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Aula 1 – teoria geral do direito empresarial

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Aula 1 - Direito Empresarial I - Prof. Sidney Rêgo
7º período - Direito - CESAMA - 2010.2

Data: 29 julho 2010

Published in: Education
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Aula 1 – teoria geral do direito empresarial

  1. 1. Aula 1 – Teoria Geral do Direito Empresarial Prof. Msc. SIDNEY DA SILVA RÊGO Direito Empresarial I 7º período de Direito CESAMA – 2010.2
  2. 2. Análise Histórica do Direito Comercial Desenvolvimento do comércio e reflexos no mundo jurídico Início: Antiguidade troca de bens (fenícios e babilônios) 1ª normas a regular trocas finalidade: evitar conflitos Idade Média: surgimento dos feudos (mais comércio) Com o crescimento e desenvolvimento dos Estados despontam as Grandes Expedições Marítimas, trazendo mais mercancia. NESTA FASE surgiram os artesãos e comerciantes. Para regular suas atividades surge o DIREITO COMERCIAL.
  3. 3. Fases do Direito Comercial 1ª FASE: ASCENSÃO DAS CIDADES E DO COMÉRCIO Corporações de Ofício – na busca de uma tutela jurídica para suas atividades. Características: Extremo subjetivismo (qualidade do sujeito) Direito classista, corporativo (amparava apenas a classe dos comerciantes e artesãos comerciantes vinculados às corporações e submetidos a regras comerciais feitas por eles). corporaç 2ª FASE: LIBERALISMO Revoluções: Inglesa (1688) Norte-Americana (1776) Norte- Francesa (1789) Pregava igualdade política, social e jurídica. Mudanças políticas, sociais e econômicas. Codice Civile 1804 – França – Napoleão Bonaparte Code de Commerce 1808 – França – Napoleão Bonaparte Abandono do subjetivismo e corporativismo, que foi substituído pela objetividade dos atos legais do comércio. Teoria dos Atos do Comércio Brasil – 1850 = CÓDIGO COMERCIAL
  4. 4. Fases do Direito Comercial 2ª FASE: LIBERALISMO CCom – descrevia o comerciante como aquele que praticava mercancia (art. 4º), mas não a definia. Regulamento nº 737/1850 – definiu os atos considerados de comércio ou mercancia (art. 19), como sendo: “ compra e venda ou troca de bens móveis ou semoventes, no atacado ou no varejo, para revenda ou aluguel; operações de câmbio, banco, corretagem, expedição, consignação e transporte de mercadorias; espetáculos públicos; indústria; seguros, fretamento e quaisquer contratos relacionados a comércio marítimo, além de armação e expedição de navios”. Foi adotada no Brasil a “Teoria dos Atos de Comércio” com o CCom (1850). Mas essa teoria não acompanhou a educação da sociedade, a dinâmica econômica. Na lista dos atos de comércio não estavam importantes atividades como a prestação de serviços em massa e as atividades agrícolas. O conceito foi alargado com novas atividades mercantis e agentes econômicos. LEIS: S/A (Lei 6404/76) TC (Lei 5474/68; Lei 7357/85) Franquia (Lei 8955/94) Arrendamento Mercantil (Lei 6099/74) CDC (Lei 8078/90)
  5. 5. Fases do Direito Comercial 3ª FASE: TEORIA DA EMPRESA – CÓDIGO CIVIL DE 2002 Codice Civile Italiano – 1942 Teoria da Empresa Atividade Empresarial: aquela desenvolvida profissionalmente e com habitualidade, seja por um empresário individual, seja por uma sociedade empresária, de forma economicamente organizada, voltada à produção ou circulação de bens ou serviços. Empresário: desempenha a atividade empresarial. Empresa: atividade profissional econômica e organizada voltada à obtenção de lucros. Art. 2037, CC No atual Código Civil o foco é a Empresa (art. 966, CC). Atividade desenvolvida pelo empresário ou sociedade empresária, como sendo aquela exercida profissionalmente, de forma economicamente organizada, para a produção ou circulação de bens ou serviços (riscos e contrapartidas).
  6. 6. Fontes e Autonomia do Direito Comercial FONTES: Primárias (diretas): leis comerciais. CC/2002 LSA LPI (Lei 9279/96) CDC Outras Secundárias (indiretas): Analogia, costumes e princípios gerais de direito. Art. 4º, LICC. AUTONOMIA: Não houve confusão ou unificação do direito comercial ao civil. Art. 22, I, CF88: “Compete privativamente à União legislar sobre direito civil… comercial…”
  7. 7. Características a) Cosmopolitismo: o direito empresarial vive com práticas idênticas no mundo inteiro, principalmente com a globalização econômica, ocorrendo o rompimento das barreiras do direito pátrio. Ademais é criado e renovado a todo instante pela dinâmica econômica global, mesmo sem leis que façam tal regência. b) Informalismo/Simplicidade: nas relações habituais o mercado permite o exercício da atividade econômica sem maiores formalidades ou exigências. c) Fragmentarismo: feito por um complexo de leis (CCOm, CC, Leis Especiais, Convenções Internacionais). d) Onerosidade: não se admite gratuidade nas relações comerciais. Há sempre uma finalidade lucrativa. Ex: Contrato de Mandado

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