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Xin (Crossroads)


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my presentation at international cultural studies conference in HK 2010

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Xin (Crossroads)

  1. 1. Creative Entrepreneurs and Creative Clusters in Shanghai<br />Prof. Justin O’Connor <br />Dr. XinGu<br />Queensland University of Technology<br />
  2. 2. About the Research<br />Australian Research Council (Linkage project) – Designing creative clusters in China and Australia (2009 – 2012)<br />Five areas:<br />Design (using urban informatics tools)<br />Theorization of cluster models in the west<br />Methdologies for ‘soft infrastructure’ in China and Australia<br />Mapping and Statistics<br />Management and business services<br />Intercultural policy exchange<br />
  3. 3. ‘those industries which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property ’ (Department of Culture, Media and Sports, 1998)<br />
  4. 4. The idea of ‘creative clusters’<br /> Initially used to identify why certain places persisted over time and adapted. <br /> Clusters come from a complex set of sources and interpreted in different ways<br /> Clusters about locality and embedded knowledge – not just agglomeration but ‘atmosphere’.<br /> 1980s: a way of pro-actively creating such areas. <br /> <br />
  5. 5. Creative cluster as policy in UK<br />It is about:<br />Urban Regeneration<br />City Branding, Re-imagine the city<br />It’s also about:<br />Cultural/ Creative Industries –SMEs in particular<br />Shifted from generic business support to social networks development services (eg. CIDS)<br />Local vs. Global<br />
  6. 6. Re-framing Creative Industries in China<br />China’s Creative Economy Era has arrived! <br />From ‘Made in China’ to ‘Created in China’<br />It’s about ‘catching up’ the west; the successful western model have been replicated uncritically – especially ‘creative clusters’<br />
  7. 7. Creative Cluster as policy in China<br />Post-industrial cities (such as Shanghai) – similar problems to the west, but different ‘language’<br />Creative Cluster Development Policy as Creative Industries Development Policy – recognize SMEs but gather them in clusters<br />Justify economic importance of creative clusters<br />
  8. 8. The Shanghai Model<br />Definition of Cis in Shanghai: <br />Research and Development; Architecture and Design; Media Communication; Design Consultancy; Fashion consumption <br /><ul><li>Industries re-structuring: it’s about value chain – to retain talent and profits
  9. 9. Re-inventing its colonial past – city branding
  10. 10. Creative Industries as liberating and progressive: an escape route for ‘cultural’ SMEs</li></li></ul><li>Cluster Fever<br />
  11. 11. Where are the profits in cluster development?<br /> <br />Tax deduction<br />Rent deduction<br />Government Fund (differentiated by districts)<br />Advertisement<br />Big events/exhibition<br />Investment in surrounding properties<br />Shares in businesses within clusters<br />
  12. 12. M50 – from grassroots to flagship<br />
  13. 13. M50<br />
  14. 14. ‘Image Tunnel’<br />
  15. 15. First Wave - From Artist to Entrepreneur<br />Artist : Han Yu Qi<br />Director of Image Tunnel<br />
  16. 16. The Image Tunnel Contradiction<br />‘Han is not a real artist; she is a capitalist’<br />‘Image Tunnel is no different to any other commercial practices’<br />‘Image tunnel ripped off my IP’<br />‘Han is naïve’ <br />Han: I am an artist first and cultural entrepreneur second!<br />
  17. 17. From work studio to art market<br />
  18. 18. Place of production and Place of consumption combined<br />It’s good because:<br />Networking<br />First hand knowledge about the art market<br />Co-branding<br />But the problems are:<br />Noisy, increasing rent, disruption by visitors…<br />Hard to retain Cliché in an ‘open’ market<br />Being associated with ‘too commercial’<br />
  19. 19. The ‘clustering’ effect<br />
  20. 20. Deja Vu…<br />
  21. 21. Second wave - Chen Hang Feng<br /><ul><li>Multimedia artist
  22. 22. It’s alright to make money for artists
  23. 23. Marketization is good but it’s a different kind of market</li></li></ul><li>Vitamin water Guy<br />
  24. 24. Separation of Place of production and consumption<br />It doesn’t matter whether it’s a cluster or not<br />It has to be cheap, very very cheap<br />I like quietness when I am working. So definitely no visitors<br />Convenient<br />Chen:cultural entrepreneur is about learning as you go, you have to find your own way. This has always been the situation in China.<br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Don’t draw attention to yourself!<br />Hideaway space for artists in the city<br />Limited infrastructure & Resources within the cluster – it’s a strategy<br />Cluster has no recognition in the city, artists’ social activity happen elsewhere. It’s purely for production<br />Unstable future – owned by the state, prone to be sold to commercial developer<br />
  27. 27. Landscape of cultural economy in the city<br />It’s about economic discourse, but also social and cultural ones<br />Distinctiveness of local cultural economy<br />The ecology of ‘creative milieu’<br />Market embedded in local socio-cultural context<br />
  28. 28. Creative clusters is not just place of production nor should it be about cultural consumption.<br />The creative ecology demands substances that are able to connect creative entrepreneurs – their work and social life for the exchange of ideas.<br />This will then lead to urban issues not vice verse. <br />