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  1. 1. Biotechnology
  2. 2. Then and Now
  3. 3. Biotechnology then . . .Selective breeding rosoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox&biw=792&bih=450&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=c97Kc5- W3LX7jM:&imgrefurl= d=Xzfycdzc7oueEM&imgurl= ges/i/im/img013biglittledogfx_wb.jpg&w=180&h=151&ei=MNCpTqbAA4j9iQLBsqGcCw&zoo m=1&iact=rc&dur=62&sig=118170620476762395285&page=2&tbnh=108&tbnw=122&start= 9&ndsp=9&ved=1t:429,r:8,s:9&tx=61&ty=50 SearchBox&biw=792&bih=450&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=DM_XfKkc_NqPdM:&imgrefurl= jCt5g0j7Ta2wM&imgurl= Breeding.jpg&w=430&h=276&ei=MNCpTqbAA4j9iQLBsqGcCw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=173&vpy=133&dur=1843&hovh=180&hovw=280&tx=140&ty=112&sig=118170620476762395285&page=1&tbnh =92&tbnw=144&start=0&ndsp=9&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0
  4. 4. Food Preserving and Wine and Cheese Making microsoft:en-us:IE-ty=179&sig=11817062047676239528 crosoft:en-ca:IE- SearchBox&biw=792&bih=450&tbm=isch&prmd=imvnsbl&tbnid=xMOC2XHgvB-5&page=1&tbnh=125&tbnw=94&star SearchBox&rlz=1I7TSCA&biw=1280&bih=555&tbm=isch&tbnid=tSz9Xx_YkDDG K5M:&imgrefurl=,r:0,s:0 mM:&imgrefurl= wmfg.php&docid=5Btgkv-8BEF- cheese-the-traditional- dM&imgurl= way.html&docid=aIGg_LeCSfI3DM&imgurl= ional_wine_making.gif&w=500&h=500&ei=i9GpToqmMKqWiQLDk8ntCg&zoom=1&ia 0d8345eaeee69e2011571397d71970b- ct=rc&dur=62&sig=118170620476762395285&page=2&tbnh=101&tbnw=101&start= 800wi&w=800&h=599&ei=O5qsTrfdJMGoiQKu1eG_Cw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx= 8&ndsp=10&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:8&tx=69&ty=61 418&vpy=160&dur=873&hovh=194&hovw=260&tx=142&ty=158&sig=11396811 5803711870592&page=3&tbnh=155&tbnw=212&start=22&ndsp=10&ved=1t:42 9,r:1,s:22
  5. 5. Antibiotics SearchBox&rlz=1I7TSCA&biw=1280&bih=555&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=u8_fft59NluNlM:&imgr efurl= Y_PM&imgurl= AEKqhiALjhtn1Cg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=405&sig=113968115803711870592&page=1&tbnh=114&tbn w=152&start=0&ndsp=24&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0&tx=71&ty=80,r:2,s:50 SearchBox&rlz=1I7TSCA&biw=1280&bih=555&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=KfvmX2F6HY6yUM:&imgrefurl=http://antibiotics- r=78&sig=113968115803711870592&page=7&tbnh=140&tbnw=203&start=60&ndsp=10&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:60&tx=96&ty=73
  6. 6. Biotechnology Now . . . Bioinformatics Goal: to increase the understanding of biological processes. Used to create a database for the Human Genome Project.
  7. 7. RECOMBINANT DNATECHNOLOGYGreen biotechnologyBiotechnology appliedto agriculturalprocesses.Examples: designingtransgenic plants suchas Bt corn, which isengineered to make itsown pesticides, using agene from Bacillusthuringiensis.
  8. 8. WhitebiotechnologyBiotechnologyapplied toindustrialprocesses.An example isthe designing ofan organism toproduce ausefulchemical.
  9. 9. Red biotechnologyBiotechnology appliedto medical processes.Examples: organismsare designed toproduce antibiotics ordrugs. SearchBox&rlz=1I7TSCA&biw=1280&bih=555&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=zw373OCeOd_skM:&imgrefurl= ssrm/class_health5.html&docid=BfkQCKUyKXeYtM&imgurl= sToCwEuaUiAKp5LWvCw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=974&vpy=136&dur=2901&hovh=192&hovw=263&tx=118&ty=95&sig=112479492059546291295&pa ge=1&tbnh=108&tbnw=148&start=0&ndsp=25&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:0
  10. 10. Viral Transduction Bacterial DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another by a virus. netics)
  11. 11. Bacterial ConjugationOne bacteria transfers beneficial DNA to another. Example: gene that codes for antibioticresistance.
  12. 12.
  13. 13. History of Recombinant DNA1972 - The idea for recombinant DNA was first proposed by PeterLobban, a graduate student at Stanford University Medical School.1972 -73 - The first publications describing the successful production andintracellular replication of recombinant DNA appeared.1974 – Patent on recombinant DNA was awarded in 1980.1982 - The first licensed drug generated using recombinant DNAtechnology was human insulin, developed by Genentech and Licensed byEli Lilly and Company. A#History_of_recombinant_DNA
  14. 14. APPROVED COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS PRODUCTS STILL IN DEVELOPMENT Herbicide tolerance Soybean Glyphosate herbicide (Roundup) tolerance Vitamin enrichment Rice Three genes for the conferred by expression of a manufacture of beta- glyphosate-tolerant form of carotene, a precursor to the plant enzyme 5- vitamin A, in the enolpyruvylshikimate-3- endosperm of the rice phosphate synthase (EPSPS) prevent its removal (from isolated from the soil husks) during milling bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, strain CP4 Vaccines Tobacco Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) produced in transgenic Insect resistance Corn Resistance to insect pests, tobacco induces immune specifically the European response when injected corn borer, through into mice expression of the insecticidal protein Cry1Ab from Bacillus Oral vaccines Maize Fusion protein (F) from thuringiensis Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressed in corn Altered fatty acid Canola High laurate levels achieved seeds induces an immune composition by inserting the gene for ACP response when fed to thioesterase from the chickens California bay tree Umbellularia californica Faster maturation Coho A type 1 growth hormone salmon gene injected into fertilized fish eggs results Virus resistance Plum Resistance to plum pox virus in 6.2% retention of the conferred by insertion of a vector at one year of age, coat protein (CP) gene from as well as significantly the virus increased growth rates
  15. 15. Applications: The GloFish is a patented and trademarked brand of genetically modified (GM) fluorescent zebrafish with bright red, green, orange- yellow, blue, and purple fluorescent colors. One of the first genetically modified animals to become publicly available as a pet.
  16. 16. Cow Growth Hormone is inserted into fish DNA to make the fish grow larger. (Not yet on the market.) SearchBox&rlz=1I7TSCA&biw=1280&bih=555&tbm=isch&tbnid=E8Hnrt3CCDQgmM:&imgrefurl=http://deSearchBox&rlz=1I7TSCA&biw=1280&bih=555&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=_SDNrUep3A- I9vEM&imgurl= _lKU/s1600/Cutthroat%25252BTrout.jpg&w=739&h=359&ei=T8qtTv-TAbDZiAK02uHsCg&,r:1,s:0
  17. 17.
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  19. 19. Cow DNA containing gene for bovine growth hormone (bGH): DESIRED GENE (bGH gene) Cow DNA Recognition sites
  20. 20. Eco R1 (Restriction enzyme) bGH geneBGH gene is removed by restriction enzymes.Sticky ends result.
  21. 21. bGH genefrom cow Fish DNA cut with same restriction enzyme to create the same sticky ends. Fish DNA Sticky ends of bGH gene complement sticky ends on fish DNA.
  22. 22. Ligase joins the sticky ends.Chimeric DNA results: fish DNA with a cow gene for growth incorporated.
  23. 23. Human Insulin Synthesis by Bacteria
  24. 24.
  25. 25. 1. Plasmid DNA andhuman DNA are 2. Sticky ends ontreated with the same the human DNArestriction enzyme. containing the insulin gene are complementary to sticky ends on the plasmid. 3. Ligase is used to join sticky ends. 4. Bacteria containing plasmid with human insulin gene makes insulin.
  26. 26. Similar technique, different applications . . . hl=en&sa=X& SearchBox&rlz=1I7TSCA&biw=1280&bih=555&tbm=isch &prmd=imvns&tbnid=CkigMut9xJeEkM:&imgrefurl=htt p:// cid=X1Lopw- UqnETEM&imgurl= iologyIBHL1/admin/image.html%253Fimageid%253D49 3674&w=600&h=660&ei=IN2tTpTsPKGviQLk6fTzCg&zoo m=1&iact=hc&vpx=951&vpy=88&dur=702&hovh=235& hovw=214&tx=96&ty=111&sig=11247949205954629129 5&page=1&tbnh=118&tbnw=107&start=0&ndsp=24&v ed=1t:429,r:6,s:0
  27. 27. Cloning Genes Cloning Organisms,r:6,s:0
  28. 28. How to Clone a Human
  29. 29. RFLP’sRFLP’s are the result of a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR’s).
  30. 30. RFLP’s are the result of a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR’s). SearchBox&rlz=1I7TSCA&biw=1280&bih=555&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=xiVGDX4BuL9HlM:&imgrefurl= docid=AU1zekKi7wfekM&imgurl= 2479492059546291295&page=1&tbnh=102&tbnw=152&start=0&ndsp=22&ved=1t:429,r:11,s:0&tx=97&ty=-14
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  32. 32. Uses: crime investigation
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Some sections of DNA are more unique than others. As a result, theprobability that the DNA could belong to someone else must be included.
  35. 35. The US Department of National Defense uses mitochondrial DNA to determinethe identity of unknown soldiers.
  36. 36. nce+philip+queen+elizabeth&hl=e n& SearchBox&rlz=1I7TSCA&biw=12 80&bih=555&tbm=isch&tbnid=c4T _0hKVMDyv_M:&imgrefurl=http://li 10/07/01/prince-philips-mum-had- a-habit/&docid=F2lOA35W- enf1M&imgurl=http://lisawallerroge een-elizabeth-and-prince-philip- engagement-july- 9_1947.jpg&w=468&h=608&ei=6i G3TsPGLunhiALkqNh5&zoom=1 &iact=hc&vpx=368&vpy=107&dur =14414&hovh=256&hovw=197&tx =135&ty=111&sig=112479492059 gres?imgurl=http://uploa 546291295&page=1&tbnh=116&t bnw=89&start=0&ndsp=25&ved=1 a/commons/thumb/3/35/ t:429,r:2,s:0 838519023_tonnel-1- .jpg/220px- 838519023_tonnel-1- .jpg&imgrefurl=http://sim na_Anderson&h=293&w =220&sz=23&tbnid=s7X i- vu72mJxlM:&tbnh=99&t bnw=74&prev=/search% 3Fq%3Danna%2Bander son%26tbm%3Disch%2 6tbo%3Du&zoom=1&q= anna+anderson&docid= vYGqLxG6LMIr1M&sa= X&ei=HiK3TrXFCKjmiA KpzLhd&ved=0CDsQ9Q EwBA&dur=2434,r:5,s:0&tx=123&ty=116
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