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La elasticidad y su aplicación, capítulo 5 del Mankiw

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005mankiw5

  1. 1. Elasticidad y sus Aplicaciones capítulo 5 Adaptación libre al español para fines académicos Profesor Guillermo Pereyra Copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc .
  2. 2. Elasticidad . . . <ul><li>… es la medida de cómo responden los compradores y vendedores a cambios en las condiciones del mercado </li></ul><ul><li>… nos permite analizar con mayor precisión la oferta y la demanda. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Elasticidad Precio de Demanda <ul><li>Elasticidad Precio de Demanda es el porcentaje de cambio en la cantidad demandada dado el porcentaje de cambio en el precio. </li></ul><ul><li>Es una medida de cuátno responde la cantidad demandada a un cambio en el precio. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Determinantes de la Elasticidad Precio de Demanda <ul><li>Necesidades versus Lujos </li></ul><ul><li>Disponibilidad de sustitutos cercanos </li></ul><ul><li>Definición del mercado </li></ul><ul><li>Horizonte temporal </li></ul>
  5. 5. Determinantes de la Elasticidad Preciod e Demanda <ul><li>La demanda tiende a ser más elástica: </li></ul><ul><li>Si el bien es un lujo. </li></ul><ul><li>Si se cuenta con un mayor período de tiempo. </li></ul><ul><li>Si se tienen más sustitutos cercanos. </li></ul><ul><li>Si el mercado está más estrechamente definido. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Estimando la Elasticidad Precio de Demanda <ul><li>La elasticidad precio de demanda se calcula como el porcentaje de cambio en la cantidad demandada dividido entre el porcentaje de cambio en el precio. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Estimando la Elasticidad Precio de Demanda Ejemplo: Si el precio de un barquillo de helado se incrementa de $2.00 a $2.20 y la cantidad demandada cae de 10 a 8 , entonces la elasticidad de demanda es:
  8. 8. Estimando la Elasticidad Precio de Demanda empleando la fórmula del punto medio Cuando calculamos la elasticidad precio de demanda, la fórlmula del punto medio es preferible porque nos brinda la misma respuesta independientemente de la dirección del cambio en el precio.
  9. 9. Estimando la Elasticidad Precio de Demanda Ejemplo: Si el precio de un barquillo de helado se incrementa de $2.00 a $2.20 y la cantidad demandada cae de 10 a 8 , entonces la elasticidad precio de demanda, empleando la fórmula del punto medio, se calcula:
  10. 10. Rangos de Elasticidad <ul><li>Demanda Inelástica </li></ul><ul><li>La cantidad demanda no responde de manera sensible al cambio de los precios. </li></ul><ul><li>La elasticidad precio de demanda es menor a la unidad. </li></ul><ul><li>Demanda Elástica </li></ul><ul><li>La cantidad demandada responde de manera sensible al cambio en los precios. </li></ul><ul><li>La elasticidad precio de demanda es mayor a la unidad. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Estimando la elasticidad precio de demanda La demanda es elástica $5 4 Demanda Cantidad 100 0 Precio 50
  12. 12. Rangos de Elasticidad <ul><li>Perfectamente Inelástica </li></ul><ul><li>La cantidad demandada no responde al cambio en el precio. </li></ul><ul><li>Perfectamente Elástica </li></ul><ul><li>La cantidad demandada cambia infinitamente con cualquier cambio en el precio. </li></ul><ul><li>Elasticidad Unitaria </li></ul><ul><li>La cantidad demandada cambia en el mismo porcentaje que el cambio en el precio. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Variedad de curvas de demanda Como la elasticidad precio de demanda mide cuánto cambia la cantidad demandada en respuesta a un cambio en el precio, está estrechamente relacionada con la pendiente de la curva de demanda.
  14. 14. Demanda Perfectamente Inelástica Elasticidad = 0 cantidad Precio 2. ...deja la cantidad demandada sin cambio alguno 4 $5 Demanda 100 1. Un incremento en el precio...
  15. 15. Demanda Inelástica Elasticidad < 1 cantidad Precio 4 $5 1. Un 22% de incremento en el precio... Demanda 100 90 2. ...genera una disminución de 11% en la cantidad.
  16. 16. Demanda de Elasticidad Unitaria Elasticidad = 1 cantidad Precio 4 $5 1. Un 22% de incremento en el precio... Demanda 100 80 2. ...genera un 22% de disminución en la cantidad
  17. 17. Demanda Elástica Elasticidad > 1 cantidad Precio 4 $5 1. Un 22% de incremento en el precio... Demanda 100 50 2. ...genera una disminución de 67% en la cantidad
  18. 18. Demanda Perfectamente Elástica Elasticidad =  Cantidad Precio Demanda $4 1. A cualquier precio arriba de 4, la cantidad demandada es cero. 2. Al precio exácto de 4, los consumidores compran cualquier cantidad. 3. A precios debajo de 4, la cantidad demandada es infinita.
  19. 19. Elasticidad e Ingreso Total <ul><li>Ingreso Total es la cantidad pagado por los compradores y recibida por los vendedores de un bien. </li></ul><ul><li>Se calcula como el precio del bien multiplicado por la cantidad vendida. </li></ul><ul><li>IT = P x Q </li></ul>
  20. 20. Elasticidad e Ingreso Total $4 Demanda cantidad P 0 Precio P x Q = $400 (ingreso total) 100 Q
  21. 21. Elasticidad e Ingreso Total <ul><li>Con una curva de demanda inelástica un incremento en el precio conduce a una disminución en la cantidad proporcionalmente menor. En consecuencia, el ingreso total se incrementa . </li></ul>
  22. 22. Elasticidad e Ingreso Total: Demanda Inelástica $3 cantidad 0 Precio 80 IT = $240 Demanda $1 Demanda cantidad 0 IT = $100 100 Precio Un incremento en el precio de 1 a 3... … conduce a un incremento del ingreso total de 100 a 240
  23. 23. Elasticidad e Ingreso Total <ul><li>Con una curva de demanda elástica , un incremento en el precio conduce a una disminución en la cantidad demandada proporcionalmente mayor. En consecuencia, el ingreso total disminuye. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Elasticidad e Ingreso Total: Demanda Elástica Demanda cantidad 0 Precio $4 50 Demanda cantidad 0 Precio IT = $100 $5 20 Un incremento en el precio de 4 a 5.... … conduce a una disminución del ingreso total de 200 a 100 IT = $200
  25. 25. Estimando la elasticidad en una curva de demanda lineal
  26. 26. Elasticidad Ingreso de Demanda <ul><li>Elasticidad Ingreso de Demanda mide cuánto responde la cantidad demandada de un bien a un cambio en el ingreso del consumidor. </li></ul><ul><li>Se estima como el porcentaje de cambio en la cantidad demandada dividido entre el porcentaje de cambio en el ingreso. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Estimando la Elasticidad Ingreso Elasticidad Ingreso % cambio en la cantidad demandada % cambio en el ingreso =
  28. 28. Elasticidad Ingreso - Tipos de Bienes - <ul><li>Bienes Normales </li></ul><ul><li>Bienes Inferiores </li></ul><ul><li>Un mayor ingreso incrementa la cantidad demanda para bienes normales pero disminuye la cantidad demandada para bienes inferiores . </li></ul>
  29. 29. Elasticidad Ingreso - Tipos de Bienes - <ul><li>Los bienes que los consumidores consideran como necesidades tienden a tener una elasticidad inelástica al ingreso Ejemplos: alimentos, ropa, servicios públicos, servicios médicos, gasolina. </li></ul><ul><li>Los bienes que los consumidores consideran como un lujo tienden a tener una elasticidad elástica al ingreso . Ejemplos: carros deportivos, alimentos caros, pieles. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Elasticidad Precio de Oferta <ul><li>Elasticidad Precio de Oferta mide cuánto responde la cantidad ofertada a un cambio en el precio. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Rangos de Elasticidad <ul><li>Perfectamente Elástica </li></ul><ul><li>E S =  </li></ul><ul><li>Elástica </li></ul><ul><li>E S > 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Elasticidad Unitaria </li></ul><ul><li>E S = 1 </li></ul>
  32. 32. Rangos de Elasticidad <ul><li>Inelástica </li></ul><ul><li>E S < 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Perfectamente Inelástica </li></ul><ul><li>E S = 0 </li></ul>
  33. 33. Oferta Perfectamente Inelástica Elasticidad = 0 Cantidad Precio 2. ...deja la cantidad ofertada sin ningún cambio. 4 $5 Oferta 100 1. Un incremento en el precio...
  34. 34. Oferta Inelástica Elasticidad < 1 Cantidad Precio 4 $5 1. Un 22% Incremento en el precio... 110 100 Oferta 2. ...genera un incremento de 10% de incremento en la cantidad
  35. 35. Oferta con Elasticidad Unitaria Elasticidad = 1 Cantidad Precio 4 $5 1. Un 22% incrementp en el precio.... 125 100 Oferta 2. ...genera un incremento de 22% en la cantidad.
  36. 36. Oferta Elástica Elasticidad > 1 Cantidad Precio 4 $5 1. Un 22% incremento en precio... 200 100 Oferta 2. ...genera un 67% de incremento en la cantidad.
  37. 37. Oferta Perfectamente Elástica Elasticidad = oo Cantidad Precio Oferta $4 1. Para cualquier precio arriba de 4, la cantidad ofertada es infinita. 2. Al precio exácto de4, los productores ofertan cualquier cantidad. 3. Para cualquier precio menor a 4, la cantidad ofertada es cero.
  38. 38. Determinantes de la Elasticidad de Oferta <ul><li>La capacidad de los vendedores de cambiar la cantidad del bien que producen. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Los terrenos a la orilla de la playa son inelásticos. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Libros, carros, o bienes manufacturados, son elásticos. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Período de Tiempo. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>La oferta es más elástica en el largo plazo. </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Estimando la Elasticidad Precio de Oferta <ul><li>Se estima como el porcentaje de cambio en la cantidad ofertada dividido entre el porcentaje de cambio en el precio. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Aplicaciones de la Elasticidad <ul><li>¿las buenas noticias pueden ser malas noticias en la agricultura? </li></ul><ul><li>¿Qué sucede en el mercado del maíz y con los agricultores si los cientificos descubren un nuevo hibrido del maíz, más productivo? </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Analice si se desplazan las curvas de oferta o demanda. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine la dirección del desplazamiento de la curva. </li></ul><ul><li>Emplee el diagrama oferta demanda para apreciar los cambios en el equilibrio del mercado. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Incremento de la oferta en el mercado del maíz $3 cantidad 100 0 Precio Demand S 1 Harcourt, Inc. items and derived items copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc.
  43. 43. 3. ...y un proporcionalmente menor incremento en la cantidad vendida. En consecuencia, el ingreso cae de 300 a 220. $3 Cantidad 100 0 Precio 1. Cuando la demanda es inelástica, un incremento en la oferta... Demanda S 1 S 2 2 110 2. ...provoca una fuerte caída en el precio... Harcourt, Inc. items and derived items copyright © 2001 by Harcourt, Inc.
  44. 44. Estimando la Elasticidad
  45. 45. Estimando la Elasticidad La Demanda es inelástica
  46. 46. Resumen <ul><li>La elasticidad precio de demanda mide cuánto responde la cantidad demandada a cambios en el precio. </li></ul><ul><li>Si la curva de demanda es elástica, el ingreso total cae cuando los precios suben. </li></ul><ul><li>Si es inelástica, el ingreso total sube si el precio sube. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Resumen <ul><li>La elasticidad precio de oferta mide cuánto responde la cantidad ofertada a los cambios en el precio. </li></ul><ul><li>En muchos mercados, la oferta es más elástica en el largo plazo que en el corto plazo. </li></ul>

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