Conflict Powerpoint


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A photojournalist returns from war and looks at his home country with the same critical eye. Ongoing work. Comments to

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Conflict Powerpoint

  1. 1. ‘‘ So you think you know where madness lies?’ My answer was a convinced and heartfelt, ‘Yes.’ ‘And you couldn’t control it?’ ‘No, I couldn’t control it. If one began with fear and hate as the major premise, one would have to go on to the conclusion.’ Aldous Huxley, The Doors of Perception ‘ Almost all conflict is about the allocation of resources. People fight in war or in civil society to get a better deal.’ Colonel Bob Stewart DSO, first British UN commander in Bosnia, reviewing the following work… CONFLICT Photographs by Neil Jackson ‘ If you can keep your head while those around you are losing theirs, then you have misunderstood the situation.’ Graffiti referred to by John Fullerton in The Monkey House
  2. 2. <ul><li>(Following slide) Outside the Neretva Hotel in </li></ul><ul><li>Mostar, Bosnia Hercegovina, 1992. </li></ul><ul><li>The pistol is not a toy. The city witnessed some of the bitterest fighting during the war in former Yugoslavia. At first Serb irregulars and the Bosnian Serb Army shelled and occupied parts of the city, looting and destroying. Later, when the uneasy pact between Muslims and Croats fell apart, the place became the stage for a bizarre dance with death. Whilst excrement, ruins and graveyards </li></ul><ul><li>littered the remains of the Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>beleaguered east bank enclave, </li></ul><ul><li>an SAS team worked in the </li></ul><ul><li>shadow of the guns, directly </li></ul><ul><li>for UN commander General Rose. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ We rounded a corner and blinked. </li></ul><ul><li>Stretching away in front of us was </li></ul><ul><li>the continuation of the same street </li></ul><ul><li>we’d just trundled down. Where </li></ul><ul><li>there’d been filth and rubble on </li></ul><ul><li>the Muslim side, here we saw bright </li></ul><ul><li>shop windows and cafes and pavements. </li></ul><ul><li>The buildings were hardly scratched. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ What the f***…?’ Keith said. ‘Did we just breeze into an episode of Time Tunnel or something?’ </li></ul><ul><li>I knew what he meant. Not only did it seem like a different era, it felt like we’d been plonked down in a different city. I hadn't seen so many neon lights and posers since the Via del Corso in Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>This, I realised, was a bottled version of the Muslim-Croat divide across the whole of Bosnia. While the Muslims suffered, the ethnic Croats just got on with it, their needs met by their big brother in Croatia proper. You couldn’t help but wonder how the Muslims had held out for so long.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Cameron Spence, All Necessary Measures </li></ul>
  3. 4. ‘ Words build bridges into unexplored regions.’ Adolf Hitler. The Nazi leader delivered his Nuremberg speeches from the rostrum below. Germany Oberer Kuhberg, a Napoleonic fortress near Ulm. When the Nazis took over Germany in 1933 they swiftly pressed such places such into being as impromptu prisons, incarcerating their biggest political enemies of the day. But their sights soon widened… ‘ How horrible, fantastic, incredible it is that we should be digging trenches and trying on gas-masks here because of a quarrel in a far-away country between people of whom we know nothing !’ British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
  4. 6. Behind this aerial photograph displayed at KZ Dachau (Dachau concentration camp) are the concrete foundations of the barrack blocks where the prisoners were housed. ‘I herewith commission you to carry out all preparations with regard to… a total solution of the Jewish question in those territories of Europe which are under German influence.’ Marshal Hermann Goering to Chief of the German Security Forces SS Gruppenfuhrer Reinhard Heydrich, July 31, 1941 . ‘First they came for the Jews, And I did not speak out, Because I am not a Jew. Then they came for the Communists, And I did not speak out, Because I was not a Communist. Then they came for the trade unionists, And I did not speak out, Because I was not a trade unionist. Then they came for me, And there was no one left To speak out for me.’ Pastor Martin Niemöller, who was imprisoned here
  5. 8. <ul><li>‘ Never shall I forget that night, the first night in camp, which has turned my life into one long night, seven times cursed and seven times sealed. </li></ul><ul><li>Never shall I forget the little faces of the children, whose bodies I saw turned into wreaths of smoke beneath a silent blue sky. </li></ul><ul><li>Never shall I forget those flames which consumed my faith forever. </li></ul><ul><li>Never shall I forget that nocturnal silence which deprived me, for all eternity, of the desire to live. Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and my soul and turned my dream to dust. Never shall I forget these things, even if I am condemned to live as long as God himself. Never.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Elie Wiesel, Night </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeping accommodation </li></ul>
  6. 10. ‘… twelve goods wagons and an escort of soldiers stood waiting. The soldiers clubbed and struck these men, women and children who were going to be reduced to ashes in a few days time, adding a vein of pointless brutality to the martyrdom inflicted. Why such cruelty, since they were going to die?’ Myriam Anissimov, Primo Levi, Tragedy of an Optimist (Writer Gitta Sereny interviews Franz Stangl, commander of extermination camps Sobibor and Treblinka…) ‘Why… if they were going to kill them anyway, what was the point of all the humiliation, why the cruelty?’ ‘To condition those who actually had to carry out the policies… To make it possible for them to do what they did.’ Gitta Sereny, Into that Darkness Crematorium
  7. 12. <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ The Hungarians waited patiently in line, not imagining that ashes might be all that remained of their families and friends. They thought that they were going for a shower and a medical check. There were so many of them that the gas chambers could not make room for them all. The crematoria were overloaded, and the SS had big pits dug, where people stunned by gas were burned. The giant flames lit up the night sky of Auschwitz, a dreadful smell of burnt flesh filled the air, and suddenly screams of horror, children’s screams, rose from the crowd.’ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An account by Luciana Nissim, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ricordi della casa dei morti </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Memories from the </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>House of the Dead) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 14. <ul><li>‘ I find no solution to the riddle.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Primo Levi (1919 - 1987) </li></ul>
  9. 16. <ul><li>‘ Now I know why I am here.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Major Richard Winters, former commanding officer of Easy Company, 506 Parachute </li></ul><ul><li>Infantry Regiment, </li></ul><ul><li>101st Airborne Division, US Army, </li></ul><ul><li>on the discovery of a Dachau sub-camp. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ I said the world must be made safe </li></ul><ul><li>for at least fifty years. </li></ul><ul><li>If it was only for fifteen to twenty years </li></ul><ul><li>then we should have betrayed our soldiers.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Former Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill </li></ul><ul><li>(1874 - 1965) , </li></ul><ul><li>Closing the Ring </li></ul><ul><li>‘ It is exciting to have a real crisis on your hands, </li></ul><ul><li>when you have spent half your political life </li></ul><ul><li>dealing with humdrum issues like the environment.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, </li></ul><ul><li>in a speech to the Scottish Conservative Conference </li></ul><ul><li>during the Falklands War, May 1982 </li></ul>
  10. 18. <ul><li>‘ All human beings </li></ul><ul><li>are born free and </li></ul><ul><li>equal in dignity </li></ul><ul><li>and rights.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Article One, </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Declaration </li></ul><ul><li>of Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>(1948) </li></ul>‘ WE THE PEOPLE OF THE UNITED NATIONS DETERMINED to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to reaffirm the faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small…’ Charter of the United Nations, introduction
  11. 19. ‘ Members of the different religious faiths mix with each other on amicable terms and show mutual respect and mutual toleration; the courts are wisely and honestly administered. Justice is awarded to every citizen, regardless of his religion or social position.’ American journalist W.E. Curtis, who visited Bosnia in 1902 Bosnia ‘ Evil prospers when good men do nothing.’ John Philpot Curran or Edmund Burke (uncertain providence)
  12. 20. ‘ After six centuries we are again engaged in battles and quarrels. They are not armed battles, but this cannot be excluded yet.’ Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic (1941-2006), 600 th anniversary speech to more than a million people at the Mediaeval battlefield of Kosovo Polje, ‘ The Field of Blackbirds’, where a defeat by the Turks prompted the Serb exodus from their ancestral homeland. 28 June, 1989 ‘ I think it would be a good idea.’ Quote attributed to Gandhi on being asked his view of Western civilisation
  13. 21. ‘ The West is not aware of the penetration of Islam in the Balkans, where mosques are rising where there were none before.’ Serbian Orthodox Bishop Atansije, speaking of Hercegovina in 1992. In 1992 a Bosnian Serb artillery shell penetrated the minaret of this ancient Hercegovinan mosque
  14. 23. <ul><li>‘ Genocidal violence is a natural phenomenon in harmony with the societal and mythologically Divine nature. Genocide is not only permitted it is also recommended, even commanded by the Word of the Almighty, whenever it is useful for the survival or the restoration of the earthly kingdom of the chosen nation, or for the preservation and spreading of its one and only correct faith.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Croatian President </li></ul><ul><li>Franjo Tudjman (1922-1999) , </li></ul><ul><li>Wastelands of Historical Truth, 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>‘ There was (to be) no cavalry coming over the hill. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no international force coming to stop this.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Sunday Telegraph 16/8/1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas Hogg MP, of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, describes to journalists at Sarajevo airport how he explained to Bosnia’s President Izetbegovic the realities of the situation as seen from the the British government’s perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Norrie’, a mercenary who told me he was a former 22 Special Air Service Squadron Sergeant Major. Employed by the Bosnian Croats as a trainer of potential officers, he later fought with the Moslems against his former protégés. </li></ul><ul><li>Outside Listica, Bosnia Hercegovina, 1992 </li></ul>
  15. 25. ‘ I don’t give a f**k. These people are paying your wages.’ Ian Greer on the Serbian government, 1992. President Milosevic paid British political lobbyists Ian Greer Associates nearly £100,000 to use his stable of tame ‘ Cash for Questions’ MPs to promote Serbian interests in Parliament. ‘ I learned to treat Britain as a hostile power, out to block anything, everything. They were prepared to go to the wall against us on Bosnia. I came to think of the British as like having the Russians around the State Department. Or maybe the Serbs themselves.’ US State Department senior official. A hospital in Mostar, 1992. This doctor explains why her patients had to be moved into the relative safety of the basements; the building was situated next to an army headquarters and was coming under repeated artillery fire from the Bosnian Serb Army. The room she is standing in was an operating theatre which received a direct hit just minutes after an operation. The outer wall was a ragged hole
  16. 27. ‘ Let us do nothing - AT ONCE!’ Mathew Gordon, former United Nations chief press officer, on a previous conflict. He was translating a representative’s speech for the English-speaking press corps. ‘ If these governments are not moved by those pictures of death and suffering, if they are not moved by the position of ethnic cleansing in Europe, two million refugees, mass graves being found in Croatia, then they should be; we cannot let things go on like this. It is evil.’ Lady Thatcher rounds on EC leaders, including then-Prime Minister John Major, during an interview with the American NBC News channel, April 15, 1993. A day later the UN voted to make Srebrenica a ‘safe haven.’ Two years later, over 8,000 civilians, including children, were massacred there as UN soldiers looked on. The Mostar ‘Old Bridge’, which was deliberately destroyed by Bosnian Croat soldiers on November 9, 1993. The River Neretva, which it straddled, is considered by many Serbs to be the dividing line between Serb and Croat territory
  17. 29. ‘ Emotional nonsense!’ Malcolm Rifkind MP, Secretary of State for Defence, condemns Margaret Thatcher’s pro-Bosnian stance. The hospital basement
  18. 31. ‘ If we had not been there it would have been worse.’ Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Secretary General of The United Nations, 1992 - 1996. ‘ There are people around here (Beverly Hills) who have armed response teams hooked up to their alarm systems. Press a button and Rambo arrives. It’s bad news if you forgot your door keys. Others fill their swimming pools with mineral water and bring in bottled mountain air from the Rockies. My dad would have loved this place; no idea is too silly.’ United Nations goodwill ambassador Geri Halliwell, If Only (September 20, 1998) blind adj 1a unable to see; sightless… 2 … unable or unwilling to understand or discern Collins English Dictionary This frame: ‘press a button and Rambo arrives’. An armed Australian mercenary arrives in Split, ready to fight. Next: Toppled minaret in what was a Muslim hamlet just outside the town of Sipovo
  19. 33. (After driving from the Omarska camp to the Manjacha processing camp) ‘ The eerie silence lasted around ten minutes. ‘You got a Dedo Crnalich on this bus?’ came the first call in the bus right next to Djemo. Now they were after Dedo, a guy everyone in Prijedor knew, the owner of one of the nicest restaurants in town, an athlete, and someone always involved in one public office or another. As he was getting out, one of the beasts said, ‘Now let me show you how hamburger meat should be ground up,’ and drew a sharp knife across Dedo’s back, right at the door of the bus. Blood spattered all over everyone crumpled up on top of each other by the door. They could hear Dedo’s blood gurgling and his breath expiring as his body went into convulsions; then the deathly silence returned.’ Rezak Hukanovich, The Tenth Circle of Hell A peasant farmer released from detention. He told me (via interpreter) his children and grandchildren had been murdered ‘ Asked why the prisoners were so thin, (police chief) Mr. Drljaca said the Muslims were naturally skinny because they did not eat pork and fasted each year during Ramadan. &quot;That's the way the Muslim nation is,&quot; he said. &quot;Have you read the Koran?&quot; Ramadan, the Muslim month of fasting, ended in early April. Few appear to be bruised. Mr. Drljaca insisted that none of the prisoners had been physically mistreated and that reports of drumhead courts martial and summary executions were untrue.’ Chuck Sudetic, New York Times , August 8, 1992 ‘ Beginning in April, Serb forces attacked Muslims and Croats living in towns, villages, and smaller settlements, most of which were undefended and contained no military targets. Muslims and Croats were mistreated and killed. Men were often arrested and taken to detention centres, while women and children were forced to leave their homes, and were either detained or forced to leave the municipality. Their homes were then either looted and destroyed by Serb forces, or appropriated by Serb authorities. Serb forces also destroyed cultural monuments and sacred sites of importance to the Muslim and Croat populations. The conditions in many detention centres where Muslims and Croats were held were intolerable, without sufficient food, water, medical care, and hygiene facilities. The detainees were often beaten and sometimes raped by members of the Serb forces, some of whom were employed as guards, while others (Serbs) were allowed access to detention centres. Many detainees suffered physical and psychological injuries and health problems. Many detainees died as a result. Many detainees were also deliberately killed, by members of paramilitaries, police or other Serb forces.’ Extract from the Summary of Judgement against Momcilo Krajishnik, highest ranking politician at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
  20. 35. ‘ Time is a violent torrent; no sooner is a thing brought to sight than it is swept by and another takes its place.’ Marcus Aurelius (AD 80 - 120) Meditations book 4, section 43 ‘ At this stage the fighting in Bosnia Hercegovina began to break the bounds of imagination. Around the Konjic area, Serb units guaranteed the Croats safe passage as they were retreating. When Gornji Vakuf was being contested, a fight between Croats and Moslems was being monitored by a nearby Serb unit. After some hours the Moslem guns fell silent. The Serb commander radioed his Moslem counterpart. ‘Why have you stopped firing?’ he asked. ‘ We’ve run out of ammunition. Give us some ammunition,’ the reply came. Instead the Serb commander requested the Croat co-ordinates which the Moslem commander duly supplied. Over the next four hours, the Serb unit pounded the Croats into surrender. The following morning at dawn, the Moslem commander ordered his men to run up the Yugoslav flag instead of the Bosnian ensign in order to thank the Serbs.’ Misha Glenny , The Fall of Yugoslavia The main street through Gornji Vakuf
  21. 37. ‘ Everything has changed for us. But the real difference is that the shelling could start at any moment. When your main reason for being alive is luck , life becomes very strange. I don’t think people who have not been in that situation can understand it. It’s not so much a question of whether we survive, it is a question of staying normal. After all the refugees, the dead bodies and the destruction, all those terrible things, the question is this: tomorrow, when all this is stopped, how will I live without remembering? Will I have a smile as before? Will I be happy as before? That is the question for all of us to answer, but I don’t know the answer.’ Emir Tica, 25, speaking from Travnik to Ed Vulliamy, Seasons In Hell A front-line command bunker, with rock sangars on the ridge-line beyond ‘ According to Marco Altherr, former head of the International Committee for the Red Cross in Yugoslavia, the conflict there was “the first time I’ve seen such strong and effective propaganda on both sides. When you’re talking to either side, they’re absolutely convinced they’ll be slaughtered by the other side.’ Ian Traynor, Yugoslavia’s Brutal Television War
  22. 39. ‘ Sa nama nema neizvesnosti’ (With us there is no insecurity) Electoral promise of the Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS) ‘ Nato involvement is something that is not going to happen.’ British Foreign Secretary Douglas Hurd, Sunday Times , 13/2/1994
  23. 41. ‘ I am ashamed to say that the British government, by a huge miscalculation, has been an unwitting accomplice to… a policy of such incompetence and arrogance that it is akin to the appeasement of the Nazis.’ Sir John Nott, Defence Secretary during the Falklands campaign, in The Times , December 1,1994 On December 14, 1995, the Americans finally had their way, and the Dayton Peace Accords were signed in Paris. NATO head-dress replaced the pale blue helmets, and the killing stopped almost overnight. But by then over 100,000 had died. A year later, in 1996, ‘a freshly retired Douglas Hurd, now acting as deputy chairman of Natwest Markets, visited Belgrade in pursuit of a lucrative contract to advise on the privatisation of Serbian utilities.’ Unfinest Hour , Brendan Simms NATO involvement takes off
  24. 43. ‘ During the escalation of the conflict, few ‘front line’ photographs appeared. The extensive omission of maps or drawings, which could have made war operations easier to understand, was particularly striking. Clearly, the aim was to make it difficult for the recipient to trace the actual course of (the) conflict, in order to increase confusion, fear and feelings of anxiety. In this way, the (Croatian) government secured its monopoly of true information and insight into actual relationships. Belgrade’s counterpart of the Zagreb Vjesnik is the daily newspaper Politika , and, in 1991, reporting in this newspaper was subject to a content analysis. Amongst the findings was that subjects were not selected on the basis of their news value, even in the case of war events, but rather on the basis of the political significance of the published reports. The researcher found that such selection criteria served to promote propaganda goals. Instead of portraying reality, reality was interpreted in order to influence the reader more effectively.’ Dushan Reljic, Killing Screens: Media in Times of Conflict Page 55 (PDF file, website) from the Central Europe Review This frame: a convoy from Hereford Humanitarian Aid delivering supplies to somebody’s enemy, 2000
  25. 44. ..The Deputy Chief Prosecutor at the (Hague War Crimes) tribunal, Graham Blewitt, said that had Tudjman lived the tapes would have provided evidence of involvement in atrocities. &quot;I'm confident we could have established his responsibility for the crimes that were committed,&quot; he said. The tapes also show how the Tudjman regime plundered the country of 1 billion pounds, leaving workers unpaid, massive unemployment and a banking crisis.’ The Independent , 1 November, 2000. This frame: A Japanese war photographer walks the deserted streets. Shrapnel, bullets and devalued money crunched underfoot. ‘ SECRET TAPE recordings made by the late President Franjo Tudjman of Croatia prove that he and his close circle were directly involved in perpetrating war crimes and stole £1 billion from his war-racked country. The Tudjman tapes, whose existence was not known until now, were recorded at the Pantov presidential palace where the Balkan dictator had his office until his death last December. From the palace, in a forest outside Zagreb, Tudjman and his cronies masterminded Croatia's role in the Bosnian war…
  26. 45. ‘ The Medjugorje Web is dedicated to providing information about one of the most amazing and important supernatural events of our time. Since 1981, in a small village named Medjugorje in Bosnia-Herzegovina (map) , The Blessed Virgin Mary has been appearing and giving messages to the world. She tells us that God has sent her to our world and, these years she is spending with us are a time of Grace granted by God. In her own words she tells us, &quot;I have come to tell the world that God exists. He is the fullness of life, and to enjoy this fullness and peace, you must return to God&quot; . Since the apparitions began in 1981, millions of people of all faiths, from all over the world, have visited Medjugorje and have left spiritually strengthened and renewed. Countless unbelievers and physically or mentally afflicted, have been converted and healed. You owe it to yourself and your loved ones, to investigate with an open mind and heart the events which are occurring in Medjugorje.’ ‘ &quot;The Wall of Love&quot;, the movement of mothers for peace, is organizing a novena of prayer for the nine last Saturdays of the month. The second such meeting was held on February 28, 1998 when mothers, husbands, sisters and friends gathered for community prayer in the church of St. James in Medjugorje. There was prayer especially for all those killed and missing in the course of the war as well as for the Croatians accused in the Haag. After confessions the Eucharistic celebration followed. We take this opportunity to thank the large number of foreign pilgrims who joined the mothers and their husbands in prayer for Croatian defenders.’ (Mejugorje press bulletin, April 8, 1998) On April 16, 1993, in the Moslem village of Ahmici in the Lasva Valley, ‘Croatian defenders’ (who later appeared in ‘the Haag’) poured petrol into a cellar and burned to death the children and mother hiding there. ‘ An estimate puts the death toll at 120. The youngest was a three-month-old baby, who was machine-gunned to death in his crib, and the oldest was a 96-year-old woman.’ - Wikipedia, Ahmici Massacre (as of 1 July, 2008) A towering frontline church in Bishop Peric’s diocese under construction ‘… In Mostar itself, the Bishop (Ratko Peric of Mostar) refused to remove the massive cross above Hum Hill, a cross that dominates all vistas and skylines in the immediate area. He rejected appeals of Catholics and non-Catholics in the area to dismantle this symbol that imposes a single religious identity over an area known for its rich diversity of traditions. He rejected the appeal of the UN Office of the High Representative to consider the effect of this massive Latin cross on returning Orthodox Christian and Muslim residents.’ Letter to the pope by Michael Sells, Emily Judson Baugh and John Marshall Gest (US religious professors at leading colleges), October 27, 2003
  27. 47. And so the challenge was taken up...
  28. 49. ‘ There is no Bosnian culture.’ Henry Kissinger urging a Croat/Serb partition of Bosnia on the Charlie Rose Show , September 14, 1995. During the Vietnam war, Kissinger relayed President Nixon’s order to initiate war on Cambodia. He ordered General Alexander Haig to mount ‘a massive bombing campaign in Cambodia. Anything that flies on anything that moves.’ Whitehouse telephone transcript, December 9, 1970. In 1973 Kissinger won the Nobel Peace Prize. ‘ Political satire became obsolete when Henry Kissinger was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.’ American satirist Tom Lehrer ‘ THREE YEARS have passed since the beginning of the war in Bosnia. Amidst the reports of human suffering and atrocities, another tragic loss has gone largely unnoted; the destruction of the written record of Bosnia’s past. On 25 August 1992, Bosnia’s National and University Library, a handsome Moorish-revival building built in the 1890s on the Sarajevo riverfront, was shelled and burned. Before the fire, the library held 1.5 million volumes, including over 155,000 rare books and manuscripts; the country's national archives; deposit copies of newspapers, periodicals and books published in Bosnia; and the collections of the University of Sarajevo. Bombarded with incendiary grenades from Serbian nationalist positions across the river, the library burned for three days; it was reduced to ashes with most of its contents. Braving a hail of sniper fire, librarians and citizen volunteers formed a human chain to pass books out of the burning building. Interviewed by ABC News, one of them said: “We managed to save just a few very precious books. Everything else burned down. And a lot of our heritage, national heritage, lay down there in ashes.” Aida Buturovi, a librarian in the National Library’s exchanges section, was shot to death by a sniper while attempting to rescue books from the flames.’ Erasing the Past: The Destruction of Libraries  and Archives in Bosnia-Herzegovina András Riedlmayer, Harvard University Mosques, cathedrals, museums, libraries and bridges were all targeted, although some Bosnian culture remains
  29. 51. The leader of a Chicago crack gang explains to ethnographer Sudhir Venkatesh why his foot-soldiers receive paltry wages… ‘ In other words, a crack gang works pretty much like the standard capitalist enterprise: you have to be near the top of the pyramid to make a big wage. Notwithstanding the leadership's rhetoric about the family nature of the business, the gang's wages are about as skewed as wages in corporate America. A foot soldier had plenty in common with a McDonald's burger flipper or a Wal-Mart shelf stocker... &quot;You got all these niggers below you who want your job, you dig?&quot; he said. &quot;So, you know, you try to take care of them, but you know, you also have to show them you the boss. You always have to get yours first, or else you really ain't no leader. If you start taking losses, they see you as weak and shit.&quot;’ Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner, Freakonomics ‘ Although it is not known who shot (campaigning journalist Martin) O'Hagan, he had recently expressed concern after being told that he was possibly under surveillance by members of the splinter loyalist group, the Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF). The LVF had harboured a grudge against him for years because he had exposed how they combined a campaign of nakedly sectarian assassinations against Catholics with a large illegal drugs distribution network.’ Obituary,, October 1, 2001 ‘ You lying BBC; you’re photographing things that aren’t happening.’ Belfast woman to a BBC cameraman Belfast
  30. 54. ‘ The police are the only 24-hour social service in the country.’ Commander Alex Marnoch, remark made in February 1983 ‘ If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face - forever.’ George Orwell, Nineteen-Eightyfour Falls Road area, West Belfast, Autumn 1999. People live in these terraced houses, and the building overlooking their homes is a police station
  31. 56. The tricolour, introduced in 1848, was first raised over the General Post Office in Dublin during the 1916 Easter Rising: the green represents the Irish Catholics, the orange represents the Protestants. The white represents the peace in the middle. Out on the streets, there is no gold. (From thread) ChrisyBhoy Apr 4 2004, 11:30 AM Can anyone help me with the lyrics to this song? I dunno which is the proper name for it as I've seen it called both, but the chorus goes... Give me the Irish Republican Army Give me the Green, White and Gold every time. Give me the Three-Leafed Shamrock of Ireland. A land that I love so divine. Send the English back where they came from (TO HELL!) Make our land ours once again. Give me the Irish Republican Army. To make our land a nation once again. Southsider
  32. 58. ‘ You have sold Ulster to buy off the fiendish republican scum. You will learn in a bitter school that all appeasement of these monsters is self-destructive.’ Reverend Ian Paisley, ordained in 1946 The Independent, 16 December, 1993 ‘ If anyone says, “I love God”, yet hates his brother, he is a liar. For anyone who does not love his brother whom he has seen, cannot love God, whom he has not seen.’ Bible , 1 John, 4:20 Shankill Road area, West Belfast, 1993. These children are standing on concrete blocks, used to hinder vehicle-borne gunmen
  33. 60. ‘ (Children below the age of 16) should not be made to feel that they are lacking in courage, duty or loyalty if they do not buy or do not encourage others to buy a particular product.’ Section 47 (children) part 3 (b) of the code of the Committee of Advertising Practice, self-regulating body of the British advertising industry ‘ Belfast's Wall Murals In Northern Ireland they say the Protestants make the money and the Catholics make the art, and as with all clichés, there is some truth in it. It's a truth that will become clear as you look up at the gable walls of blue-collar areas of Belfast on which the two communities -- Catholic and Protestant -- have expressed themselves in colorful murals that have given rise to one of the more quirky tours of the city. Although the wildly romantic Catholic murals often aspire to the levels of Sistine Chapel-lite, those in Protestant areas (like the tough, no-nonsense Shankill and the Newtownards Road) are more workmanlike efforts that sometimes resemble war comics without the humor. ‘ Fodors online travel guide:
  34. 62. ‘ Education is a treasure, and culture never dies.’ The Roman writer Petronius (1 st Century), Satyricon, sec 47 ‘ Martin McGuinness, Mid Ulster Born 23 May, 1950; Educated Christian Brothers’ Technical College… Special Interests ; South Africa Recreations ; cooking, walking, reading, fly-fishing.’ DOD’s Parliamentary Companion 2001 ‘ Martin McGuinness also came down for the night with a few of his cronies, and they just about wrecked the hotel we were staying in. They sprayed water all over every bedroom and smashed the floorboards on the landing and stairs. There was about £5,000 worth of damage altogether, which was quietly paid out of IRA funds. The boys also nicked thousands of pounds of gear from a fishing tackle shop. We all piled in there, and while I and a few of the others were buying hooks and bait, Stud McGinty, Sean McArdle and Paddy Lawler sneaked out of the door with four or five fishing rods each. I couldn’t believe my eyes. If any kid had tried it, he’d have been knee-capped, but here were the top Derry IRA men claiming to be upholders of the law, hooding with impunity. The owner sensed something was going on, but was probably too scared to say anything.’ RUC agent Raymond Gilmour, who now lives in hiding outside Northern Ireland, in Dead Ground Deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland Martin McGuinness MP was Education Minister on the Northern Ireland Assembly from 1998 until 2007. Crumlin Road, West Belfast, Autumn 1999
  35. 64. Glasgow ‘ If the misery of our poor be caused not by the laws of nature, but by our institutions, great is our sin.’  Charles Darwin (1809-1882) The Voyage of the Beagle
  36. 65. ‘ I believe in Britain. It is a great country with a great history. The British people are a great people. But I believe Britain can and must do better; better schools, better hospitals, better ways of tackling crime, of building a modern welfare state, of equipping ourselves for a new world economy. I want a Britain that is one nation, with shared values and purpose, where merit comes before privilege, run for the many not the few, strong and sure of itself at home and abroad. I want a Britain that does not shuffle into the new millennium afraid of the future, but strides into it with confidence.’ Tony Blair’s introduction to the New Labour Manifesto ‘ The spread of personal ownership is in harmony with the deepest instincts of the British people. Few changes have done more to create one nation.’ Nigel Lawson, Chancellor of the Exchequer 1983 - 1989, quoted from a January 1988 speech ‘ The spirit of corruption is so inseparably interwoven with British politics that their ministry suppose all mankind to be governed by the same motive. They have no idea of a people submitting to even temporary inconvenience from an attachment to rights and privileges. Their plans and business are calculated by the hour for the hour, and are uniform in nothing but the corruption which gives them birth.’ Thomas Paine, The Crisis , 1776 Govan, south-west Glasgow, Spring 2000
  37. 67. ‘ There is a golden thread which runs through British history, of the individual standing firm against tyranny and then of the individual participating in their society... The tensile strength of that golden thread comes from countless strands of common continuing endeavour in our villages, towns and cities, the efforts and achievements of ordinary men and women, united by a strong strength of responsibility ...who... defined Britain by its proliferation of local clubs, associations and endeavours – a Britain where liberty did not descend into license and where freedom was exercised with responsibility.’ Gordon Brown, Hugo Young Memorial Lecture, December 2005 ‘ Rising unemployment and the recession have been the price that we’ve had to pay to get inflation down: that is a price well worth paying.’ Normal Lamont, The Observer , 24 November, 1991. ‘ Something must be done.’ The Duke of Windsor, on visiting an unemployment-blighted area in the 1930s Gorbals Unemployed and Community Resource Centre, Spring 2000
  38. 69. ‘ Progress, far from consisting in change, depends upon retentiveness. Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.’ George Santayana, US philosopher (1863 - 1952) The Life of Reason ‘ There was a thrill in sharing, in the shower room group, the mood of the time - unfocused discontent, resentment at having been cozened into believing in the solidity of a world that consisted of facades, stage sets sustained by, and sustaining, make-believe. People said the Great War had destroyed them, but they still stood. The make-believe was weaker, that was all. We hungered for a world whose values were true and dependable, though how we would know it when we found it we had no idea… We longed to reject the world view that the preceding generation seemed to be passing on to us, attitudes of submission, of ‘make do’… in survival one day at a time… Faith and trust and honour and integrity were the corner stones of society. Hard work, and pride in work, were worthy ends in themselves. Respectful and courteous behaviour would always be reciprocated. Life conducted on those principles acquired a fulfilling grace. As a world view it certainly had its charm. But it had been pounded into the mud at Passchendaele and the Somme.’ Ralph Glasser, Growing up in the Gorbals Born 1912 ‘ Mother Superior wis Johny Swan; also kent as the White Swan, a dealer whae wis based in Tollcross and covered the Sighthill and Wester Hailes schemes. Ah preferred tae score fi Swanney… Bad cramps wir beginning tae hit us as we mounted the stairs tae Johny’s gaff. Ah wis dripping like a saturated sponge, every step bringing another gush fae ma pores. Sick Boy wis probably even worse, but the c*** was beginning no tae exist fir us. Ah wis only aware ay him blocking ma route tae Johny’s and the skag. He wis struggling fir breath, haudin grimly oantay the railing, looking as if he wis gaunnae spew intae the stairwell… Johny wis bombed ootay his box whin we finally made it up the stairs. A shooting gallery wis set up. -Ah’ve goat one Sick Boy, and a Rent Boy that’s sick n aw! He laughed, as high as a f***ing kite. Johny often snorted some coke wi his fix or mixed up a speedball concoction ay smack and cocaine. He reckoned that it kept um high, stoaped um fae sitting around starin at waws aw day.’ Irvine Welsh, Trainspotting Born 1958 Housing, current and former, in the Gorbals of Glasgow
  39. 71. ‘ Tourism Minister Jim Mather said: &quot;Homecoming Scotland is an exciting, compelling initiative designed to kindle pride in Scots at home and in the many millions of people overseas who are of Scottish descent or who simply love Scotland. &quot;This is the first time that we as a nation have invited Scotland's global family to come home and it is a wonderful opportunity for us all to use our connections, to spread the message and invite our extended families home in 2009. &quot;This year-long celebration will benefit our country in terms of additional tourism, which will contribute to our economy. But it's also an outstanding opportunity to reconnect with the Scottish Diaspora around the world and provide impetus for them to visit their homeland.&quot; Organisations can access grants of between £5,000 and £50,000 to enhance existing events or create new ones that reflect the Homecoming Scotland themes and objectives.’ Homecoming Scotland, The Scottish Government ‘ What marketing and PR activity does VisitScotland undertake for Tartan Week? A major programme of advertising and marketing is undertaken by VisitScotland around Tartan Week. In 2007, this included: Press advertising, including key New York publications, Time Out NY and New York Magazine, On-line advertising Electronic promotion to over 180,000 US consumers , 400 banners promoting Tartan Week around the Grand Central area of Manhattan, as well as signage throughout Grand Central Terminal itself, seen by 11 million New Yorkers , 100,000 Tartan Week ‘What’s On’ guides distributed to New Yorkers before and during Tartan Week , The ‘Win a Scottish Castle’ competition was promoted to 1 million on-line subscribers to the New York Times, Dedicated Tartan Week website . It was estimated that more than 100,000 people would visit the site, from where they can book direct flights to Scotland. VisitScotland runs a major public relations campaign around Tartan Week, which results in profile for Scotland as a tourism destination in major US TV news programmes, radio and newspapers. The Scottish Village preview night is one of the best attended tourism events in Manhattan, with over 300 key media and travel trade attending, 80,000 Vacation Planners published and distributed at the Scottish Village in addition to 30,000 Ancestral Vacation booklets at the Scottish Village. These are all designed to encourage people to book a trip to Scotland.’
  40. 72. England ‘ I am going to tell you a number of things, but if you really want to be a good journalist you only have to remember two words: governments lie.’ I.F. Stone (1907-1989) American investigative journalist Renton Road, Benchill, Manchester ‘ The people of England, wearied and stunned by parties and alternatively deceived by each, had almost resigned the prerogative of thinking. Even curiosity had expired and a universal languor spread itself over the land. The Opposition was visible no more than as a contest for power, whilst the mass of the nation stood torpidly by as a prize.’ Tom Paine, author of The Rights of Man , writing in December 1792 ‘ Washing one’s hands of the conflict between the powerful and the powerless means to side with the powerful, not to be neutral.’ Paulo Freire (1921 - 1997), educational theorist
  41. 74. ‘ Give me the boy for seven years and I will give you the man.’ Jesuit saying 'Giving education to the labouring classes of the poor ... would teach them to despise their lot in life, instead of making them good servants in agriculture and other laborious employments to which their rank in society has destined them; instead of teaching them the virtue of subordination, it would render them factious and refactory ... it would enable them to read seditious pamphlets, vicious books and publications against Christianity.' Tory MP Davies Giddy debates the Parochial Schools Bill of 1807 in the House of Commons Hansard , House of Commons, Vol 9, 13 July 1807 ‘ While children's perceptions of the world and opportunities for genuine spontaneity and creativity are being systematically eliminated from the kindergarten, unquestioned obedience to authority and rote learning of meaningless material are being encouraged .’ Harry L. Gracey, sociologist, Learning the Student Role: Kindergarten as Academic Boot Camp extract from The Sociology of Education: A Sourcebook (1975) Figures published by the National Association of Head Teachers in 2001 showed that, at £1,751 per child, spending on Derbyshire’s primary school children was the lowest in England, closely followed by neighbouring counties Staffordshire and Nottinghamshire. The then NAHT general secretary David Hart called the funding system ‘a disgrace’. Spending in the London Borough of Kensington and Chelsea was £3,019 per child. Cotmanhay Nursery, Infant and Junior Schools, Ilkeston, Derbyshire
  42. 76. ‘ He who prides himself on giving what he thinks the public wants is often creating a fictitious demand for lower standards which he will then satisfy.’ Lord John Reith, first Director-General of the BBC ‘ THE TRUTH… Some fans picked pockets of victims… some fans urinated on the brave cops… some fans beat up PC giving kiss of life…’ The Sun, April 1989 ‘ The error staring them ( Sun reporters covering the Hillsborough Stadium disaster) in the face was too glaring… it obviously wasn’t a silly mistake; nor was it a simple oversight…. It was a classic smear.’ Stick It Up Your Punter: The Rise and Fall of the Sun, Peter Chippendale and Chris Horrie ‘ The new ethic is that journalism is a commodity, purely to generate money. This is the Murdoch effect. Wapping is a cultural Chernobyl, spewing its poison across the whole journalistic landscape.’ German prize-winning journalist Reiner Luyken, interviewed by ‘British Journalist of the Year’ John Pilger, Hidden Agendas ‘ The real cause of the Hillsborough disaster was overcrowding… the main reason for the disaster was the failure of police control.’ Lord Justice Taylor, who led an inquiry into the 96 deaths The Spion Kop entrance to Hillsborough Stadium ‘ ZETA EXCLUSIVE ‘ Why I have a pre-nup contract with my Michael’ WED: Michael Douglas and Catherine Zeta Jones AMAZING INTERVIEW: PAGES 4 & 5’ Front page lead of The Mirror, 5 December, 2000
  43. 78. ‘ Park Hill is one of the most spectacular examples of new approaches to communal living in post-war Britain. Consisting of 995 dwellings, and housing over two thousand people, it occupies an entire hill overlooking Sheffield city centre, and is built on a slope, so increases in height as the hill slopes away. The estate consists of huge snake-like blocks which contain the duplex apartments and the estate's famous ‘ streets in the sky’… … But Park Hill's problems quickly became apparent. The streets allowed some of the worst aspects of urban life to remain (muggers found they made convenient getaway routes), whilst failing to preserve the better aspects… Park Hill was awarded a Grade 2* listing in 1998. Although an important milestone in the development of Modernist housing theory in post-war Britain, the public incredulity which greeted the award spoke volumes about the success of Park Hill and its ‘streets in the sky’.’ (architecture website) ‘ Park Hill has undeniable assets, particularly its location on the edge of the city centre, and its stunning views across Sheffield.  When it was built it was one of the most innovative and significant housing projects in Britain, a landmark building and a desirable place to live.  Today the regeneration of Park Hill is one of the biggest challenges in the country.’ Sir Bob Kerslake, Chief Executive of Sheffield City Council until 2008
  44. 80. The Scarborough Arms, Addey Street, Sheffield ‘ Children should be seen and not heard.’ Elizabethan wisdom ‘ One almost unbelievable piece of evidence is that on what was probably Tiffany's last day alive you, Sabrina Hirst, were discussing on the phone concerns you had about one of your dogs' weight and feeding problems.’ The recorder of Sheffield, Judge Alan Goldsack QC ‘ The evidence which has emerged is that Tiffany's death was the culmination of a long course of neglect by the pair of you.’ Social services had warned Mrs Hirst to stop doing this but she had brushed their concerns aside, the court heard.’ BBC News website ‘ Detective Chief Inspector Steve Williams, who led the investigation, said: &quot;She was like a tiny porcelain doll, so tiny and frail, and we all wondered how this had been allowed to happen in this day and age.&quot; Passers-by said they recalled seeing Tiffany's lonely face staring through the upstairs window, in what may have been a desperate plea for help.’ Yorkshire Post, June 13, 2008
  45. 82. ‘ The US has secretly compiled intelligence information to the disadvantage of European firms.’ James Woolsey, former head of the CIA. ‘ There is no right to privacy. The use of electronic eavesdropping devices and lie detectors is not subject to regulation, and nor is the burgeoning private security industry which operates them for espionage purposes. There is no legal limit to police use of surreptitious devices, nor is the collection of information by the state about individuals… The new Police National Computer (PNC2)… lists citizens… who have had the temerity to complain about the police.’ Geoffrey Robertson QC Freedom, the Individual and the Law (page xiv) RAF Menwith Hill, the US National Security Agency-run base near Harrogate, Yorkshire
  46. 84. ‘ Have we said hello to the policeman, children?’ Ronald McDonald at Tower Gardens Play Scheme Centre, Tottenham, August 23, 1996. Ronald was invited to the annual ‘Fun Day.’ ‘ McDonald’s founder, Ray Kroc, believed that ‘A company only has the right to operate in a community when it is prepared to contribute to it.’ So in every country where we do business, we strive to make a valuable contribution at both a national and local level… So all our franchisees are encouraged to ‘put something back’ by involving themselves and their staff as much as possible in local events, schools, community groups and organisations and to raise funds for local charities.’ McDonald’s Franchising (brochure for potential franchisees) ‘ It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer or the baker that we expect our dinner, but from regard to their own interest. We address ourselves not to their humanity but their self-love.’ Wealth of Nations (1776) book 1, chapter 2 Scottish philosopher and economist Adam Smith ‘ We sold them a dream and then paid them as little as possible.’ Ray Kroc, founder of the McDonald’s empire. Outside the damaged London McDonald’s restaurant during the May Day 2000 anti-capitalist riot
  47. 86. ‘ Busy police chief tells it like it is! One of the things which concerns me, as the Divisional Commander, is so much of what we see on television or in the newspapers is about horror stories such as people being attacked in their own homes. We see or hear so little about many of the good things. Hopefully this column will concentrate on some of those good things… Something we’re finding more and more is young people with alcohol. It’s not a good thing when children are staggering around because they’ve got hold of some tinnies. As a parent, please be aware of the danger to your child if he or she gets hold of booze and remember the police are here to help if you have a problem.’ On the Beat with Chief Supt David Sykes (the page lead article) Tameside Advertiser , Thursday 27 July, 2000. Page 21. The ‘Advertiser’ is delivered to nearly 100,000 homes, covering the Hyde area of Manchester ‘ Drugs claim two more young lives A man died after taking drugs in a public toilet. Anthony Greenwood, an unemployed fence maker, overdosed on a lethal dose of methadone and heroin on October 12, 1999 An inquest heard this week how he was found in a toilet cubicle in Greenfield Street, Hyde, by his friend Alan Bayley who had earlier given him £20 for drugs and arranged to meet him there… A 21-year-old overdosed in a shopping centre toilet cubicle four days before Christmas Day, an inquest heard. A security guard discovered Lee Stephen Walker sitting on a toilet facing the wall surrounded by drug paraphernalia on December 21, 1999.’ Tameside Advertiser , also on Thursday 27 July, 2000. Also on page 21 ‘ Even where sleep is concerned, too much is a bad thing.’ Homer (circa 7 th Century BC) The Hyde surgery of mass-murderer Doctor Harold Shipman
  48. 88. ‘‘… First, their mothers and fathers told them so; then, their schoolteachers told them so; and then, when they went to church, the vicar and the Sunday School teacher told them the same thing. So you can’t be surprised that they now really believe that God made them and their children to make things for the use of the people who do nothing.’ ‘ But you’d think their own senses would tell them! How can it be right for the people who do nothing to have the very best and most of everything that’s made, and the very ones that make everything to have hardly any? Why even I know better than that, and I’m only six-and-a-half years old.’ ‘ But then you’re different, dearie, you’ve been taught to think about it, and Dad and I have explained it to you, often.’ ‘ Yes, I know,’ replied Frankie confidently. ‘But even if you’d never taught me, I’m sure I should have tumbled to it all right by myself; I’m not such a juggins as you think I am.’ ‘ So you might, but you wouldn’t if you’d been brought up in the same way as most of the workers. They’ve been taught that it’s very wicked to use their own judgment, or to think. And their children are being taught so now. Do you remember what you told me the other day, when you came home from school, about the Scripture lesson?’ ‘ About St. Thomas?’ ‘ Yes. What did the teacher say St. Thomas was?’ ‘ She said he was a bad example; and she said I was worse than him because I asked too many foolish questions. She always gets in a wax if I talk too much.’ ‘ Well, why did she call St. Thomas a bad example?’ ‘ Because he wouldn’t believe what he was told.’’ Robert (Noonan) Tressell, (1870 - 1911) The Ragged Trousered Philanthropopists A chapel of rest in Manchester
  49. 90. ‘ If the doors of perception were cleansed, everything would appear to man as it is, infinite.’ William Blake (1757 - 1827) The Marriage of Heaven and Hell ‘ Thanks to words, we have been able to rise above the brutes; and thanks to words, we have often sunk to the level of the demons.’ Aldous Huxley, Adonis and the Alphabet ‘ At any given moment, there is a sort of all pervading orthodoxy, a general tacit agreement not to discuss large and uncomfortable facts.’ George Orwell ‘ Break On Through (to the other side)’ 1967 song title, The Doors
  50. 91. ‘ Believe nothing, O monks, merely because you have been told it . . . or because it is traditional, or because you yourselves have imagined it. Do not believe what your teacher tells you merely out of respect for the teacher. But whatsoever, after due examination and analysis, you find to be conductive to the good, the benefit, the welfare of all beings that doctrine believe and cling to, and take it as your guide.’ Gautama Buddha (circa 563BC – 483BC ) ++ends++