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Dissertation defense


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Dissertation defense

  1. 1. 1Katherine Chuang@katychuangUNDERSTANDING USERINTERACTION PATTERNS INHEALTH SOCIAL MEDIAMay 30, 2013 - Dissertation DefenseCollege of Information Science &TechnologyDrexel University
  2. 2. Acknowledgements2—  Thesis Advisory Committee:¡  Dr. Christopher C. Yang (chair)¡  Dr. Jennifer Unger¡  Dr. Jung-Ran Park¡  Dr. Margo Orlin¡  Dr. Weimao Ke
  3. 3. Pensieve“One simply siphonsthe excess thoughtsfrom ones mind, poursthem into the basin,and examines them atones leisure. Itbecomes easier to spotpatterns and links, youunderstand, when theyare in this form.”— Albus Dumbledore toHarry Potter (4th bookof series, Chapter 30)3
  4. 4. Imagine you search for this…4
  5. 5. And you click on the first result…5—  Hmm.. Megan has thesame question as me.—  5 replies…¡  Personal stories given¡  Book recommendations
  6. 6. Possible Reaction to the UI6“I wonder if that advice would apply to me…”“Gosh, I don’t feel comfortable responding to thewhole group…”—  There are different facets of communication(Farnham and Churchill, 2011)
  7. 7. A possibility…7A possibility to stayin contact with lessexposure.
  8. 8. Social Networking Features Available8
  9. 9. 9Online Health Social Networking“e-patients are looking for ‘just-in-time someone-like-me’health information”- Boase et al, 2006; Fox & Jones, 2009*E-patient: internet user that is looking for health information“e-patients are looking for a sense of community”-Wright & Bell, 200341%read patient blog,health newsgroup,or health website39%used socialnetworking site12%shared updates orviewed updates
  10. 10. Significance of Study10—  Previous research has different perspectives:¡  Issues that concern Health Professionals¡  Issues that concern E-Patients¡  Issues that concern Health Records—  Expand scholarly literature¡  Compared CMC formats within one online community.¡  Use mixed techniques for samples.—  Fill limitations in previous work¡  There are still gaps in understanding the technology.
  11. 11. Previous Studies This Study11Filling Gaps Found in Related Research
  12. 12. TheoreticalFramework =Technical andSocial factorsOnline communities are acombination of technicaland social factors(Latour, 1992; Preece,2000).Members communicatethrough text-basedcomputer mediatedcommunication (CMC)formats.Support communities arecomposed of people whoare building relationshipsand exchanging socialsupport.12
  13. 13. Research Themes—  Observations:¡  Some users are more active, others lurk¡  Some are new to community¡  Social roles (i.e. alcoholic, friend of alcoholic)..— CMC formats have different features÷ Who can write? read? Where is the message saved?13
  14. 14. Research Method Part 114—  Reveal interaction patterns in user content—  Social media is used by health consumers to …¡  Communicate health information¡  Share social support¡  Build friendships with each other—  Significance of studying e-patient interactions•  Reports show that internet use for health information isgrowing (Kielstra, 2009; PEW Research Ctr, 2006, 2009,2010)
  15. 15.“connects people withthe leading medicalexperts and others whohave similar experiences”“helping patients findanswers to their questions”“helping patients activelymanage their health”• Founded in 1994•  Oldest online community•  Pioneer of online healthcommunities• 10 mil monthly visitors15
  16. 16. 16Profile Pagecontains…•  Forum: Public Q&A•  Journals: Diary Style•  Notes: Profile PostsNotesForumJournal
  17. 17. Related studies only focus on one CMC17Author Data TypePreece (1999) Torn Knee Ligament Email ListBraithwaite et al (1999) “Support Network” Email ListBambina (2007) Support OnLineCancer ForumEmail List (stored online)Meier et al (2007) 10 cancer mailing lists Mailing listsPfiel & Zaphiris (2007) Depression/Seniors Bulletin BoardCunningham et al(2008)Alcoholism Bulletin BoardEichhorn (2008) Eating Disorder msgboardsYahoo Discussion GroupsCoursaris & Liu (2009) HIV/Aids Bulletin BoardMcCormack (2010) Anorexia BulletinBoardBulletin BoardSelby et al (2010) Smoking cessation Web assisted tobaccointervention, bulletin board
  18. 18. Objective—  Understand prevalence and characteristics ofdifferent support types that peers exchange.¡  Categories come from literature review on social support¡  Categorize messages into support types÷  Dimensions:¢  Offered vs requested¢  Post vs comments18
  19. 19. Research Theme 119ResearchQuestion•  RQ1: What social support patterns exist in messagesexchanged by members of an online health community?Objective•  Study the patterns of social support exchanges of 3CMC formats: Forums, Journals, NotesApproach•  Descriptive Content Analysis•  Coding: social support types for each message
  20. 20. Medhelp Alcoholism Community20Forums (n = 493)•  [FP] 81 posts•  [FC] 412 commentsJournals (n = 423)•  [JP] 88 posts•  [JC] 335 commentsNotes (n = 1180)3 MonthsJune-Sept 2009
  21. 21. Approach1.  Data source = Alcoholism2.  Data collection = crawler3.  Unit of analysis = each message4.  Convert text files to Excel spreadsheets5.  Time Frame:1.  9th June 2009 – 9th September 200921
  22. 22. Informational SupportSupport Definition ExampleAdvice Offers ideas and suggests actionsto deal with situation (Cutrona &Suhr, 1992).“Campral works better...ask u r docabout it!”Referral Refers the recipient to someother source of help.“Im gonna send you a link thatmight help.”Fact reassesses the situation andpresents facts.“Drinking too much alcohol dailycan be a high risk to your health,you might fall into alcoholaddiction.”Personalexperiencestories about person’sexperiences.“I have been going thoughsomething like that with an addictusing in our bathroom and….”Feedback /Opiniona view or judgment formed aboutsomething, not necessarily basedon fact or knowledge.“From what have you posted, itseems that you are in the stagewhere you have been looking todrink everyday and it is a clear signof alcohol addiction.”22
  23. 23. Nurturant SupportSupport Definition ExampleEsteem posts providing positivecomments to praise supportseekers abilities or to alleviatefeelings of guilt.“Congratulations on yoursobriety!”Network posts providing messages tobroaden support seekers socialnetwork so they don’t feelalone.“Just reach out and I will be thereok?”Emotional posts providing understandingof situation, express sorrow,provide with hope andconfidence.“Youre going through a roughtime....” or “Hang in there hon”23
  24. 24. 1. Text files24
  25. 25. 2. Excel file25
  26. 26. 3. Codingposting for self (M); friend (B); familymember (F); spouse (S); sig other (SO).0 = Offered; 1 = Request; 2 = both26
  27. 27. What patterns of social support exchanged emerge?271 –High amount of msgs offered informational support2 –High amount of msgs offered nurturant support3 –Low amount of msgs requested supports
  28. 28. Research Framework28
  29. 29. People want to stay in touch29“Positive comments are observed between MySpace friends”-Thelwall & Wilkinson, 2010“Friending enables usersto form and maintainconnections”- Ahn et al, 2007 “Private and public messaging allowfor interpersonal communication”- Thellwall & WIlkinson, 2010“SNS users expect to gratify their social-emotional needs”- Rau et al, 2008
  30. 30. Health Social Networking30—  Health Context…¡  Hundreds of support communities÷  Cancer, pregnancy, mental health, substance abuse, etc.¡  More features than old software:÷  Bulletin Boards (BB), email lists, discussion boards, blogs, etc.÷  ‘Friending’ and status updates, notes
  31. 31. Research Theme 231ResearchQuestion•  RQ2: What social network structure patterns emerge inmessages exchanged by members of an online healthcommunity?Objective•  Study the patterns of social support exchanges of 3CMC formats: Forums, Journals, NotesApproach•  Social Network Analysis•  Metrics: structural and positional
  32. 32. Social Graph Representations32
  33. 33. Part 2: Social Network Analysis33—  Structural Metrics¡  Centrality Measures: gives a rough indication of a person’s"connectedness" the network.÷  In Degree: the number of people that talk to him/her÷  Out Degree: the number of people he/she talks to¡  Geodesic Distance = shortest distance between two specific nodes¡  Density = number of edges / number of nodes—  Positional Metric¡  id different roles of a group setting—  Positional analysis to Know range of roles andcharacteristics to make recommendations for designing asocial support system that is suitable for users
  34. 34. Centrality34—  Betweenness = the number of people who a person isindirectly connected (i.e. controls flow ofinformation)—  Eigenvector = influence of a node—  Closeness = based on shortest paths; measuresdistance to spread information from a node x to allother nodes sequentially
  35. 35. Some Insights35—  Forum:¡  User reach out to a wider group of people and hold groupconversations.¡  They tend to be on receiving end.—  Journal:¡  Tend to be writing messages and to a smaller audience—  Notes:¡  Less overlapping connections, one to one conversations
  36. 36. Image Matrix Reduced Graph1 2 3 41 0 1 0 02 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 04 0 0 0 036Procedurec1(n=21)c2(n=1)c4(n=29)c3(n=41)
  37. 37. Social Positions37—  Isolates: nodes with neither indegree nor outdegree—  Transmitters: nodes with only outdegree—  Receivers: nodes with only indegree—  Carriers: nodes with both indegree and outdegree.
  38. 38. Configurations of Ties between Social Positions38Tie MeaningSelf loop   A single cohesive subgroup and anisolated position  One tie between positions   Transmitting end is providing supportReceiving end is requesting support  Self loop for each position   Two subgroups  Two ties from node: self loop andregular tie  Distinguishes between an “active”position and a “passive position”  Two ties to node: self loop and regulartie  Resembles a core-periphery system. Theposition of more indegrees has beenaround longer than the other position.  
  39. 39. Informational Nurturantc1(n=21)c2(n=1)c4(n=29)c3(n=41)c1(n=3)c2(n=3)c3(n=21)c4(n=44)39Forum
  40. 40. Informational Nurturantc1(n=4)c2(n=5)c3(n=6)c4(n=50)c1(n=10)c2(n=4)c3(n=13)c4(n=75)40Journal
  41. 41. Informational Nurturantc1(n=14)c2(n=1)c3(n=2)c4(n=23)c1(n=17)c2(n=1)c3(n=2)c4(n=32)41Notes
  42. 42. Summary42
  43. 43. Selected Publications43—  K. Chuang and C. C. Yang, “Interaction Patterns of NurturantSupport Exchanged in Online Health Social Networking”Journal of Medical Internet Research 2012; 14(3):e54. URL:—  K. Chuang and C. C. Yang, “Informational Support Exchangeson Different Computer-mediated Communication Formats ina Social Media Community of Alcoholism” Journal ofAmerican Society for Information Science & Technology(forthcoming)—  K. Chuang and C. C. Yang, “How Do E-Patients ConnectOnline? A Study of Social Support Roles in Health SocialNetworking.” Conference for Social Computing, BehavioralModeling and Prediction (SBP 2013), Washington, DC.volume 7812. p:193-200. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-37210-0_21
  44. 44. Contributions44—  Recommendations to design online interventionprogram¡  Assists efforts to promote healthy behaviors¡  Identifying these users would be useful for targetingmessages to segmented groups—  Show that people still behave in a way parallel tooffline world—  Multiple techniques to find new patterns in use ofCMC formats¡  Compares multiple CMC formats within an online community(rather than across communities)
  45. 45. Discussion: Participation45—  Participation influenced by social-psychological reasons…¡  information needs, desire to be altruistic, stigmas¡  Social Roles (i.e. caretaker, patient, nurse, friend, etc)—  The more time people spend in an online group, the largertheir online social network and the higher the satisfactionwith the received support.
  46. 46. Early Web 2.0 Social Network Sites—  Elements:¡  Post a group message—  Shared community—  Examples: Discussionboards, Email lists,Q&A—  ElementsProfile + Declare people asfriends + Write Publiccomments—  Ego-centric community—  Examples: twitter,facebook, myspaceDiscussion: New Media46
  47. 47. Discussion: Technology Design—  SNS software design emphasizes relationships—  SNS give users a sense of egocentric community—  Inherent design differences – relationship structure,communication properties—  SNS can be used for healthcare needs to stimulaterelationships between users.—  Some formats such as Journal/Notes lead to greaterlevels of intimacy and stronger social support—  Virtual support complements real-life socialrelationships with fewer stigmas47
  48. 48. Limitations48—  Cannot generalize alcoholism community to otherhealth conditions.—  Content analysis technique can be made stronger¡  i.e. use Key Phrases for content analysis to have reproducibleresults
  49. 49. T H A N K Y O U .C O N T A C T :@ K A T Y C H U A N G O N T W I T T E R49The End.