressal of the aggrieved party.