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La Reforma Y Contrareforma

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La Reforma Y Contrareforma

  1. 1. Reforma y Contrarreforma Prof. Pablo Torres Costa www.histo.tk
  2. 2. ¿Qué es? <ul><li>Movimiento religioso surgido en el siglo XVI en el ámbito de la Iglesia cristiana, que supuso el fin de la hegemonía de la Iglesia católica y la instauración de distintas iglesias ligados al protestantismo. </li></ul>
  3. 3. ¿Cómo surge? <ul><li>La Iglesia de comienzos de la Edad Moderna tiende a hacerse señorial, a acumular riquezas, y a la ostentación de ellas. </li></ul><ul><li>El papa tiene ambiciones políticas </li></ul><ul><li>Una profunda crisis espiritual </li></ul><ul><li>Incapacidad de la iglesia oficial para resolver las angustias religiosas que aquella había provocado. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Precursores de la Reforma <ul><li>Martín Lutero </li></ul><ul><li>Enrique VIII </li></ul><ul><li>Juan Calvino </li></ul>
  5. 5. Martín Lutero (1483-1546) <ul><li>Nace el 10 de noviembre de 1483 en el ceno de una familia pobre. </li></ul><ul><li>1506 Profesa como monje agustino. </li></ul><ul><li>Se ordena sacerdote en 1507. </li></ul><ul><li>En 1510 Realiza un viaje a Roma. </li></ul><ul><li>Accede a la cátedra de Teología Bíblica en 1512. </li></ul><ul><li>En 1517 hace publicas sus 95 tesis. </li></ul>Martín Lutero
  6. 6. <ul><li>Su doctrina se basaba en el principio de salvación por la fe, y partiendo de esta premisa estructuro sus ideas en cuatro puntos principales: </li></ul><ul><li>Libre examen y rechazo de todo intermediario entre el hombre y Dios. </li></ul><ul><li>Reconocimiento de solo dos sacramentos: el bautismo y la comunión. </li></ul><ul><li>Supresión del culto a la Virgen y a los santos, así como la creencia en el purgatorio. </li></ul><ul><li>Supresión de la parte sacrifical de la misa, del celibato eclesiástico y del lujo en los templos. </li></ul><ul><li>En cambio, se fomenta la lectura y explicación de la Biblia, la oración en común y el uso del canto coral. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>1521 es excomulgado por el Papa León X convidado a retractarse por el emperador Carlos V ante la Dieta de Worms. </li></ul><ul><li>1521-1522 Traduce el Nuevo Testamento del griego al alemán. </li></ul><ul><li>De 1524-1526 se opone a las clases populares durante las guerras campesinas. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrae matrimonio con Catalina de Bora en 1525. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>1529 publica su obra: Pequeño catecismo. </li></ul><ul><li>Traduce el Antiguo Testamento en 1532. </li></ul><ul><li>Fallece el 18 de Febrero de 1546 en Eisleben. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Enrique VIII (1431-1547) <ul><li>Rey de Inglaterra desde 1509 hasta 1547 y fundador de la Iglesia Inglesa. </li></ul><ul><li>Se casa con la viuda de su hermano Catalina de Aragón en 1509. </li></ul><ul><li>1527 hace prisionero al Papa Clemente VII. </li></ul><ul><li>Se Hizo nombrar y reconocer como jefe de la Iglesia Inglesa en 1533. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>1533 se casa con Ana Bolena. </li></ul><ul><li>1534 repudio la jurisdicción papal y se nombro a si mismo autoridad eclesiástica suprema de la iglesia. </li></ul><ul><li>Aunque modifico la Iglesia, Enrique nunca quiso introducir la doctrina protestante. </li></ul><ul><li>Cambios realizados: Autorización de traducir la Biblia a ingles, promulgación de letanía Cranmer y traducción a ingles de algunas partes del servicio tradicional. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Esposas de Enrique VIII Ana Bolena Catalina de Aragón Juana Seimour Ana de Cleves catalina Howart catalina Parr
  12. 12. Juan Calvino (1509-1564) <ul><li>Teólogo reformador religioso y humanista francés. </li></ul><ul><li>1533 huye de Francia por apoyar teorías de Lutero. </li></ul><ul><li>Publica en 1536 la 1ª edición de su Institutio chistianae religionis (Instituto de la religión cristiana). </li></ul><ul><li>Publico sus primeros comentarios sobre los libros de la Biblia. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Promovió el uso de la lengua francesa en las Iglesias. </li></ul><ul><li>Su mayor aportación fueron sus escritos. </li></ul><ul><li>Según Calvino: “La Biblia Especificaba la naturaleza de la teología y de todas las instituciones humanas”. </li></ul><ul><li>Los cuatro libros que integraron la Institutio chistianae religionis (Instituto de la religión cristiana) en su colección definitiva se centra en los artículos: Padre, Hijo, Espíritu Santo e Iglesia. </li></ul>
  14. 15. CONTRARREFORMA Calvino será, junto a Martín Lutero , los máximos promotores del conflicto religioso que vive Europa en el siglo XVI. Juan Calvino inició estudios de filosofía y teología en las universidades de Orleans, París y Bourges. Estableciéndose en Basilea. Allí se dedicó a la redacción de su obra cumbre, “La institución de la religión cristiana&quot; donde recoge sus pensamientos. En 1536 recibe la invitación de Farel para instalarse en Ginebra, imponiendo en la ciudad un nuevo sistema político-religioso, creando un Estado represivo e intransigente.
  15. 16. Compañía de Jesús <ul><li>La orden, la compañía de jesús, aseguro el éxito de la contrarreforma. </li></ul><ul><li>Fundada en Roma por S.Ignacio de Loyola en 1540 </li></ul><ul><li>se organizócomo una comunidad de estructura fuertemente jerarquizada y sometida a una estricta disciplina. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Concilio de Trento <ul><li>Se acabo las consiliaciones entre iglesias. </li></ul><ul><li>El consilio en trento inicio en 1545. </li></ul><ul><li>Se elaboró una docrina que contradecía punto por punto lo que los protestantes habían defendido. </li></ul>
  17. 18. El concilio rechazó: <ul><li>Fides caritate formata: la fe fundada en actos de amor es la que salva al hombre,por tanto la gracia es inherente y no imputada como lo dijo Lutero. </li></ul><ul><li>La naturaleza humana privada de libre albeldrío, mero sujeto pasivo de la acción divina. </li></ul><ul><li>Se condeno de esta forma el sacerdocio universal y primacía de la biblia. </li></ul><ul><li>dudas sobre la transubstanciación. </li></ul><ul><li>El matrimonio de los clérigos . </li></ul>
  18. 19. El concilio formuló: <ul><li>Doctrina de la reforma de los sacramentos,la iglesia mantuvo los siete sacramentos desde el siglo XII </li></ul><ul><li>Afirmo el dogma de la trasubstanciación </li></ul><ul><li>Estableció el culto a las reliquias, a los santos, indulgencias y se esforzó por represión a los abusos </li></ul>
  19. 20. Reafirmación de la iglesia . <ul><li>Reorganización de la iglesia fuertemente jerarquizada. </li></ul><ul><li>Pontifices como pilares de la iglesia. </li></ul><ul><li>Autoridad renovada de los obispos: supervisar el clero y la represión a los abusos. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>El concilio de trento finalizó en 1563 </li></ul><ul><li>un año despues muerte de calvino(1564) </li></ul><ul><li>Pudo ver como la iglesia reconquisto los territorios ganados por la reforma. </li></ul>

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