Ethics presentation for grad student orientation sept 2012


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Ethics presentation for grad student orientation sept 2012

  1. 1. Research Ethics at UNBC Rheanna Robinson Research Project Officer and Research Ethics 250.960.6735
  2. 2. Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS2) Article 1.1 Core Principles – Respect for Persons • Autonomy – Concern for Welfare • Impact • Individual and Group – Justice • Treat people fairly and equitably – Remember the power imbalance
  3. 3. Chapter 2 – Scope and Approach Article 2.1 • The following requires ethics review and approval by an REB before the research commences: (a) research involving living human participants; (b) research involving human biological materials, as well as human embryos, fetuses, fetal tissue, reproductive materials and stem cells. This applies to materials derived from living and deceased individuals.
  4. 4. Article 2.2 • Research that relies exclusively on publicly available information does not require REB review when: (a) the information is legally accessible to the public and appropriately protected by law; or (b) the information is publicly accessible and there is no reasonable expectation of privacy.
  5. 5. Article 2.5 • Quality assurance and quality improvement studies, program evaluation activities, and performance reviews, or testing within normal educational requirements when used exclusively for assessment, management or improvement purposes, do not constitute research for the purposes of this policy, and do not fall within the scope of REB review. Article 2.7 • As part of research ethics review, the REB shall review the ethical implications of the methods and design of the research.
  6. 6. Article 2.8 • Following initial REB review and approval, research ethics review shall continue throughout the life of the project in accordance with Article 6.14.
  7. 7. Chapter 3 - The Consent Process Article 3.1 (a) Consent shall be given voluntarily. (b) Consent can be withdrawn at anytime. (c) If a participant withdraws consent, the participant can also request the withdrawal of their data or human biological materials.
  8. 8. Article 3.2 • Researchers shall provide to prospective participants, or authorized third parties, full disclosure of all information necessary for making an informed decision to participate in a research project. Article 3.3 • Consent shall be maintained throughout the research project. Researchers have an ongoing duty to provide participants with all information relevant to their ongoing consent to participate in the research.
  9. 9. Chapter 4 - Fairness & Equity in Research Participation Article 4.1 • Taking into account the scope and objectives of their research, researchers should be inclusive in selecting participants. Researchers shall not exclude individuals from the opportunity to participate in research on the basis of attributes such as culture, language, religion, race, disability, sexual orientation, ethnicity, linguistic proficiency, gender or age, unless there is a valid reason for the exclusion.
  10. 10. Article 4.2 • Women shall not be inappropriately excluded from research solely on the basis of gender or sex. Article 4.3 • Women shall not be inappropriately excluded from research solely on the basis of their reproductive capacity, or because they are pregnant or breastfeeding. Article 4.4 • Children shall not be inappropriately excluded from research solely on the basis of their age or developmental stage. The inclusion of children in research is subject to Article 4.6.
  11. 11. Chapter 5 - Privacy & Confidentiality Article 5.1 • Researchers shall safeguard information entrusted to them and not misuse or wrongfully disclose it. Institutions shall support their researchers in maintaining promises of confidentiality Article 5.2 • Researchers shall describe measures for meeting confidentiality obligations and explain any reasonably foreseeable disclosure requirements: (a) in application materials they submit to the REB; and (b) during the consent process with prospective participants.
  12. 12. Chapter 6 - Governance & Research Ethics Review Article 6.1 • Institutions shall establish or appoint REB(s) to review the ethical acceptability of all research involving humans conducted within their jurisdiction or under their auspices, that is, by their faculty, staff or students, regardless of where the research is conducted, in accordance with this Policy
  13. 13. Article 3.2 • The REB shall consist of at least five members, including both men and women, of whom: (a) at least two members have expertise in relevant research disciplines, fields and methodologies covered by the REB; (b) at least one member is knowledgeable in ethics; (c) at least one member is knowledgeable in the relevant law (but that member should not be the institution’s legal counsel or risk manager). This is mandatory for biomedical research and is advisable, but not mandatory, for other areas of research; and
  14. 14. Cont… (d) at least one community member who has no affiliation with the institution. • It is advisable that each member be appointed to formally fulfill the requirements of only one of the above categories. • To ensure the independence of REB decision making, institutional senior administrators shall not serve on the REB.
  15. 15. Chapter 7 - Conflicts of Interest Article 7.1 • Institutions shall develop and implement conflict of interest policies including procedures to identify, eliminate, minimize or otherwise manage conflicts of interest that may affect research. All parties (e.g., researchers, administrators, REB members) should act in a transparent manner in identifying and addressing conflicts of interest. Institutions should make their written conflict of interest policies and procedures publicly available to all members of the research enterprise, including participants, REBs, researchers, administrators and research sponsors.
  16. 16. Chapter 8 Multi-jurisdictional Research Article 8.1 • An institution that has established an REB may approve alternative review models for research involving multiple REBs and/or institutions, in accordance with this Policy. The institution remains responsible for the ethical acceptability and ethical conduct of research undertaken within its jurisdiction or under its auspices irrespective of where the research is conducted
  17. 17. Chapter 9 - Research Involving the First Nations, Inuit, & Métis Peoples of Canada Article 9.1 Where the research is likely to affect the welfare of an Aboriginal community, or communities, to which prospective participants belong, researchers shall seek engagement with the relevant community. The conditions under which engagement is required include, but are not limited to: (a) research conducted on First Nations, Inuit or Métis lands; (b) recruitment criteria that include Aboriginal identity as a factor for the entire study or for a subgroup in the study; (c) research that seeks input from participants regarding a community’s cultural heritage, artifacts, traditional knowledge or unique characteristics; (d) research in which Aboriginal identity or membership in an Aboriginal community is used as a variable for the purpose of analysis of the research data; and (e) interpretation of research results that will refer to Aboriginal communities, peoples, language, history or culture.
  18. 18. Article 9.2 • The nature and extent of community engagement in a project shall be determined jointly by the researcher and the relevant community, and shall be appropriate to community characteristics and the nature of the research.
  19. 19. Article 9.8 • Researchers have an obligation to become informed about, and to respect, the relevant customs and codes of research practice that apply in the particular community or communities affected by their research. Inconsistencies between community custom and this Policy should be identified and addressed in advance of initiating the research, or as they arise.
  20. 20. Article 9.9 • Research ethics review by community REBs or other responsible bodies at the research site will not be a substitute for research ethics review by institutional REBs, and will not exempt researchers affiliated with an institution from seeking REB approval at their institution, subject to Article 8.1. Prospective research and secondary use of data and human biological materials for research purposes is subject to research ethics review
  21. 21. Chapter 10 - Qualitative Research Article 10.1 • Researchers shall submit their research proposals, including proposals for pilot studies, for REB review and approval of its ethical acceptability prior to the start of recruitment of participants, or access to data. Subject to the exceptions in Article 10.5, REB review is not required for the initial exploratory phase (often involving contact with individuals or communities) intended to discuss the feasibility of the research, establish research partnerships, or the design of a research proposal (see Article 6.11).
  22. 22. Chapter 11 - Clinical Trials • In progress at UNBC…
  23. 23. Chapter 12 Human Biological Material including Material Related to Human Reproduction Article 12.1 • Research involving collection and use of human biological materials requires REB review and: (a) consent of the participant who will donate biological materials; or (b) consent of an authorized third party on behalf of a participant who lacks capacity, taking into account any research directive that applies to the participant; or (c) consent of a deceased participant through a donation decision made prior to death, or by an authorized third party.
  24. 24. Chapter 13 - Human Genetic Research Article 13.2 • Researchers conducting genetic research shall: (a) in their research proposal, develop a plan for managing information that may be revealed through their genetic research; (b) submit their plan to the REB; and (c) advise prospective participants of the plan for managing information revealed through the research.
  25. 25. Questions or Comments? Please contact Rheanna Robinson for any ethics related assistance.
  26. 26. Works Cited Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans. Ottawa: Government of Canada, 2010. Acknowledgements I would like to acknowledge Dr. Henry Harder, former Chair of the UNBC REB, for his work and contributions to this presentation.