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Introduction to marketing


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Introduction to marketing

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO MARKETING Lars Perner, Ph.D.Assistant Professor of Clinical Marketing Department of Marketing
  2. 2. Marshall School of Business University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA 90089-0443, USA (213) 740-7127 NEW! Dr. Perners new book Delightful Reflections:Quips, Conjectues, and Pontifications is now avilable on! Lars Perner, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Clinical Marketing Department of Marketing Marshall School of Business University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA 90089-0443, USA (213) 740-7127 INTRODUCTION TO MARKETING
  3. 3. BackgroundMarketing. Several definitions have been proposed for the term marketing. Each tends toemphasize different issues. Memorizing a definition is unlikely to be useful; ultimately, itmakes more sense to thinking of ways to benefit from creating customer value in the mosteffective way, subject to ethical and other constraints that one may have. The 2006 and2007 definitions offered by the American Marketing Association are relatively similar, withthe 2007 appearing a bit more concise. Note that the definitions make several points: A main objective of marketing is to create customer value. Marketing usually involves an exchange between buyers and sellers or between other parties. Marketing has an impact on the firm, its suppliers, its customers, and others affected by the firm’s choices. Marketing frequently involves enduring relationships between buyers, sellers, and other parties. Processes involved include ―creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings.”Delivering customer value. The central idea behind marketing is the idea that a firm orother entity will create something of value to one or more customers who, in turn, arewilling to pay enough (or contribute other forms of value) to make the venture worthwhileconsidering opportunity costs. Value can be created in a number of different ways. Somefirms manufacture basic products (e.g., bricks) but provide relatively little value abovethat. Other firms make products whose tangible value is supplemented by services (e.g., acomputer manufacturer provides a computer loaded with software and provides awarranty, technical support, and software updates). It is not necessary for a firm tophysically handle a product to add value—e.g., online airline reservation systems add valueby (1) compiling information about available flight connections and fares, (2) allowing thecustomer to buy a ticket, (3) forwarding billing information to the airline, and (4)forwarding reservation information to the customer.It should be noted that value must be examined from the point of view of the customer.Some customer segments value certain product attributes more than others. A veryexpensive product—relative to others in the category—may, in fact, represent great valueto a particular customer segment because the benefits received are seen as even greaterthan the sacrifice made (usually in terms of money). Some segments have very unique andspecific desires, and may value what—to some individuals—may seem a ―lower quality‖item—very highly.Some forms of customer value. The marketing process involves ways that value can becreated for the customer. Form utility involves the idea that the product is made
  4. 4. available to the consumer in some form that is more useful than any commodities that areused to create it. A customer buys a chair, for example, rather than the wood and othercomponents used to create the chair. Thus, the customer benefits from the specializationthat allows the manufacturer to more efficiently create a chair than the customer coulddo himself or herself. Place utility refers to the idea that a product made available to thecustomer at a preferred location is worth more than one at the place of manufacture. It ismuch more convenient for the customer to be able to buy food items in a supermarket inhis or her neighborhood than it is to pick up these from the farmer. Time utility involvesthe idea of having the product made available when needed by the customer. Thecustomer may buy a turkey a few days before Thanksgiving without having to plan to haveit available. Intermediaries take care of the logistics to have the turkeys—which are easilyperishable and bulky to store in a freezer—available when customers demand them.Possession utility involves the idea that the consumer can go to one store and obtain alarge assortment of goods from different manufacturers during one shopping occasion.Supermarkets combine food and other household items from a number of differentsuppliers in one place. Certain ―superstores‖ such as the European hypermarkets and theWal-Mart ―super centers‖ combine even more items into one setting.The marketing vs. the selling concept. Two approaches to marketing exist. Thetraditional selling concept emphasizes selling existing products. The philosophy here isthat if a product is not selling, more aggressive measures must be taken to sell it—e.g.,cutting price, advertising more, or hiring more aggressive (and obnoxious) sales-people.When the railroads started to lose business due to the advent of more effective trucks thatcould deliver goods right to the customer’s door, the railroads cut prices instead ofrecognizing that the customers ultimately wanted transportation of goods, not necessarilyrailroad transportation. Smith Corona, a manufacturer of typewriters, was too slow torealize that consumers wanted the ability to process documents and not typewriters perse. The marketing concept, in contrast, focuses on getting consumers what they seek,regardless of whether this entails coming up with entirely new products.The 4 Ps—product, place (distribution), promotion, and price—represent the variables thatare within the control of the firm (at least in the medium to long run). In contrast, thefirm is faced with uncertainty from the environment.The Marketing EnvironmentElements of the environment. The marketing environment involves factors that, for themost part, are beyond the control of the company. Thus, the company must adapt to thesefactors. It is important to observe how the environment changes so that a firm can adaptits strategies appropriately. Consider these environmental forces: Competition: Competitors often ―creep‖ in and threaten to take away markets from firms. For example, Japanese auto manufacturers became a serious threat to
  5. 5. American car makers in the late 1970s andearly 1980s. Similarly, the LotusCorporation, maker of one of the firstcommercially successful spreadsheets, soonfaced competition from other softwarefirms. Note that while competition may befrustrating for the firm, it is good forconsumers. (In fact, we will come back tothis point when we consider the legalenvironment).Note that competition todayis increasingly global in scope. It isimportant to recognize that competition canhappen at different ―levels.‖ At the brandlevel, two firms compete in providing a verysimilar product or service. Coca Cola andPepsi, for example, compete for the coladrink market, and United and AmericanAirlines compete for the passenger airtransportation market. Firms also face lessdirect—but frequently very serious—competition at the product level. Forexample, cola drinks compete againstbottled water. Products or services canserve as substitutes for each other eventhough they are very different in form.Teleconferencing facilities, for example,are very different from airline passengertransportation, but both can ―bringtogether‖ people for a ―meeting.‖ At thebudget level, different products or servicesprovide very different benefits, but buyershave to make choices as to what they willbuy when they cannot afford—or areunwilling to spend on—both. For example, afamily may decide between buying a newcar or a high definition television set. Thefamily may also have to choose betweengoing on a foreign vacation or remodelingits kitchen. Firms, too, may have to makechoices. The firm has the cash flow eitherto remodel its offices or install a moreenergy efficient climate control system; orthe firm can choose either to invest in newproduct development or in a promotionalcampaign to increase awareness of its brandamong consumers.
  6. 6. Economics. Two economic forces stronglyaffect firms and their customers: o Economic Cycles. Some firms in particular are extremely vulnerable to changes in the economy. Consumers tend to put off buying a new car, going out to eat, or building new homes in bad times. In contrast, in good times, firms serving those needs may have difficulty keeping up with demand. One important point to realize is that different industries are affected to different degrees by changes in the economy. Although families can cut down on the quality of the food they buy—going with lower priced brands, for example— there are limits to the savings that can be made without greatly affecting the living standard of the family. On the other hand, it is often much easier to put off the purchase of a new car for a year or hold off on remodeling the family home. If need be, firms can keep the current computers—even though they are getting a bit slow—when sales are down. The economy goes through cycles. In the late 1990s, the U.S. economy was quite strong, and many luxury goods were sold. Currently, the economy fluctuates between increasing strength, stagnation, or slight decline. Many firms face consequences of economic downturns. Car makers, for example, have seen declining profit margins (and even losses) as they have had to cut prices and offer low interest rates on financing. Generally, in good economic times, there is a great deal of demand, but this introduces a fear of possible inflation. In the U.S., the Federal Reserve will then try to prevent the economy from ―overheating.‖ This is usually done by raising interest rates. This makes
  7. 7. businesses less willing to invest, and as a result, people tend to make less money. During a recession, unemployment tends to rise, causing consumers to spend less. This may result in a ―bad circle,‖ with more people losing their jobs due to lowered demands. Some businesses, however, may take this opportunity to invest in growth now that things can be bought more cheaply.o Inflation. Over time, most economies experience some level of inflation. Therefore, it is useful to explicitly state whether a reference to money over time involves the actual dollar (or other currency) amount exchanged at any point (e.g., one dollar spent in 1960 and one dollar in 2007) or an ―inflation adjusted‖ figure that ―anchors‖ a given amount of money to the value of that money at some point in time. Suppose, for example, that cumulative inflation between 1960 and 2007 has been 1,000%--that is, on the average, it costs ten times as much to buy the same thing in 2007 as it did 47 years earlier. If the cumulative inflation between 1960 and 1984 had been 500%, we could talk about one 1984 dollar being worth fifty 1960 cents or two 2007 dollars. It is important to note that inflation is uneven. Some goods and services—such as health care and college tuition—are currently increasing in cost much higher than the average rate of inflation. Prices of computers, actually decline both in absolute numbers (e.g., an average computer cost $1,000 one year and then goes for $800 two years later) and in terms of the value for money paid once an adjustment has been made for the improvement in quality. That is, two years later, the computer has not
  8. 8. only declined in price by 20%, but it may also be 30% better (based on an index of speed and other performance factors). In that case, then, there has actually been, over the period, a net deflation of 38.5% for the category.Some articles of possible interest:Coffee, Lipsticks, and the EconomyThe 2008 Tax Rebate and Consumer BehaviorGasoline Prices and ConsumerBehavior Political. Businesses are very vulnerable to changes in the political situation. For example, because consumer groups lobbied Congress, more stringent rules were made on the terms of car leases. The tobacco industry is currently the target of much negative attention from government and public interest groups. Currently, the desire to avoid aiding the enemy may result in laws that make it more difficult for American firms to export goods to other countries. Many industries have a strong economic interest in policies that benefit the industry may have a negative impact on the nation as a whole but enhance profits for the industry. For example, regulations that limit the amount of sugar that can be imported into the United States is estimated to cost each American approximately $10.00 a year. The total increase in profits to the sugar industry is difficult to estimate because many of the large producers of refined sugar are privately held corporations, but it is likely that the net gain to the industry is as much as the roughly $3 billion lost by Americans a whole. However, the interests of the industry are much more concentrated. The industry can rally its stockholders, unions and employees, and suppliers (e.g., fertilizer manufacturers and manufacturers of sugar cane processing equipment) together to lobby for their special interests.
  9. 9. In turn, the industry can join forces withother agricultural interests which eachsupport each other’s programs.Legal. Firms are very vulnerable to changinglaws and changing interpretations by thecourts. Firms in the U.S. are very vulnerableto lawsuits. McDonald’s, for example, iscurrently being sued by people who claimthat eating the chain’s hamburgers causedthem to get fat. Firms are significantlylimited in what they can do by variouslaws—some laws, for example, require thatdisclosures be made to consumers on theeffective interest rates they pay onproducts bought on installment. Aparticularly interesting group of laws relateto antitrust. These laws basically exist topromote fair competition among firms. Wewill consider such laws when we coverpricing later in the term.Technological. Changes in technology maysignificantly influence the demand for aproduct. For example, the advent of the faxmachine was bad news for Federal Express.The Internet is a major threat to travelagents. Many record stores have been wipedout of business by the trend towarddownloading songs (or illegally ―ripping‖songs from friends’ CDs—an act to whicheven the President of the United States hasconfessed). Although technological changeeliminates or at least greatly diminishessome markets, it creates opportunities forothers. For example, although FederalExpress has lost a considerable amount ofbusiness from documents that can now befaxed or sent by the Internet rather thanhaving to be physically shipped, there hasbeen a large increase in demand forpackages to be delivered overnight or―second day air.‖ Just-in-timemanufacturing techniques, in addition toonline sales, have dramatically increasedthe market for such shipments. Online sitessuch as eBay now makes it possible to sellspecialty products that, in the old days,would have been difficult to distribute.
  10. 10. Although it has been possible for more than a hundred years to sell merchandise by catalog, buyers of these specialty products often had no easy access to the catalogs. Social: Changes in customs or demographics greatly influence firms. Fewer babies today are being born, resulting in a decreased demand for baby foods. More women work outside the home today, so there is a greater demand for prepared foods. There are more unmarried singles today. This provides opportunities for some firms (e.g., fast food restaurants) but creates problems for others (e.g., manufacturers of high quality furniture that many people put off buying until marriage). Today, there are more ―blended‖ families that result as parents remarry after divorce. These families are often strapped for money but may require ―duplicate‖ items for children at each parent’s residence.Strategic PlanningPlans and planning. Plans are needed to clarify what kinds of strategic objectives anorganization would like to achieve and how this is to be done. Such plans must considerthe amount of resources available. One critical resource is capital. Microsoft keeps a greatdeal of cash on hand to be able to ―jump‖ on opportunities that come about. Small startupsoftware firms, on the other hand, may have limited cash on hand. This means that theymay have to forego what would have been a good investment because they do not havethe cash to invest and cannot find a way to raise the capital. Other resources that affectwhat a firm may be able to achieve include factors such as: Trademarks/brand names: It would be very difficult to compete against Coke and Pepsi in the cola market. Patents: It would be difficult to compete against Intel and AMD in the microprocessor market since both these firms have a number of patents that it is difficult to get around. People: Even with all of Microsoft’s money available, it could not immediately hire the people needed to manufacture computer chips.
  11. 11. Distribution: Stores have space for only a fraction of the products they are offered, so they must turn many away. A firm that does not have an established relationship with stores will be at a disadvantage in trying to introduce a new product.Plans are subject to the choices and policies that the organization has made. Some firmshave goals of social responsibility, for example. Some firms are willing to take a greaterrisk, which may result in a very large payoff but also involve the risk of a large loss, thanothers.Strategic marketing is best seen as an ongoing and never-ending process. Typically: The organization will identify the objectives it wishes to achieve. This could involve profitability directly, but often profitability is a long term goal that may require some intermediate steps. The firm may seek to increase market share, achieve distribution in more outlets, have sales grow by a certain percentage, or have consumers evaluate the product more favorably. Some organizations have objectives that are not focused on monetary profit—e.g., promoting literacy or preventing breast cancer. An analysis is made, taking into consideration issues such as organizational resources, competitors, the competitors’ strengths, different types of customers, changes in the market, or the impact of new technology. Based on this analysis, a plan is made based on tradeoffs between the advantages and disadvantages of different options available. This strategy is then carried out. The firm may design new products, revamp its advertising strategy, invest in getting more stores to carry the product, or decide to focus on a new customer segment. After implementation, the results or outcome are evaluated. If results are not as desired, a change may have to be made to the strategy. Even if results are satisfactory, the firm still needs to monitor the environment for changes.
  12. 12. Levels of planning and strategies. Plans for a firm can be made at several differentlevels. At the corporate level, the management considers the objectives of the firm as awhole. For example, Microsoft may want seek to grow by providing high quality software,hardware, and services to consumers. To achieve this goal, the firm may be willing toinvest aggressively.Plans can also be made at the business unit level. For example, although Microsoft is bestknown for its operating systems and applications software, the firm also provides Internetaccess and makes video games. Different managers will have responsibilities for differentareas, and goals may best be made by those closest to the business area being considered.It is also more practical to hold managers accountable for performance if the plan is beingmade at a more specific level. Boeing has both commercial aircraft and defense divisions.Each is run by different managers, although there is some overlap in technology betweenthe two. Therefore, plans are needed both at the corporate and at the business levels.Occasionally, plans will be made at the functional level, to allow managers to specializeand to increase managerial accountability. Marketing, for example, may be charged withincreasing awareness of Microsoft game consoles to 55% of the U.S. population or toincrease the number of units of Microsoft Office sold. Finance may be charged with raisinga given amount of capital at a given cost. Manufacturing may be charged with decreasingproduction costs by 5%.The firm needs to identify the business it is in. Here, a balance must be made so that thefirm’s scope is not defined too narrowly or too broadly. A firm may define its goal verynarrowly and then miss opportunities in the market place. For example, if Dell were todefine itself only as a computer company, it might miss an opportunity to branch into PDAsor Internet service. Thus, they might instead define themselves as a provider of―information solutions.‖ A company should not define itself too broadly, however, sincethis may result in loss of focus. For example, a manufacturer of baking soda shouldprobably not see itself as a manufacturer of all types of chemicals. Sometimes, companiescan define themselves in terms of a customer need. For example, 3M sees itself as being inthe business of making products whose surfaces are bonded together. This accounts forboth Post-It notes and computer disks.A firm’s mission should generally include a discussion of the customers served (e.g., Wal-Mart and Nordstrom’s serve different groups), the kind of technology involved, and themarkets served.Several issues are involved in selecting target customers. We will consider these in moredetail within the context of segmentation, but for now, the firm needs to consider issuessuch as: The size of various market segments; How well these segments are being served by existing firms; Changes in the market—e.g., growth of segments or change in technology;
  13. 13. How the firm should be positioned, or seen by customers. For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as providing value in retailing, while Nordstrom’s defines itself more in terms of high levels of customer service.The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) matrix provides a firm an opportunity to assess howwell its business units work together. Each business unit is evaluated in terms of twofactors: market share and the growth prospects in the market. Generally, the larger afirm’s share, the stronger its position, and the greater the growth in a market, the betterfuture possibilities. Four combinations emerge: A star represents a business unit that has a high share in a growing market. For example, Motorola has a large share in the rapidly growing market for cellular phones. A question mark results when a unit has a small share in a rapidly growing market. The firm’s position, then, is not as strong as it would have been had its market share been greater, but there is an opportunity to grow. For example, Hewlett-Packard has a small share of the digital camera market, but this is a very rapidly growing market. A cash cow results when a firm has a large share in a market that is not growing, and may even be shrinking. Brother has a large share of the typewriter market. A dog results when a business unit has a small share in a market that is not growing. This is generally a somewhat unattractive situation, although dogs can still be profitable in the short run. For example, Smith Corona how has a small share of the typewriter market.Firms are usually best of with a portfolio that has a balance of firms in each category. Thecash cows tend to generate cash but require little future investment. On the other hand,stars generate some cash, but even more cash is needed to invest in the future—forresearch and development, marketing campaigns, and building new manufacturingfacilities. Therefore, a firm may take excess cash from the cash cow and divert it to thestar. For example, Brother could ―harvest‖ its profits from typewriters and invest this inthe unit making color laser printers, which will need the cash to grow. If a firm has cashcows that generate a lot of cash, this may be used to try to improve the market share of aquestion mark. A firm that has a number of promising stars in its portfolio may be inserious trouble if it does not have any cash cows to support it. If it is about to run out of
  14. 14. cash—regardless of how profitable it is— is becomes vulnerable as a takeover target from afirm that has the cash to continue running it.A SWOT (“Strengths, Opportunities, Weaknesses, and Threats”) analysis is used to helpthe firm identify effective strategies. Successful firms such as Microsoft have certainstrengths. Microsoft, for example, has a great deal of technology, a huge staff of verytalented engineers, a great deal of experience in designing software, a very large marketshare, a well respected brand name, and a great deal of cash. Microsoft also has someweaknesses, however: The game console and MSN units are currently running at a loss, andMSN has been unable to achieve desired levels of growth. Firms may face opportunities inthe current market. Microsoft, for example, may have the opportunity to take advantageof its brand name to enter into the hardware market. Microsoft may also become a trustedsource of consumer services. Microsoft currently faces several threats, including the weakeconomy. Because fewer new computers are bough during a recession, fewer operatingsystems and software packages.Rather than merely listing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, a SWOTanalysis should suggest how the firm may use its strengths and opportunities toovercome weaknesses and threats. Decisions should also be made as to how resourcesshould be allocated. For example, Microsoft could either decide to put more resources intoMSN or to abandon this unit entirely. Microsoft has a great deal of cash ready to spend, sothe option to put resources toward MSN is available. Microsoft will also need to see howthreats can be addressed. The firm can earn political good will by engaging in charitableacts, which it has money available to fund. For example, Microsoft has donated softwareand computers to schools. It can forego temporary profits by reducing prices temporarilyto increase demand, or can ―hold out‖ by maintaining current prices while not selling asmany units.Criteria for effective marketing plans. Marketing plans should meet several criteria: The plan must be specific enough so that it can be implemented and communicated to people in the firm. ―Improving profitability‖ is usually too vague, but increasing net profits by 5%, increasing market share by 10%, gaining distribution in 2,000 more stores, and reducing manufacturing costs by 2% are all specific. The plan must be measurable so that one can see if it has been achieved. The above plans involve specific numbers. The goal must be achievable or realistic. Plans that are unrealistic may result in poor use of resources or lowered morale within the firm. The goals must be consistent. For example, a firm cannot ordinarily simultaneously plan
  15. 15. improve product features, increase profits, and reduce prices.Social Responsibility in MarketingEthical responsibilities and constraints. Businesses and people face some constraints onwhat can ethically be done to make money or to pursue other goals. Fraud and deceptionare not only morally wrong but also inhibit the efficient functioning of the economy. Thereare also behaviors that, even if they are not strictly illegal in a given jurisdiction, cannotbe undertaken with a good conscience. There are a number of areas where an individualmust consider his or her conscience to decide if a venture is acceptable. Some ―paycheckadvance‖ loan operators charge very high interest rates on small loans made inanticipation of a consumer’s next paycheck. Depending on state laws, effective interestrates (interest rates plus other fees involved) may exceed 20% per month. In some cases,borrowers put up their automobiles as security, with many losing their only source oftransportation through default. Although some consider this practice unconscionable,others assert that such loans may be the only way that a family can obtain cash to fill animmediate need. Because of costs of administration are high, these costs, when spreadover a small amount, will amount to a large percentage. Further, because the customergroups in question tend to have poor credit ratings with high anticipated rates of default,rates must be high enough to cover this.Sustainability. Sustainability is a notion that proposes that socially responsible firms willsomehow financially outperform other less responsible firms in the long run. This mightresult from customer loyalty, better employee morale, or public policy favoring ethicalconduct. Empirical results testing this hypothesis are mixed, neither suggesting that moreresponsible firms, on the average, have a clear financial advantage nor a large burden.Thus, a useful approach may be to determine (1) specific circumstances under which afirm may actually find the more responsible approach to be more profitable, (2) underwhich circumstances responsible behavior can be pursued without an overall significantdownside, and (3) the ethical responsibilities that a firm faces when a more responsibleapproach may be more costly.The individual, the firm, and society. Different individuals vary in their ethicalconvictions. Some are willing to work for the tobacco industry, for example, while othersare not. Some are willing to mislead potential customers while others will normally not dothis. There are, however, also broader societal and companywide values that mayinfluence the individual business decision maker. Some religions, including Islam, disfavorthe charging of interest. Although different groups differ somewhat in their interpretationsof this issue, the Koran at the very least prohibits usury—charging excessive interest rates.There is some disagreement as to whether more modest, fair interest rates areacceptable. In cultures where the stricter interpretation applies, a firm may be unwillingto set up an interest-based financing plan for customers who cannot pay cash. The firmmight, instead, charge a higher price, with no additional charge for interest. Some firmsalso have their own ethical stands, either implicitly or explicitly. For example, Google has
  16. 16. the motto ―Do no evil.‖ Other firms, on the other hand, may actively encourage lies,deception, and other reprehensible behavior. Some firms elect to sell in less developedcountries products that have been banned as unsafe in their own countries.Making it profitable for the tobacco industry to “harvest.” Many see the tobaccoindustry as the ―enemy‖ and may not want to do anything that can benefit the industry.However, in principle, it may actually be possible to make it profitable for the tobaccoindustry to ―harvest‖—to spend less money on brand building and gradually reduce thequantities sold. The tobacco industry is heavily concentrated, with three firms controllingmost of the market. Some other industries are exempt from many antitrust law provisions.If the tobacco companies were allowed to collude and set prices, the equilibrium marketprice would probably go up, and the quantity of tobacco demanded would then go down. Itis been found that among teenagers, smoking rates are especially likely to decrease whenprices increase. The tobacco companies could also be given some immediate tax breaks inreturn for giving up their trademarks some thirty years in the future. This would reducethe incentive to advertise, again leading to decreased demand in the future. The taxbenefits needed might have to be very high, thus making the idea infeasible unless thenation is willing to trade off better health for such large revenue losses.“Win-win” marketing. In some cases, it may actually be profitable for companies to dogood deeds. This may be the case, for example, when a firm receives a large amount offavorable publicity for its contributions, resulting in customer goodwill and an enhancedbrand value. A pharmacy chain, for example, might pay for charitable good to developinformation about treating diabetes. The chain could then make this information on itsweb site, paying for bandwidth and other hosting expenses that may be considerably lessthan the value of the positive publicity received.“Sponsored Fundraising.” Non-profit groups often spend a large proportion of the moneythey take in on fundraising. This is problematic both because of the inefficiency of theprocess and the loss of potential proceeds that result and because potential donors wholearn about or suspect high fundraising expenses may be less likely to donor. This is anespecially critical issue now that information on fundraising overhead for differentorganizations is readily available on the Internet.An alternative approach to fundraising that does not currently appear to be much in use isthe idea of ―sponsored‖ fundraising. The idea here is that some firm might volunteer tosend out fundraising appeals on behalf of the organization. For example, Microsoft mightvolunteer to send out letters asking people to donate to the American Red Cross. This maybe a very cost effective method of promotion for the firm since the sponsor would benefitfrom both the positive publicity for its involvement and from the greater attention thatwould likely be given a fundraising appeal for a group of special interest than would begiven to an ordinary advertisement or direct mail piece advertising the sponsor in atraditional way.One issue that comes up is the potential match between the sponsor and sponseeorganization. This may or may not be a critical issue since respondents are selected for thesolicitation based on their predicted interest in the organization. Microsoft—directly or
  17. 17. indirectly through the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation—has been credited with a largenumber of charitable ventures and has the Congressional Black Caucus as one of itsgreatest supporters. In many cases, firms might volunteer for this fundraising effort inlarge part because of the spear heading efforts of high level executives whose families areaffected by autism.Commercial Comedy. Another win-win deal potential between industry and non-profitgroups involves the idea of commercial comedy. Many non-profit groups are interested infinding low cost, high quality entertainment for fundraising events. After all, money spenton buying entertainment reduces the net proceeds available for the organization’sprogram. Firms, on the other hand, have difficulty getting current and potential customersto give attention to advertising in traditional media. If firms were able to create some highquality entertainment involving their mascotss—e.g., the Energizer Bunny, the PillsburyDoughboy, and the AFLAC Duck—the audience at a fundraising event would give attentionfor an extended period of time. Good will would also be generated, and it is likely that theact would receive considerable media coverage.Segmentation, Targeting, and PositioningSegmentation, targeting, and positioning together comprise a three stage process. We first(1) determine which kinds of customers exist, then (2) select which ones we are best offtrying to serve and, finally, (3) implement our segmentation by optimizing ourproducts/services for that segment and communicating that we have made the choice todistinguish ourselves that way.Segmentation involves finding out what kinds of consumers with different needs exist. Inthe auto market, for example, some consumers demand speed and performance, whileothers are much more concerned about roominess and safety. In general, it holds true that―You can’t be all things to all people,‖ and experience has demonstrated that firms that
  18. 18. specialize in meeting the needs of one group of consumers over another tend to be moreprofitable.Generically, there are three approaches to marketing. In the undifferentiated strategy, allconsumers are treated as the same, with firms not making any specific efforts to satisfyparticular groups. This may work when the product is a standard one where onecompetitor really can’t offer much that another one can’t. Usually, this is the case onlyfor commodities. In the concentrated strategy, one firm chooses to focus on one of severalsegments that exist while leaving other segments to competitors. For example, SouthwestAirlines focuses on price sensitive consumers who will forego meals and assigned seatingfor low prices. In contrast, most airlines follow the differentiated strategy: They offerhigh priced tickets to those who are inflexible in that they cannot tell in advance whenthey need to fly and find it impractical to stay over a Saturday. These travelers—usuallybusiness travelers—pay high fares but can only fill the planes up partially. The sameairlines then sell some of the remaining seats to more price sensitive customers who canbuy two weeks in advance and stay over.Note that segmentation calls for some tough choices. There may be a large number ofvariables that can be used to differentiate consumers of a given product category; yet, inpractice, it becomes impossibly cumbersome to work with more than a few at a time.Thus, we need to determine which variables will be most useful in distinguishing differentgroups of consumers. We might thus decide, for example, that the variables that are mostrelevant in separating different kinds of soft drink consumers are (1) preference for tastevs. low calories, (2) preference for Cola vs. non-cola taste, (3) price sensitivity—willingness to pay for brand names; and (4) heavy vs. light consumers. We now put thesevariables together to arrive at various combinations.Several different kinds of variables can be used for segmentation. Demographic variables essentially refer to personal statistics such as income, gender, education, location (rural vs. urban, East vs. West), ethnicity, and family size. Campbell’s soup, for instance, has found that Western U.S. consumers on the average prefer spicier soups—thus, you get a different product in the same cans at the East and West coasts. Facing flat sales of guns in the traditional male dominated market, a manufacturer came out with the Lady Remmington, a more compact, handier gun more attractive to women. Taking this a step farther, it is also possible to segment on lifestyle and values.‖ Some consumers want to be seen as similar to others, while a different segment wants to stand apart from the crowd.
  19. 19. Another basis for segmentation is behavior. Some consumers are ―brand loyal‖—i.e., they tend to stick with their preferred brands even when a competing one is on sale. Some consumers are ―heavy‖ users while others are ―light‖ users. For example, research conducted by the wine industry shows that some 80% of the product is consumed by 20% of the consumers— presumably a rather intoxicated group. One can also segment on benefits sought, essentially bypassing demographic explanatory variables. Some consumers, for example, like scented soap (a segment likely to be attracted to brands such as Irish Spring), while others prefer the ―clean‖ feeling of unscented soap (the ―Ivory‖ segment). Some consumers use toothpaste primarily to promote oral health, while another segment is more interested in breath freshening.In the next step, we decide to target one or more segments. Our choice should generallydepend on several factors. First, how well are existing segments served by othermanufacturers? It will be more difficult to appeal to a segment that is already well servedthan to one whose needs are not currently being served well. Secondly, how large is thesegment, and how can we expect it to grow? (Note that a downside to a large, rapidlygrowing segment is that it tends to attract competition). Thirdly, do we have strengths asa company that will help us appeal particularly to one group of consumers? Firms mayalready have an established reputation. While McDonald’s has a great reputation for fast,consistent quality, family friendly food, it would be difficult to convince consumers thatMcDonald’s now offers gourmet food. Thus, McD’s would probably be better off targetingfamilies in search of consistent quality food in nice, clean restaurants.Positioning involves implementing our targeting. For example, Apple Computer has chosento position itself as a maker of user-friendly computers. Thus, Apple has done a lotthrough its advertising to promote itself, through its unintimidating icons, as a computerfor ―non-geeks.‖ The Visual C software programming language, in contrast, is aimed a―techies.‖
  20. 20. Michael Treacy and Fred Wiersema suggested in their 1993 book The Discipline of MarketLeaders that most successful firms fall into one of three categories: Operationally excellent firms, which maintain a strong competitive advantage by maintaining exceptional efficiency, thus enabling the firm to provide reliable service to the customer at a significantly lower cost than those of less well organized and well run competitors. The emphasis here is mostly on low cost, subject to reliable performance, and less value is put on customizing the offering for the specific customer. Wal-Mart is an example of this discipline. Elaborate logistical designs allow goods to be moved at the lowest cost, with extensive systems predicting when specific quantities of supplies will be needed. Customer intimate firms, which excel in serving the specific needs of the individual customer well. There is less emphasis on efficiency, which is sacrificed for providing more precisely what is wanted by the customer. Reliability is also stressed. Nordstrom’s and IBM are examples of this discipline. Technologically excellent firms, which produce the most advanced products currently available with the latest technology, constantly maintaining leadership in innovation. These firms,
  21. 21. because they work with costly technology that need constant refinement, cannot be as efficient as the operationally excellent firms and often cannot adapt their products as well to the needs of the individual customer. Intel is an example of this discipline.Treacy and Wiersema suggest that in addition to excelling on one of the three valuedimensions, firms must meet acceptable levels on the other two. Wal-Mart, for example,does maintain some level of customer service. Nordstrom’s and Intel both must meet somestandards of cost effectiveness. The emphasis, beyond meeting the minimum requiredlevel in the two other dimensions, is on the dimension of strength.Repositioning involves an attempt to change consumer perceptions of a brand, usuallybecause the existing position that the brand holds has become less attractive. Sears, forexample, attempted to reposition itself from a place that offered great sales butunattractive prices the rest of the time to a store that consistently offered ―everyday lowprices.‖ Repositioning in practice is very difficult to accomplish. A great deal of money isoften needed for advertising and other promotional efforts, and in many cases, therepositioning fails.To effectively attempt repositioning, it is important to understand how one’s brand andthose of competitors are perceived. One approach to identifying consumer productperceptions is multidimensional scaling. Here, we identify how products are perceived ontwo or more ―dimensions,‖ allowing us to plot brands against each other. It may then bepossible to attempt to ―move‖ one’s brand in a more desirable direction by selectivelypromoting certain points. There are two main approaches to multi-dimensional scaling. Inthe a priori approach, market researchers identify dimensions of interest and then askconsumers about their perceptions on each dimension for each brand. This is useful when(1) the market researcher knows which dimensions are of interest and (2) the customer’sperception on each dimension is relatively clear (as opposed to being ―made up‖ on thespot to be able to give the researcher a desired answer). In the similarity rating approach,respondents are not asked about their perceptions of brands on any specific dimensions.Instead, subjects are asked to rate the extent of similarity of different pairs of products(e.g., How similar, on a scale of 1-7, is Snicker’s to Kitkat, and how similar is Toblerone toThree Musketeers?) Using a computer algorithms, the computer then identifies positions ofeach brand on a map of a given number of dimensions. The computer does not reveal whateach dimension means—that must be left to human interpretation based on what thevariations in each dimension appears to reveal. This second method is more useful whenno specific product dimensions have been identified as being of particular interest or whenit is not clear what the variables of difference are for the product category.Consumer Behavior
  22. 22. Note: The issues discussed below are covered in more detail atconsumer behavior section of this site.Consumer behavior involves the psychological processes that consumers go through inrecognizing needs, finding ways to solve these needs, making purchase decisions (e.g.,whether or not to purchase a product and, if so, which brand and where), interpretinformation, make plans, and implement these plans (e.g., by engaging in comparisonshopping or actually purchasing a product).Sources of influence on the consumer. The consumer faces numerous sources ofinfluence.Often, we take cultural influences for granted, but they are significant. An American willusually not bargain with a store owner. This, however, is a common practice in much ofthe World. Physical factors also influence our behavior. We are more likely to buy a softdrink when we are thirsty, for example, and food manufacturers have found that it is moreeffective to advertise their products on the radio in the late afternoon when people aregetting hungry. A person’s self-image will also tend to influence what he or she will buy—an upwardly mobile manager may buy a flashy car to project an image of success. Socialfactors also influence what the consumers buy—often, consumers seek to imitate otherswhom they admire, and may buy the same brands. The social environment can includeboth the mainstream culture (e.g., Americans are more likely to have corn flakes or hamand eggs for breakfast than to have rice, which is preferred in many Asian countries) and asubculture (e.g., rap music often appeals to a segment within the population that seeks todistinguish itself from the mainstream population). Thus, sneaker manufacturers are eagerto have their products worn by admired athletes. Finally, consumer behavior is influencedby learning—you try a hamburger and learn that it satisfies your hunger and tastes good,and the next time you are hungry, you may consider another hamburger.
  23. 23. Consumer Choice and Decision Making: Problem Recognition. One model of consumerdecision making involves several steps. The first one is problem recognition—you realizethat something is not as it should be. Perhaps, for example, your car is getting moredifficult to start and is not accelerating well. The second step is information search—whatare some alternative ways of solving the problem? You might buy a new car, buy a usedcar, take your car in for repair, ride the bus, ride a taxi, or ride a skateboard to work. Thethird step involves evaluation of alternatives. A skateboard is inexpensive, but may be ill-suited for long distances and for rainy days. Finally, we have the purchase stage, andsometimes a post-purchase stage (e.g., you return a product to the store because you didnot find it satisfactory). In reality, people may go back and forth between the stages. Forexample, a person may resume alternative identification during while evaluating alreadyknown alternatives.Consumer involvement will tend to vary dramatically depending on the type of product. Ingeneral, consumer involvement will be higher for products that are very expensive (e.g., ahome, a car) or are highly significant in the consumer’s life in some other way (e.g., aword processing program or acne medication).It is important to consider the consumer’s motivation for buying products. To achieve thisgoal, we can use the Means-End chain, wherein we consider a logical progression ofconsequences of product use that eventually lead to desired end benefit. Thus, forexample, a consumer may see that a car has a large engine, leading to fast acceleration,leading to a feeling of performance, leading to a feeling of power, which ultimatelyimproves the consumer’s self-esteem. A handgun may aim bullets with precision, whichenables the user to kill an intruder, which means that the intruder will not be able toharm the consumer’s family, which achieves the desired end-state of security. Inadvertising, it is important to portray the desired end-states. Focusing on the large motorwill do less good than portraying a successful person driving the car.Information search and decision making. Consumers engage in both internal and externalinformation search. Internal search involves the consumer identifying alternatives from hisor her memory. For certain low involvement products, it is very important that marketingprograms achieve ―top of mind‖ awareness. For example, few people will search the
  24. 24. Yellow Pages for fast food restaurants; thus, the consumer must be able to retrieve one’srestaurant from memory before it will be considered. For high involvement products,consumers are more likely to use an external search. Before buying a car, for example,the consumer may ask friends’ opinions, read reviews in Consumer Reports, consultseveral web sites, and visit several dealerships. Thus, firms that make products that areselected predominantly through external search must invest in having informationavailable to the consumer in need—e.g., through brochures, web sites, or news coverage.A compensatory decision involves the consumer ―trading off‖ good and bad attributes of aproduct. For example, a car may have a low price and good gas mileage but slowacceleration. If the price is sufficiently inexpensive and gas efficient, the consumer maythen select it over a car with better acceleration that costs more and uses more gas.Occasionally, a decision will involve a non-compensatory strategy. For example, a parentmay reject all soft drinks that contain artificial sweeteners. Here, other good featuressuch as taste and low calories cannot overcome this one ―non-negotiable‖ attribute.The amount of effort a consumer puts into searching depends on a number of factors suchas the market (how many competitors are there, and how great are differences betweenbrands expected to be?), product characteristics (how important is this product? Howcomplex is the product? How obvious are indications of quality?), consumer characteristics(how interested is a consumer, generally, in analyzing product characteristics and makingthe best possible deal?), and situational characteristics (as previously discussed).Two interesting issues in decisions are: Variety seeking (where consumers seek to try new brands not because these brands are expected to be ―better‖ in any way, but rather because the consumer wants a ―change of pace,‖ and
  25. 25. “Impulse” purchases—unplanned buys. This represents a somewhat ―fuzzy‖ group. For example, a shopper may plan to buy vegetables but only decide in the store to actually buy broccoli and corn. Alternatively, a person may buy an item which is currently on sale, or one that he or she remembers that is needed only once inside the store.A number of factors involve consumer choices. In some cases, consumers will be moremotivated. For example, one may be more careful choosing a gift for an in-law than whenbuying the same thing for one self. Some consumers are also more motivated tocomparison shop for the best prices, while others are more convenience oriented.Personality impacts decisions. Some like variety more than others, and some are morereceptive to stimulation and excitement in trying new stores. Perception influencesdecisions. Some people, for example, can taste the difference between generic and namebrand foods while many cannot. Selective perception occurs when a person is payingattention only to information of interest. For example, when looking for a new car, theconsumer may pay more attention to car ads than when this is not in the horizon. Someconsumers are put off by perceived risk. Thus, many marketers offer a money backguarantee. Consumers will tend to change their behavior through learning—e.g., they willavoid restaurants they have found to be crowded and will settle on brands that best meettheir tastes. Consumers differ in the values they hold (e.g., some people are morecommitted to recycling than others who will not want to go through the hassle). We willconsider the issue of lifestyle under segmentation.The Family Life Cycle. Individuals and families tend to go through a "life cycle:" Thesimple life cycle goes fromFor purposes of this discussion, a "couple" may either be married or merely involve livingtogether. The breakup of a non-marital relationship involving cohabitation is similarlyconsidered equivalent to a divorce.In real life, this situation is, of course, a bit more complicated. For example, manycouples undergo divorce. Then we have one of the scenarios:
  26. 26. Single parenthood can result either from divorce or from the death of one parent. Divorceusually entails a significant change in the relative wealth of spouses. In some cases, thenon-custodial parent (usually the father) will not pay the required child support, and evenif he or she does, that still may not leave the custodial parent and children as well off asthey were during the marriage. On the other hand, in some cases, some non-custodialparents will be called on to pay a large part of their income in child support. This isparticularly a problem when the non-custodial parent remarries and has additionalchildren in the second (or subsequent marriages). In any event, divorce often results in alarge demand for: Low cost furniture and household items Time-saving goods and servicesDivorced parents frequently remarry, or become involved in other non-maritalrelationships; thus, we may seeAnother variation involvesHere, the single parent who assumes responsibility for one or more children may not forma relationship with the other parent of the child.Integrating all the possibilities discussed, we get the following depiction of the Family LifeCycle:
  27. 27. Generally, there are two main themes in the Family Life Cycle, subject to significantexceptions: As a person gets older, he or she tends to advance in his or her career and tends to get greater income (exceptions: maternity leave, divorce, retirement). Unfortunately, obligations also tend to increase with time (at least until one’s mortgage has been paid off). Children and paying for one’s house are two of the greatest expenses.Note that although a single person may have a lower income than a married couple, thesingle may be able to buy more discretionary items.Note that although a single person may have a lower income than a married couple, thesingle may be able to buy more discretionary items.Family Decision Making: Individual members of families often serve different roles indecisions that ultimately draw on shared family resources. Some individuals areinformation gatherers/holders, who seek out information about products of relevance.These individuals often have a great deal of power because they may selectively pass oninformation that favors their chosen alternatives. Influencers do not ultimately have thepower decide between alternatives, but they may make their wishes known by asking forspecific products or causing embarrassing situations if their demands are not met. Thedecision maker(s) have the power to determine issues such as: Whether to buy; Which product to buy (pick-up or passenger car?); Which brand to buy; Where to buy it; and When to buy.
  28. 28. Note, however, that the role of the decision maker is separate from that of the purchaser.From the point of view of the marketer, this introduces some problems since the purchasercan be targeted by point-of-purchase (POP) marketing efforts that cannot be aimed at thedecision maker. Also note that the distinction between the purchaser and decision makermay be somewhat blurred: The decision maker may specify what kind of product to buy, but not which brand; The purchaser may have to make a substitution if the desired brand is not in stock; The purchaser may disregard instructions (by error or deliberately).It should be noted that family decisions are often subject to a great deal of conflict. Thereality is that few families are wealthy enough to avoid a strong tension between demandson the family’s resources. Conflicting pressures are especially likely in families withchildren and/or when only one spouse works outside the home. Note that many decisionsinherently come down to values, and that there is frequently no "objective" way toarbitrate differences. One spouse may believe that it is important to save for thechildren’s future; the other may value spending now (on private schools and computerequipment) to help prepare the children for the future. Who is right? There is no clearanswer here. The situation becomes even more complex when more parties—such aschildren or other relatives—are involved.Some family members may resort to various strategies to get their way. One isbargaining—one member will give up something in return for someone else. For example,the wife says that her husband can take an expensive course in gourmet cooking if she canbuy a new pickup truck. Alternatively, a child may promise to walk it every day if he orshe can have a hippopotamus. Another strategy is reasoning—trying to get the otherperson(s) to accept one’s view through logical argumentation. Note that even when this isdone with a sincere intent, its potential is limited by legitimate differences in valuesillustrated above. Also note that individuals may simply try to "wear down" the other partyby endless talking in the guise of reasoning (this is a case of negative reinforcement as wewill see subsequently). Various manipulative strategies may also be used. One isimpression management, where one tries to make one’s side look good (e.g., argue that anew TV will help the children see educational TV when it is really mostly wanted to seesports programming, or argue that all "decent families make a contribution to thechurch"). Authority involves asserting one’s "right" to make a decision (as the "man of thehouse," the mother of the children, or the one who makes the most money). Emotioninvolves making an emotional display to get one’s way (e.g., a man cries if his wife willnot let him buy a new rap album).The Means-End Chain. Consumers often buy products not because of their attributes perse but rather because of the ultimate benefits that these attributes provide, in turnleading to the satisfaction of ultimate values. For example, a consumer may not beparticularly interested in the chemistry of plastic roses, but might reason as follows:
  29. 29. The important thing in a means-end chain is to start with an attribute, a concretecharacteristic of the product, and then logically progress to a series of consequences(which tend to become progressively more abstract) that end with a value being satisfied.Thus, each chain must start with an attribute and end with a value. An importantimplication of means-end chains is that it is usually most effective in advertising to focuson higher level items. For example, in the flower example above, an individual giving theflowers to the significant other might better be portrayed than the flowers alone.Attitudes. Consumer attitudes are a composite of a consumer’s (1) beliefs about, (2)feelings about, (3) and behavioral intentions toward some ―object‖—within the context ofmarketing, usually a brand, product category, or retail store. These components areviewed together since they are highly interdependent and together represent forces thatinfluence how the consumer will react to the object.Beliefs. The first component is beliefs. A consumer may hold both positive beliefs towardan object (e.g., coffee tastes good) as well as negative beliefs (e.g., coffee is easilyspilled and stains papers). In addition, some beliefs may be neutral (coffee is black), andsome may be differ in valance depending on the person or the situation (e.g., coffee is hotand stimulates--good on a cold morning, but not good on a hot summer evening when onewants to sleep). Note also that the beliefs that consumers hold need not be accurate (e.g.,that pork contains little fat), and some beliefs may, upon closer examination, becontradictory.Affect. Consumers also hold certain feelings toward brands or other objects. Sometimesthese feelings are based on the beliefs (e.g., a person feels nauseated when thinkingabout a hamburger because of the tremendous amount of fat it contains), but there mayalso be feelings which are relatively independent of beliefs. For example, an extremeenvironmentalist may believe that cutting down trees is morally wrong, but may havepositive affect toward Christmas trees because he or she unconsciously associates thesetrees with the experience that he or she had at Christmas as a child.
  30. 30. Behavioral intention. The behavioral intention is what the consumer plans to do withrespect to the object (e.g., buy or not buy the brand). As with affect, this is sometimes alogical consequence of beliefs (or affect), but may sometimes reflect other circumstances--e.g., although a consumer does not really like a restaurant, he or she will go therebecause it is a hangout for his or her friends.Changing attitudes is generally very difficult, particularly when consumers suspect thatthe marketer has a self-serving ―agenda‖ in bringing about this change (e.g., to get theconsumer to buy more or to switch brands). Here are some possible methods: Changing affect. One approach is to try to change affect, which may or may not involve getting consumers to change their beliefs. One strategy uses the approach of classical conditioning try to ―pair‖ the product with a liked stimulus. For example, we ―pair‖ a car with a beautiful woman. Alternatively, we can try to get people to like the advertisement and hope that this liking will ―spill over‖ into the purchase of a product. For example, the Pillsbury Doughboy does not really emphasize the conveyance of much information to the consumer; instead, it attempts to create a warm, ―fuzzy‖ image. Although Energizer Bunny ads try to get people to believe that their batteries last longer, the main emphasis is on the likeable bunny. Finally, products which are better known, through the mere exposure effect, tend to be better liked—that is, the more a product is advertised and seen in stores, the more it will generally be liked, even if consumers to do not develop any specific beliefs about the product. Changing behavior. People like to believe that their behavior is rational; thus, once they use our products, chances are that they will continue unless someone is able to get them to switch. One way to get people to switch to our brand is to use temporary price discounts and coupons; however, when consumers buy a product on deal, they may justify the purchase based on that deal (i.e., the low price) and may then switch to other brands on deal later. A better way to get people to switch to our
  31. 31. brand is to at least temporarily obtainbetter shelf space so that the product ismore convenient. Consumers are less likelyto use this availability as a rationale fortheir purchase and may continue to buy theproduct even when the product is lessconveniently located.Changing beliefs. Although attempting tochange beliefs is the obvious way toattempt attitude change, particularly whenconsumers hold unfavorable or inaccurateones, this is often difficult to achievebecause consumers tend to resist. Severalapproaches to belief change exist:Change currently held beliefs. It isgenerally very difficult to attempt tochange beliefs that people hold, particularlythose that are strongly held, even if theyare inaccurate. For example, the petroleumindustry advertised for a long time that itsprofits were lower than were commonlybelieved, and provided extensive factualevidence in its advertising to support thisreality. Consumers were suspicious andrejected this information, however.Change the importance of beliefs. Althoughthe sugar manufacturers would undoubtedlylike to decrease the importance of healthyteeth, it is usually not feasible to makebeliefs less important--consumers are likelyto reason, why, then, would you botherbringing them up in the first place?However, it may be possible to strengthenbeliefs that favor us--e.g., a vitaminsupplement manufacturer may advertisethat it is extremely important for women toreplace iron lost through menstruation. Mostconsumers already agree with this, but thebelief can be made stronger.Add beliefs. Consumers are less likely toresist the addition of beliefs so long as theydo not conflict with existing beliefs. Thus,the beef industry has added beliefs thatbeef (1) is convenient and (2) can be usedto make a number of creative dishes.Vitamin manufacturers attempt to add thebelief that stress causes vitamin depletion,
  32. 32. which sounds quite plausible to most people. Change ideal. It usually difficult, and very risky, to attempt to change ideals, and only few firms succeed. For example, Hard Candy may have attempted to change the ideal away from traditional beauty toward more unique self expression.One-sided vs. two-sided appeals. Attitude research has shown that consumers often tendto react more favorably to advertisements which either (1) admit something negativeabout the sponsoring brand (e.g., the Volvo is a clumsy car, but very safe) or (2) admitssomething positive about a competing brand (e.g., a competing supermarket has slightlylower prices, but offers less service and selection). Two-sided appeals must, containoverriding arguments why the sponsoring brand is ultimately superior—that is, in the aboveexamples, the ―but‖ part must be emphasized.Perception. Our perception is an approximation of reality. Our brain attempts to makesense out of the stimuli to which we are exposed. This works well, for example, when we―see‖ a friend three hundred feet away at his or her correct height; however, ourperception is sometimes ―off‖—for example, certain shapes of ice cream containers looklike they contain more than rectangular ones with the same volume.Subliminal stimuli. Back in the 1960s, it was reported that on selected evenings, moviegoers in a theater had been exposed to isolated frames with the words ―Drink Coca Cola‖and ―Eat Popcorn‖ imbedded into the movie. These frames went by so fast that people didnot consciously notice them, but it was reported that on nights with frames present, Cokeand popcorn sales were significantly higher than on days they were left off. This ledCongress to ban the use of subliminal advertising. First of all, there is a question as towhether this experiment ever took place or whether this information was simply made up.Secondly, no one has been able to replicate these findings. There is research to show thatpeople will start to giggle with embarrassment when they are briefly exposed to ―dirty‖words in an experimental machine. Here, again, the exposure is so brief that the subjectsare not aware of the actual words they saw, but it is evident that something has beenrecognized by the embarrassment displayed.Organizational buyers. A large portion of the market for goods and services is attributableto organizational, as opposed to individual, buyers. In general, organizational buyers, whomake buying decisions for their companies for a living, tend to be somewhat moresophisticated than ordinary consumers. However, these organizational buyers are alsooften more risk averse. There is a risk in going with a new, possibly better (lower price orhigher quality) supplier whose product is unproven and may turn out to be problematic.Often the fear of running this risk is greater than the potential rewards for getting a betterdeal. In the old days, it used to be said that ―You can’t get fired for buying IBM.‖ Thisattitude is beginning to soften a bit today as firms face increasing pressures to cut costs.
  33. 33. Organizational buyers come in several forms. Resellers involve either wholesalers orretailers that buy from one organization and resell to some other entity. For example,large grocery chains sometimes buy products directly from the manufacturer and resellthem to end-consumers. Wholesalers may sell to retailers who in turn sell to consumers.Producers also buy products from sub-manufacturers to create a finished product. Forexample, rather than manufacturing the parts themselves, computer manufacturers oftenbuy hard drives, motherboards, cases, monitors, keyboards, and other components frommanufacturers and put them together to create a finished product. Governments buy agreat deal of things. For example, the military needs an incredible amount of supplies tofeed and equip troops. Finally, large institutions buy products in huge quantities. Forexample, UCR probably buys thousands of reams of paper every month.Organizational buying usually involves more people than individual buying. Often, manypeople are involved in making decisions as to (a) whether to buy, (b) what to buy, (c) atwhat quantity, and (d) from whom. An engineer may make a specification as to what isneeded, which may be approved by a manager, with the final purchase being made by apurchase specialist who spends all his or her time finding the best deal on the goods thatthe organization needs. Often, such long purchase processes can cause long delays. In thegovernment, rules are often especially stringent—e.g., vendors of fruit cake have to meetfourteen pages of specifications put out by the General Services Administration. In manycases, government buyers are also heavily bound to go with the lowest price. Even if it isobvious that a higher priced vendor will offer a superior product, it may be difficult toaccept that bid.Consumer Research MethodsMarket research is often needed to ensure that we produce what customers really wantand not what we think they want.Primary vs. secondary research methods. There are two main approaches to marketing.Secondary research involves using information that others have already put together. Forexample, if you are thinking about starting a business making clothes for tall people, youdon’t need to question people about how tall they are to find out how many tall peopleexist—that information has already been published by the U.S. Government. Primaryresearch, in contrast, is research that you design and conduct yourself. For example, youmay need to find out whether consumers would prefer that your soft drinks be sweater ortarter.Research will often help us reduce risks associated with a new product, but it cannot takethe risk away entirely. It is also important to ascertain whether the research has beencomplete. For example, Coca Cola did a great deal of research prior to releasing the NewCoke, and consumers seemed to prefer the taste. However, consumers were not preparedto have this drink replace traditional Coke.
  34. 34. Secondary Methods. For more information about secondary market research tools andissues, please see .Primary Methods. Several tools are available to the market researcher—e.g., mailquestionnaires, phone surveys, observation, and focus groups. Please see for advantages and disadvantages of each.Surveys are useful for getting a great deal of specific information. Surveys can containopen-ended questions (e.g., ―In which city and state were you born? ____________‖) orclosed-ended, where the respondent is asked to select answers from a brief list (e.g.,―__Male ___ Female.‖ Open ended questions have the advantage that the respondent isnot limited to the options listed, and that the respondent is not being influenced by seeinga list of responses. However, open-ended questions are often skipped by respondents, andcoding them can be quite a challenge. In general, for surveys to yield meaningfulresponses, sample sizes of over 100 are usually required because precision is essential. Forexample, if a market share of twenty percent would result in a loss while thirty percentwould be profitable, a confidence interval of 20-35% is too wide to be useful.Surveys come in several different forms. Mail surveys are relatively inexpensive, butresponse rates are typically quite low—typically from 5-20%. Phone-surveys get somewhathigher response rates, but not many questions can be asked because many answer optionshave to be repeated and few people are willing to stay on the phone for more than fiveminutes. Mall intercepts are a convenient way to reach consumers, but respondents maybe reluctant to discuss anything sensitive face-to-face with an interviewer.Surveys, as any kind of research, are vulnerable to bias. The wording of a question caninfluence the outcome a great deal. For example, more people answered no to thequestion ―Should speeches against democracy be allowed?‖ than answered yes to ―Shouldspeeches against democracy be forbidden?‖ For face-to-face interviews, interviewer bias isa danger, too. Interviewer bias occurs when the interviewer influences the way therespondent answers. For example, unconsciously an interviewer that works for the firmmanufacturing the product in question may smile a little when something good is beingsaid about the product and frown a little when something negative is being said. Therespondent may catch on and say something more positive than his or her real opinion.Finally, a response bias may occur—if only part of the sample responds to a survey, therespondents’ answers may not be representative of the population.Focus groups are useful when the marketer wants to launch a new product or modify anexisting one. A focus group usually involves having some 8-12 people come together in aroom to discuss their consumption preferences and experiences. The group is usually ledby a moderator, who will start out talking broadly about topics related broadly to theproduct without mentioning the product itself. For example, a focus group aimed at sugar-free cookies might first address consumers’ snacking preferences, only gradually movingtoward the specific product of sugar-free cookies. By not mentioning the product up front,we avoid biasing the participants into thinking only in terms of the specific productbrought out. Thus, instead of having consumers think primarily in terms of what might begood or bad about the product, we can ask them to discuss more broadly the ultimate
  35. 35. benefits they really seek. For example, instead of having consumers merely discuss whatthey think about some sugar-free cookies that we are considering releasing to the market,we can have consumers speak about their motivations for using snacks and what generalkinds of benefits they seek. Such a discussion might reveal a concern about healthfulnessand a desire for wholesome foods. Probing on the meaning of wholesomeness, consumersmight indicate a desire to avoid artificial ingredients. This would be an important concernin the marketing of sugar-free cookies, but might not have come up if consumers wereasked to comment directly on the product where the use of artificial ingredients is, byvirtue of the nature of the product, necessary.Focus groups are well suited for some purposes, but poorly suited for others. In general,focus groups are very good for getting breadth—i.e., finding out what kinds of issues areimportant for consumers in a given product category. Here, it is helpful that focus groupsare completely ―open-ended:‖ The consumer mentions his or her preferences andopinions, and the focus group moderator can ask the consumer to elaborate. In aquestionnaire, if one did not think to ask about something, chances are that fewconsumers would take the time to write out an elaborate answer. Focus groups also havesome drawbacks, for example: They represent small sample sizes. Because of the cost of running focus groups, only a few groups can be run. Suppose you run four focus groups with ten members each. This will result in an n of 4(10)=40, which is too small to generalize from. Therefore, focus groups cannot give us a good idea of: What proportion of the population is likely to buy the product. What price consumers are willing to pay. The groups are inherently social. This means that: Consumers will often say things that may make them look good (i.e., they watch public television rather than soap operas or cook fresh meals for their families daily) even if that is not true. Consumers may be reluctant to speak about embarrassing issues (e.g., weight control, birth control).Personal interviews involve in-depth questioning of an individual about his or her interestin or experiences with a product. The benefit here is that we can get really into depth(when the respondent says something interesting, we can ask him or her to elaborate), butthis method of research is costly and can be extremely vulnerable to interviewer bias.To get a person to elaborate, it may help to try a common tool of psychologists andpsychiatrists—simply repeating what the person said. He or she will often become