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- 1. Float is Legacy Kenta Murata RubyConf 2011Monday, October 10, 11 1
- 2. Kenta Murata @mrkn CRuby committer bigdecimal maintainer OS X platform maintainer Interested in number systemhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/recompile_net/5951998279/Monday, October 10, 11 2
- 3. https://twitter.com/#!/shyouhei/status/119802983423807488Monday, October 10, 11 3
- 4. https://twitter.com/#!/shyouhei/status/119802983423807488Monday, October 10, 11 3
- 5. Kenta Murata @mrkn CRuby committer bigdecimal maintainer OS X platform maintainer Interested in number system Ruby Sapporohttp://www.flickr.com/photos/recompile_net/5951998279/Monday, October 10, 11 4
- 6. Sapporo, Japanhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/muraken/6174655831Monday, October 10, 11 5
- 7. Sapporo, Japanhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/irasally/4708650832/Monday, October 10, 11 6
- 8. The RubyKaigi is ﬁnished.Monday, October 10, 11 7
- 9. Regional RubyKaigi is continue.Monday, October 10, 11 8
- 10. Sapporo RubyKaigi 04 in the next summer.Monday, October 10, 11 9
- 11. Ofﬁcial information will be coming soon.Monday, October 10, 11 10
- 12. Acknowledgement Tatsuhiro Ujihisa, @ujm HootSuite Media, Inc. Yoshimasa Niwa, @niw Twitter, Inc.Monday, October 10, 11 11
- 13. Float is Legacy Kenta Murata RubyConf 2011Monday, October 10, 11 12
- 14. Summary Float requires us the advanced knowledge Most rubyists don’t need Float Rational is enough for us Literal of decimal fraction interpreted as Rational makes us more happyMonday, October 10, 11 13
- 15. Float classMonday, October 10, 11 14
- 16. What is Float class? A wrapper for C double. Boxing a value of double. Need to allocate an object to generate a new Float.Monday, October 10, 11 15
- 17. Do you know C double? Floating point number with double precision. No concrete representation is speciﬁed. Most current platforms employ IEEE754. It is IEEE754 binary64 on these platforms. There are platforms employing other spec.Monday, October 10, 11 16
- 18. CRuby and JIS Ruby Not requiring IEEE754.Monday, October 10, 11 17
- 19. Floating point numbersMonday, October 10, 11 18
- 20. The origin NA = +6.022 141 79 ⇥ 1023 (±0.000 000 0030 ⇥ 1023 ) [1/mol] 34 34 h = +6.626 069 57 ⇥ 10 (±0.000 000 0029 ⇥ 10 ) [J s]Monday, October 10, 11 19
- 21. The origin NA = +6.022 141 79 ⇥ 1023 (±0.000 000 0030 ⇥ 1023 ) [1/mol] 34 34 h = +6.626 069 57 ⇥ 10 (±0.000 000 0029 ⇥ 10 ) [J s] signMonday, October 10, 11 19
- 22. The origin NA = +6.022 141 79 ⇥ 1023 (±0.000 000 0030 ⇥ 1023 ) [1/mol] 34 34 h = +6.626 069 57 ⇥ 10 (±0.000 000 0029 ⇥ 10 ) [J s] fraction part signMonday, October 10, 11 19
- 23. The origin NA = +6.022 141 79 ⇥ 1023 (±0.000 000 0030 ⇥ 1023 ) [1/mol] 34 34 h = +6.626 069 57 ⇥ 10 (±0.000 000 0029 ⇥ 10 ) [J s] exponent part fraction part signMonday, October 10, 11 19
- 24. The origin NA = +6.022 141 79 ⇥ 1023 (±0.000 000 0030 ⇥ 1023 ) [1/mol] 34 34 h = +6.626 069 57 ⇥ 10 (±0.000 000 0029 ⇥ 10 ) [J s] exponent part: emin e q emax fraction part: 0 f B n 1 sign: s 2 {0, 1}Monday, October 10, 11 20
- 25. Floating point numbers Numbers can be identiﬁed by (s, e, f ). Represent approximation of real numbers. Float types can be described by B, N, q, emin, and emax. B is the base number of the exponent part. N is the number of digits in the fraction part. q is the bias for the exponent part. emax and emin specify the limit of the exponent part.Monday, October 10, 11 21
- 26. s f e q (s, e, f ) = ( 1) ⇥ N ⇥ B BMonday, October 10, 11 22
- 27. e.g. IEEE754 binary64 B=2 The maximum positive: 1.797 693 134 862 315 7 ×10+308 N = 53 q = 1,023 The minimum nonzero positive: 2.225 073 858 507 201 4 ×10–308 emin = –1,022 emax = +1,023Monday, October 10, 11 23
- 28. s f e q (s, e, f ) = ( 1) ⇥ N ⇥ B BMonday, October 10, 11 24
- 29. e.g. IEEE754 decimal64 B = 10 The maximum positive: 9.999 999 999 999 999 ×10+384 N = 16 q = 398 The minimum nonzero positive: 0.000 000 000 000 001 ×10–383 emin = –383 emax = +384Monday, October 10, 11 25
- 30. e.g. IBM’s double precision B = 16 The maximum positive: 7.237 005 577 332 262 11 ×10+75 N = 56 q = 64 The minimum nonzero positive: 5.397 605 346 934 027 89 ×10–79 emin = –64 emax = +63Monday, October 10, 11 26
- 31. Floating point numbers Numbers can be identiﬁed by (s, e, f ). Represent approximation of real numbers. Float types can be described by B, N, q, emin, and emax. B is the base number of the exponent part. N is the number of digits in the fraction part. q is the bias for the exponent part. emax and emin specify the limit of the exponent part.Monday, October 10, 11 27
- 32. Every ﬂoat is approximationMonday, October 10, 11 28
- 33. Every ﬂoat is approximation –1 0 3/2Monday, October 10, 11 28
- 34. Every ﬂoat is approximation –1 0 3/2 { { { –1.0 0.0 1.5Monday, October 10, 11 28
- 35. Every ﬂoat is approximation –1 0 3/2 { { { –1.0 0.0 1.5Monday, October 10, 11 28
- 36. Every ﬂoat is approximation –1 0 3/2 { { { –1.0 0.0 1.5Monday, October 10, 11 28
- 37. Every ﬂoat is approximation We should think: There are no numbers represented exactly. Floating point numbers always include errors. Magnitude of errors depend on B, N, and e.Monday, October 10, 11 29
- 38. Why including errors? Unavoidable issue from place-value notation with ﬁnite digits rounding. Very few values can be speciﬁed exactly. We shouldn’t expect that a given value is exact.Monday, October 10, 11 30
- 39. How many decimal fractions can be exactly represented in the form of binary fraction?Monday, October 10, 11 31
- 40. Monday, October 10, 11 32
- 41. Decimal form: (1234)10 (0.1234)10 = 104Monday, October 10, 11 32
- 42. Decimal form: (1234)10 (0.1234)10 = 104 Binary form: (10111)2 (0.10111)2 = 25Monday, October 10, 11 32
- 43. Decimal form: (1234)10 (d1 d2 · · · dm )10 (0.1234)10 = 0.d1 d2 · · · dm = 104 10m Binary form: (10111)2 (b1 b2 · · · bn )2 (0.10111)2 = 0.b1 b2 · · · bn = 25 2nMonday, October 10, 11 32
- 44. Decimal form: (1234)10 (d1 d2 · · · dm )10 (0.1234)10 = 0.d1 d2 · · · dm = 104 10m Binary form: (10111)2 (b1 b2 · · · bn )2 (0.10111)2 = 0.b1 b2 · · · bn = 25 2nMonday, October 10, 11 32
- 45. m (d1 d2 · · · dm )10 (d1 d2 · · · dm )10 C5 C = = m m = m 10m 2m 5m 2 5 2Monday, October 10, 11 33
- 46. 1.0 The ratio of inexact numbers 0.5 The ratio of exact numbers 0.0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 The number of decimal digitsMonday, October 10, 11 34
- 47. 1.0 The ratio of inexact numbers 0.5 The ratio of exact numbers 0.0 0 5 10 15 17 20 25 30 The number of decimal digitsMonday, October 10, 11 34
- 48. 1.0 The ratio of inexact numbers IEEE754 binary64 0.5 The ratio of exact numbers 0.0 0 5 10 15 17 20 25 30 The number of decimal digitsMonday, October 10, 11 34
- 49. Decimal in Binary A N-digit decimal notation is exactly represented in binary notation only if its numerator divisible by 5N. The ratio of N-digit decimal fractions exactly represented as binary fraction is 1 / 5N. In IEEE754 binary64, almost all numbers are inexact.Monday, October 10, 11 35
- 50. Floating-point arithmetics add, sub, mul, div, sqrt, ... These operations work with errors. Please read detail description: “What Every Computer Scientist Should Know About Floating-Point Arithmetic”Monday, October 10, 11 36
- 51. Decimal fraction of RubyMonday, October 10, 11 37
- 52. What’s the problem? Ruby interprets literals of decimal fraction as Float The following three numbers are Float, so they have errors. 1.0 1.2 0.42e+12Monday, October 10, 11 38
- 53. The issues from Float There are many issues about Float reported to redmine.ruby-lang.org They are caused by that Ruby interpretes the literals of decimal fraction as Float, I think. Do you know these issues?Monday, October 10, 11 39
- 54. http://redmine.ruby-lang.org/issues/4576Monday, October 10, 11 40
- 55. DemonstrationMonday, October 10, 11 41
- 56. $ ruby -v ruby 1.9.4dev (2011-09-28 trunk 33354) [x86_64-darwin10.8.0] $ irb --simple-prompt >> (1.0 .. 12.7).step(1.3).to_a => [1.0, 2.3, 3.6, 4.9, 6.2, 7.5, 8.8, 10.1, 11.4, 12.700000000000001] >> (1.0 ... 128.4).step(18.2).to_a => [1.0, 19.2, 37.4, 55.599999999999994, 73.8, 92.0, 110.19999999999999, 128.39999999999998] >> (1.0 ... 128.4).step(18.2).to_a.size => 8 >> (1 ... 1284.quo(10)).step(182.quo(10)).to_a => [1, (96/5), (187/5), (278/5), (369/5), (92/1), (551/5)] >> (1 ... 1284.quo(10)).step(182.quo(10)).to_a.size => 7Monday, October 10, 11 42
- 57. $ ruby -v ruby 1.9.4dev (2011-09-28 trunk 33354) [x86_64-darwin10.8.0] $ irb --simple-prompt >> (1.0 .. 12.7).step(1.3).to_a The last value of the array should => [1.0, 2.3, 3.6, 4.9, 6.2, 7.5, 8.8, 10.1, 11.4, be equal to the end of the range 12.700000000000001] >> (1.0 ... 128.4).step(18.2).to_a => [1.0, 19.2, 37.4, 55.599999999999994, 73.8, 92.0, 110.19999999999999, 128.39999999999998] >> (1.0 ... 128.4).step(18.2).to_a.size => 8 >> (1 ... 1284.quo(10)).step(182.quo(10)).to_a => [1, (96/5), (187/5), (278/5), (369/5), (92/1), (551/5)] >> (1 ... 1284.quo(10)).step(182.quo(10)).to_a.size => 7Monday, October 10, 11 43
- 58. $ ruby -v ruby 1.9.4dev (2011-09-28 trunk 33354) [x86_64-darwin10.8.0] $ irb --simple-prompt >> (1.0 .. 12.7).step(1.3).to_aSome elements include errors => [1.0, 2.3, 3.6, 4.9, 6.2, 7.5, 8.8, 10.1, 11.4, 12.700000000000001] >> (1.0 ... 128.4).step(18.2).to_a => [1.0, 19.2, 37.4, 55.599999999999994, 73.8, 92.0, 110.19999999999999, 128.39999999999998] >> (1.0 ... 128.4).step(18.2).to_a.size => 8 >> (1 ... 1284.quo(10)).step(182.quo(10)).to_a => [1, (96/5), (187/5), (278/5), (369/5), (92/1), (551/5)] >> (1 ... 1284.quo(10)).step(182.quo(10)).to_a.size => 7Monday, October 10, 11 44
- 59. $ ruby -v ruby 1.9.4dev (2011-09-28 trunk 33354) [x86_64-darwin10.8.0] $ irb --simple-prompt >> (1.0 .. 12.7).step(1.3).to_a => [1.0, 2.3, 3.6, 4.9, 6.2, 7.5, 8.8, 10.1, 11.4, 12.700000000000001] >> (1.0 ... 128.4).step(18.2).to_a => [1.0, 19.2, 37.4, 55.599999999999994, 73.8, 92.0, 110.19999999999999, 128.39999999999998] >> (1.0 ... 128.4).step(18.2).to_a.size => 8 >> (1 ... 1284.quo(10)).step(182.quo(10)).to_a The array size is one larger than => [1, (96/5), (187/5), the correct size (92/1), (551/5)] (278/5), (369/5), >> (1 ... 1284.quo(10)).step(182.quo(10)).to_a.size => 7Monday, October 10, 11 45
- 60. Range#step with Float The ﬁrst case The last value of the array is not equal to the end of the range. The second case Some elements include errors. The array size is one larger than the right size.Monday, October 10, 11 46
- 61. Rational with decimal notation Introducing one ﬂag into a Rational object. The ﬂag represents a Rational seems which fraction or decimal. If the ﬂag is true, a Rational is converted decimal string by to_s.Monday, October 10, 11 47
- 62. Literal for Rational with decimal notation Simple change for parser. Interpreting literal of decimal fraction without exponent as Rational with decimal notation. Literal of decimal fraction with exponent stays on Float.Monday, October 10, 11 48
- 63. Demonstration using the patched Ruby https://github.com/mrkn/ruby/tree/decimal_rational_implementationMonday, October 10, 11 49
- 64. $ ruby -v ruby 1.9.4dev (2011-09-28 trunk 33354) [x86_64-darwin10.8.0] $ irb --simple-prompt >> (1.0 .. 12.7).step(1.3).to_a => [1.0, 2.3, 3.6, 4.9, 6.2, 7.5, 8.8, 10.1, 11.4, 12.7] >> (1.0 .. 12.7).step(1.3).map(&:class) => [Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational] >> (1.0 ... 128.4).step(18.2).to_a => [1.0, 19.2, 37.4, 55.6, 73.8, 92.0, 110.2] >> (1.0 ... 128.4).step(18.2).to_a.size => 7 >> (1 ... 1284.quo(10)).step(182.quo(10)).to_a => [1, (96/5), (187/5), (278/5), (369/5), (92/1), (551/5)] >> (1 ... 1284.quo(10)).step(182.quo(10)).to_a.size => 7Monday, October 10, 11 50
- 65. $ ruby -v ruby 1.9.4dev (2011-09-28 trunk 33354) [x86_64-darwin10.8.0] $ irb --simple-prompt >> (1.0 .. 12.7).step(1.3).to_a => [1.0, 2.3, 3.6, 4.9, 6.2, 7.5, 8.8, 10.1, 11.4, 12.7] >> (1.0 .. 12.7).step(1.3).map(&:class) => [Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational] >> (1.0 ... 128.4).step(18.2).to_a array is equal The last value of the => [1.0, 19.2, 37.4, to the end92.0, 110.2] 55.6, 73.8, of the range. >> (1.0 ... 128.4).step(18.2).to_a.size => 7 >> (1 ... 1284.quo(10)).step(182.quo(10)).to_a => [1, (96/5), (187/5), (278/5), (369/5), (92/1), (551/5)] >> (1 ... 1284.quo(10)).step(182.quo(10)).to_a.size => 7Monday, October 10, 11 51
- 66. $ ruby -v ruby 1.9.4dev (2011-09-28 trunk 33354) [x86_64-darwin10.8.0] $ irb --simple-prompt >> (1.0 .. 12.7).step(1.3).to_a => [1.0, 2.3, 3.6, 4.9, 6.2, 7.5, 8.8, 10.1, 11.4, 12.7] >> (1.0 .. 12.7).step(1.3).map(&:class) => [Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational] >> (1.0 ... 128.4).step(18.2).to_a => [1.0, 19.2, 37.4, 55.6, 73.8, 92.0, 110.2] >> (1.0 ... 128.4).step(18.2).to_a.size is Rational All elements in the array => 7 rather than Float. >> (1 ... 1284.quo(10)).step(182.quo(10)).to_a => [1, (96/5), (187/5), (278/5), (369/5), (92/1), (551/5)] >> (1 ... 1284.quo(10)).step(182.quo(10)).to_a.size => 7Monday, October 10, 11 52
- 67. $ ruby -v ruby 1.9.4dev (2011-09-28 trunk 33354) [x86_64-darwin10.8.0] $ irb --simple-prompt >> (1.0 .. 12.7).step(1.3).to_a => [1.0, 2.3, 3.6, 4.9, 6.2, 7.5, 8.8, 10.1, 11.4, 12.7] >> (1.0 .. 12.7).step(1.3).map(&:class) => [Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational, Rational] >> (1.0 ... 128.4).step(18.2).to_a => [1.0, 19.2, 37.4, 55.6, 73.8, 92.0, 110.2] >> (1.0 ... 128.4).step(18.2).to_a.size => 7 >> (1 ... 1284.quo(10)).step(182.quo(10)).to_a The result array size is correct. => [1, (96/5), (187/5), (278/5), (369/5), (92/1), (551/5)] >> (1 ... 1284.quo(10)).step(182.quo(10)).to_a.size => 7Monday, October 10, 11 53
- 68. Benchmarking Comparing Float, Rational, and C double. Experimental environment: MacBook Pro 15in (Mid 2010) Core i7 2.66 GHz Ruby 1.9.4dev (r33300) with gcc-4.2 -O3 C with llvm-gcc -O0Monday, October 10, 11 54
- 69. Benchmarking codes Ruby code https://gist.github.com/1253088 C code https://gist.github.com/1253090Monday, October 10, 11 55
- 70. Based on ruby-1.9.4dev (r33300) 3 [s] 2.16 2.17 2.25 [s] 1.78 1.5 [s] 0.73 0.70 0.75 [s] 0.37 0.00777 0.00670 0.00770 0 [s] 1M additions 1M subtractions 1M multiplications Float Rational C doubleMonday, October 10, 11 56
- 71. Based on ruby-1.9.4dev (r33300) 0.01 [s] 0.37 2.16 0.73 2.17 0.70 1.78 0.00777 0.00770 0.008 [s] 0.00670 0.005 [s] 0.003 [s] 0 [s] 1M additions 1M subtractions 1M multiplications Float Rational C doubleMonday, October 10, 11 57
- 72. Benchmarking summary Rational is 2-5 times slower than Float. Float is 2-digit order slower than C double. C is amazingly fast.Monday, October 10, 11 58
- 73. If you said Rational is slow, Float isn’t as fast as your expect.Monday, October 10, 11 59
- 74. Rational vs FloatMonday, October 10, 11 60
- 75. Rational vs FloatMonday, October 10, 11 61
- 76. Rational vs Float Exact computation is required by domains such as ﬁnance. Float is required by scientiﬁc computation.Monday, October 10, 11 61
- 77. Rational vs Float Exact computation is required by domains such as ﬁnance. Float is required by scientiﬁc computation. Other aspects indepenend of whether Rational or Float.Monday, October 10, 11 61
- 78. Conclusion Float is difﬁcult, troublesome, and not human oriented. Rational is easy to understand, and human oriented. It makes us more happy that Ruby interprets literal of decimal fraction as Rational.Monday, October 10, 11 62
- 79. Float is LegacyMonday, October 10, 11 63

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