as reﬂected on terms
been used and
⁃ cyber space
⁃ cyber deterrence
⁃ cyber war
⁃ cyber conﬂict
⁃ cyber attack
⁃ machine time vs human time
⁃ reﬂexive control
⁃ market dynamics
⁃ net army
Operation Aurora was a series of cyber
attacks conducted by advanced persistent
threats such as the Elderwood Group based
in Beijing, China, with ties to the People's
Liberation Army. First publicly disclosed
by Google on January 12, 2010, in
a blog post, the attacks began in mid-2009
and continued through December 2009.
The attack has been aimed at dozens of
other organizations, of which Adobe
Networks and Rackspace have publicly
conﬁrmed that they were targeted.
According to media
reports, Yahoo, Symantec, Northrop
Grumman, Morgan Stanley and Dow
Chemical were also among the targets.
Mandiant is releasing more than 3,000
indicators to bolster defenses against
• Digital delivery of over 3,000 APT1
indicators, such as domain names, IP
addresses, and MD5 hashes
• Sample Indicators of Compromise
(IOCs) and detailed descriptions of
over 40 families of malware in APT1’s
arsenal of digital weapons.
• Thirteen (13) X.509 encryption
certiﬁcates used by APT1.
• A compilation of videos showing
actual attacker sessions and their
⁃ Corrosion of narratives
⁃ Opportunities, nationalism,
⁃ Hacking into cognitive entry
point to decision making
process + technical data
(creating multiple realities for decision
makers, mind mapping of solutions, two
⁃ Israel vs Islamic World
⁃ ISIS vs the World (2015~2017)
⁃ Russia vs Ukraine (2015)
⁃ Russia vs Ukraine (2018)
⁃ Anwar al-Awlaki (2009), bin Laden
of the internet, sentenced to
death (2011), video took down (2017)
Uploaded a Contact
List With Your
Advertisers who run ads using a
contact list they uploaded that
includes contact info you shared with
them or with one of their data partners
A/B Testing on
1. Thousands of ad variants were A/B-
tested for eﬀectiveness. Gary Coby,
director of advertising at the Republican
National Committee, said, "On any
given day…the campaign was running
40,000 to 50,000 variants of its ads,
testing how they performed in diﬀerent
formats, with subtitles and without, and
static versus video, among other small
diﬀerences. On the day of the third
presidential debate in October, the team
ran 175,000 variations." Coby called
this "A/B testing on steroids."
2. “You’ve got mobile and desktop, 50
states, and perhaps 20 signiﬁcant
sources of referral traﬃc (google
search, partner links, etc). All told, that’s
2 x 50 x 20 = 2000 segments”
Working w/ DARPA,
• What are you trying to do? Articulate your
objectives using absolutely no jargon.
• Who cares?
• If you succeed, what difference will it
• How is it done today, and what are the
limits of current practice?
• What is new in your approach and why
do you think it will be successful?
• What are the risks?
• What are the mid-term and ﬁnal “exams”
to check for success? How much will it
• How long will it take?
⁃ Dismiss the critic
⁃ Distort the facts
⁃ Distract from the main
⁃ Dismay the audience
Public Communication WhatsApp AD in prime time (India)
Search (movie) Thriller - how you manipulate and trigger real actions.