Are <br />we our brothers’<br />keepers?	<br />
Do we have an instinct for compassion<br />Or……………………<br />
OR…<br />Is SURVIVAL the <br />                     main concern?<br />
FRANS DE WAAL<br />A biologist at Emory university <br />Studies altruistic and social behavior in primates<br />About the...
A book of revelations <br />   Aiming to overthrow common assumptions!<br />A book  of surprising disclosures <br />      ...
Examine empathy from an <br />evolutionary perspective.<br />Challenge the notion<br /> that human society is ONLY <br />c...
 Common assumption:<br />Human race THRIVES based <br />on principles of:<br /><ul><li> Survival of fittest
 Natural selection</li></ul>Frans de Waal counteracts each one of these by stating that empathy comes naturally to us and ...
How many of us have a turtle as a pet?<br />Or an iguana perhaps???<br />
Why do we prefer cats <br />and dogs as pets?<br />This is because these <br />animals are capable of<br /> having an emot...
Bookreport<br />This  extremely well-written book is rich of research, biological observations and anecdotes about primate...
The following anecdotes from the book are <br />some of my favorite and <br />are a glimpse  to provide insight <br />on t...
Origins of altruism and fairness<br />Once upon a time, <br />Two monkeys  given hugely different rewards for same task<br...
We take SOCIAL  NETWORKS for granted. <br />A new climbing structure was built for chimpanzees at a research center.<br />...
What followed was completely unexpected! <br />       The chimps literally jumped into each others’ arms, kissing and<br /...
The number of long-tailed macaques was once counted on islands <br />Which had cats ( tigers, leopards), and those that di...
H<br />E<br />R<br />D<br />I<br />N<br />S<br />T<br />I<br />N<br />C<br />T<br />When walking with someone… <br />...wh...
H<br />E<br />R<br />D<br />I<br />N<br />S<br />T<br />I<br />N<br />C<br />T<br />Why do we love a Mexican wave?<br />
We oscillate together <br />                       at pop concerts!<br />We take aerobics classes where we all <br />jump ...
WE ARE GROUP ANIMALS TO A TERRIFYING DEGREE!<br />The human herd instinct beats that of some animals also!!<br />
Animals develop trust relationships <br />Readily, even between species. <br />T<br />R<br />U<br />S<br />T<br />In an ol...
In Denmark, it is common practice for mothers to leave their babies on strollers unattended outside stores!!!<br />“Where ...
T<br />R<br />U<br />S<br />T<br />I guess it’s no wonder that the Danes<br />	have the lowest crime rate in the world!<br...
Ask anyone why we (the human race) are the way we are?<br />And pat comes the reply-<br />“Oh, that’s the way it has been ...
Animals are peacemakers, <br />Not aggressive <br />Not competitors <br />NOT fighting for survival!!! <br />There is an ‘...
De Waal studies apes and monkeys, specifically, how emotionally ‘developed’ they are, <br />	and how ‘EMPATHY’ could evolv...
He clearly shows all the ways animals and    	humans, are inheritors of a peaceful and cooperative genetic legacy that is ...
How can one explain<br />Bengal tigers that nurse piglets, <br />Bonoboapes that help wounded birds to        								fly,...
B<br />O<br />O<br />K<br />R<br />E<br />P<br />O<br />R<br />T<br />The anecdotes I have mentioned are but a few of the ...
B<br />O<br />O<br />K<br />R<br />E<br />P<br />O<br />R<br />T<br />Something we must treasure and which is age old. <br...
I think the human race, the so called most evolved race is the only one to do so!<br />It’s time we learnt a lesson from o...
Through a better understanding <br />	of empathy's survival value in evolution, <br />we can work together <br />towards a...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

The Age Of Empathy

4,464 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,464
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3,305
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
22
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The Age Of Empathy

  1. 1. Are <br />we our brothers’<br />keepers? <br />
  2. 2. Do we have an instinct for compassion<br />Or……………………<br />
  3. 3. OR…<br />Is SURVIVAL the <br /> main concern?<br />
  4. 4.
  5. 5. FRANS DE WAAL<br />A biologist at Emory university <br />Studies altruistic and social behavior in primates<br />About the author<br />
  6. 6. A book of revelations <br /> Aiming to overthrow common assumptions!<br />A book of surprising disclosures <br /> Interspersed with shockers! <br />Makes one a thinker, <br /> IT IS A TRUE EYE-OPENER!<br />What this book is all about?<br />
  7. 7. Examine empathy from an <br />evolutionary perspective.<br />Challenge the notion<br /> that human society is ONLY <br />competitive, war-like, selfish, <br />greedy.<br /> Focus of this book<br />
  8. 8. Common assumption:<br />Human race THRIVES based <br />on principles of:<br /><ul><li> Survival of fittest
  9. 9. Natural selection</li></ul>Frans de Waal counteracts each one of these by stating that empathy comes naturally to us and we have in turn acquired it from primates. <br />
  10. 10. How many of us have a turtle as a pet?<br />Or an iguana perhaps???<br />
  11. 11. Why do we prefer cats <br />and dogs as pets?<br />This is because these <br />animals are capable of<br /> having an emotional connection and are capable of feeling. <br />
  12. 12. Bookreport<br />This extremely well-written book is rich of research, biological observations and anecdotes about primates and other species. <br />The author builds a strong case to support the thesis that ‘advanced’ emotional and mental processes such as EMPATHY are not unique to humans, but have observable antecedents among numerous other species within the animal kingdom.<br />MAIN PREMISE: Challenge the simplistic view, based loosely on Darwin, that <br />society is about "survival of the fittest" and "natural selection".<br />He stresses that cooperative behavior is necessary for most mammalian animal societies to exist.<br />
  13. 13. The following anecdotes from the book are <br />some of my favorite and <br />are a glimpse to provide insight <br />on the animal kingdom, <br /> their behavior and similar <br />stories from their brethren- the human race!<br />
  14. 14. Origins of altruism and fairness<br />Once upon a time, <br />Two monkeys given hugely different rewards for same task<br />The one at the shorter end, refused to <br />perform!<br />Once upon a time, <br />Two individuals rejected income as the distribution was unfair !<br />A<br />N<br />E<br />C<br />D<br />O<br />T<br />E<br />S<br />Since any income should beat none, this shows that both animals and <br />people fail to follow the profit principle to the letter. <br />Shows natural dislike of injustice. <br />Protest against unfairness. <br />
  15. 15. We take SOCIAL NETWORKS for granted. <br />A new climbing structure was built for chimpanzees at a research center.<br /> During the one month that it took to build, the chimps were locked next <br />to the site, in separate cages and some were in separate buildings too. <br />There was a huge gathering of people the day the chimps were to be <br />released and let into the climbing structure. Expectations were galore on which chimp would scale the heights first!<br />
  16. 16. What followed was completely unexpected! <br /> The chimps literally jumped into each others’ arms, kissing and<br />hugging!<br />The chimps hardly noticed the new construction, even while <br />standing under it!<br />Re-establishing social connections and bonding was a priori here!<br />
  17. 17. The number of long-tailed macaques was once counted on islands <br />Which had cats ( tigers, leopards), and those that did not. <br />The monkeys were found traveling in large groups on islands with<br />cats and travelled in smaller groups on safer islands. <br /> More vulnerable a species, larger its aggregations!<br /> High degree of interdependence.<br />H<br />E<br />R<br />D<br />I<br />N<br />S<br />T<br />I<br />N<br />C<br />T<br />
  18. 18. H<br />E<br />R<br />D<br />I<br />N<br />S<br />T<br />I<br />N<br />C<br />T<br />When walking with someone… <br />...why do we automatically fall in step with them?<br />
  19. 19. H<br />E<br />R<br />D<br />I<br />N<br />S<br />T<br />I<br />N<br />C<br />T<br />Why do we love a Mexican wave?<br />
  20. 20. We oscillate together <br /> at pop concerts!<br />We take aerobics classes where we all <br />jump up and down to the same <br />beat!!<br />WHY???<br />
  21. 21. WE ARE GROUP ANIMALS TO A TERRIFYING DEGREE!<br />The human herd instinct beats that of some animals also!!<br />
  22. 22. Animals develop trust relationships <br />Readily, even between species. <br />T<br />R<br />U<br />S<br />T<br />In an old-fashioned zoo, a monkey and<br />hippopotamus were kept n the same <br />enclosure. <br />Part of daily routine was the monkey <br />approaching the hippo after the latter <br />had finished a meal of cucumbers. <br />The monkey would tap the hippo’s <br />mouth, which would open wide. <br />The monkey would then lean in and <br />Pull food remains from the hippo’s teeth, <br />Eating whatever he pulled out. <br />Such stories are abundant and countless!<br />
  23. 23. In Denmark, it is common practice for mothers to leave their babies on strollers unattended outside stores!!!<br />“Where would one go with an abducted child?”,they ask. <br />“Wouldn’t everyone ask where the child came from?”<br />T<br />R<br />U<br />S<br />T<br />
  24. 24. T<br />R<br />U<br />S<br />T<br />I guess it’s no wonder that the Danes<br /> have the lowest crime rate in the world!<br /> world’s highest happiness score!<br />The faith that Danes unthinkingly place in one another is called <br />“social capital” <br /> - maybe the most precious capital there is!<br />
  25. 25. Ask anyone why we (the human race) are the way we are?<br />And pat comes the reply-<br />“Oh, that’s the way it has been for ages!”<br />“It’s in our genes” <br /> “If I am selfish and competitive, blame the ancestors! They were the ones who taught us to fight for survival!"<br />
  26. 26. Animals are peacemakers, <br />Not aggressive <br />Not competitors <br />NOT fighting for survival!!! <br />There is an ‘empathetic’ and ‘sympathetic’ side to them too!<br />
  27. 27. De Waal studies apes and monkeys, specifically, how emotionally ‘developed’ they are, <br /> and how ‘EMPATHY’ could evolve in a species. <br />The author shows human emotion to be a bottom-up process and that our advanced ethical reasoning is built up from structures and behaviors that we use that are found throughout the animal kingdom.<br />Book Report Contd.<br />
  28. 28. He clearly shows all the ways animals and humans, are inheritors of a peaceful and cooperative genetic legacy that is the polar opposite of the <br />"dog eat dog" mentality <br />which is the misconception that human evolutionary biology has helped create in our culture.<br />Book Report Contd... <br />
  29. 29. How can one explain<br />Bengal tigers that nurse piglets, <br />Bonoboapes that help wounded birds to fly, Seals that rescue drowning dogs?<br /> OR<br />Who would expect that a rhesus monkey will forgo the opportunity for food if pulling the chain that delivers it will electrically shock a companion?<br />Book Report Contd... <br />
  30. 30. B<br />O<br />O<br />K<br />R<br />E<br />P<br />O<br />R<br />T<br />The anecdotes I have mentioned are but a few of the kaleidoscope of experiences that de Waal has seen and observed/been a part of. <br />Too many people invoke "evolution" to justify treating each other in contemptuous ways.<br />The human race today is essentially thought of as selfish, greedy, etc. <br />Is this true? I don’t think so. Empathy is something we have gained from our ancestors. <br />
  31. 31. B<br />O<br />O<br />K<br />R<br />E<br />P<br />O<br />R<br />T<br />Something we must treasure and which is age old. <br />Then where has this empathy disappeared? <br />In the entire book, I learnt about so many species and their ways, there was something common amongst all of them—<br /> Not a single species tries to torture/wipe out its own kind!<br />
  32. 32. I think the human race, the so called most evolved race is the only one to do so!<br />It’s time we learnt a lesson from our forbears take this lesson in civility to heart.<br />Before attaining the peaks of civilization, <br />one must pay attention to the foothills. <br />The peaks may glimmer in the sun, but it is the foothills that will take us to them.<br />
  33. 33. Through a better understanding <br /> of empathy's survival value in evolution, <br />we can work together <br />towards a more just society <br />based on a more<br />generous and accurate <br />view of human nature.<br />
  34. 34. This book has had a huge influence on the way I think– <br />Every behavior of mine- I stop to question and think from <br />where it may have originated?<br />It has made me more curious and leaves me wanting <br />more answers!<br />I will also now try to be more empathetic towards everyone I <br />come across, keeping in mind the legacy I am now a part of!<br />

×